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CONLANG  September 2005, Week 4

CONLANG September 2005, Week 4

Subject:

Re: Indo-European family tree (was Re: Celtic and Afro-Asiatic?)

From:

Jörg Rhiemeier <[log in to unmask]>

Reply-To:

Constructed Languages List <[log in to unmask]>

Date:

Fri, 23 Sep 2005 22:41:26 +0200

Content-Type:

text/plain

Parts/Attachments:

Parts/Attachments

text/plain (242 lines)

Hallo!

Thomas Wier wrote:

> Joerg wrote:
> > > > Third, the age they assign to Proto-Indo-European is impossible.
> > > > Any archaeologist will tell you that the wheel wasn't invented
> > > > yet 8000 years ago.  Yet, a PIE word for `wheel' is reconstructed
> > > > with as much certainty as is possible in this discipline.  And also
> > > > words for `yoke', `wagon', `carry by wagon', etc.  This means that
> > > > Proto-Indo-European can hardly be older than 6000 years.
> 
> I have always been skeptical of this argument.  First, it makes the
> assumption that to have a notion of "wheel" you have to have the
> technology to produce the kinds of wheels that came into existence
> approximately ca 5-6k years BP.  That this is clearly questionable is
> attested by the fact that in Mesoamerica, where as of 1517 no culture
> had developed large wheels used for transportation whose linguistic
> reconstruction is *kwekwlos, but they did have wheeled toys.  Moreover
> you don't even need wheel-technology to have a notion of "circle".
> It is e.g. not altogether clear to me whether the common IE metaphor "wheel of
> heaven" = "sun" comes from analogizing wheels to the sun, or the sun
> to wheels.   Thus the terminus ante quem suggested is not so certain
> at all, and may indeed be spurious.

And among closely related languages, words can spread in a fashion
that the resulting forms resemble cognates inherited from the common
ancestor.  The most famous example are the Algonquian `fire-water'
words; another example is French _ordinateur_ : Spanish _ordenador_,
both meaning `computer' and having exactly the forms expected from
reflexes of a Latin word *ordinator which of course didn't exist.
It is possible that the words from which PIE *kWekWlos is reconstructed
have a similar history.  And then, the oldest wheels unearthed by
archaeologists need not be the oldest wheels ever made.

> This does not suggest that people like Colin Renfrew are right, only that
> the people using this argument against him do not have anything
> like a clinching argument that they think they have.

You are of course right.

> > The idea behind the Anatolian origin hypothesis is that PIE was the
> > language of the first Neolithic farmers of central and eastern Europe,
> > who are archaeologically known to have spread across the area between
> > 5500 and 5000 BC.  The hypothesis further assumes that they hailed
> > from Anatolia - not because the Anatolian Neolithic is culturally
> > particularly close to the central European (it isn't), but because
> > it seemed the only place they could have come from.
> 
> Yes and no. Agriculture in its most ancient form supposedly
> developed first in the Konya plain in Anatolia, not in Mesopotamia.
> And I think you're discounting the ridiculousness of the alternative
> hypothesis based on Voelkerwanderungen.  People like Maria Gimbutas
> had a very naive notion about the relationship between migrations
> and the kind of language contact that would arise,

True...

>       since she thought
> migrations automatically replaced language and other social customs
> into addition to the obvious changes of material culture.  There
> are many obvious counterexamples (the Norman conquest, Mugal India,
> Manchu China) in which invaders become assimilated into the indigenous
> population, rather than do the assimilating.

On the other hand, we have cases such as the Roman Empire, the
Indo-Aryans and the Anglo-Saxons.

>       (I wrote a whole thesis
> on this subject some years ago, so I can send you the document if
> you wish.)  The basic appeal of Renfrew's theory is that language
> replacement becomes for him a function of population pressures:
> the farmers are able to outproduce the hunter-gatherers in food
> resources, and as a result are able to expand their population
> base much more quickly.  And the more quickly the population base
> expands in a given community, the more likely some members of that
> community will leave, taking all their social and technological
> capacities with them, thus founding new, related communities and
> speaking, presumably, the same or a related language.

Yes.  It is indeed very likely that the first neolithic farmers
of Europe took their language with them and ousted most of the
pre-IE languages, just as English ousted most of the indigenous
languages from North America.  Yet, a language spread associated
with the Battle Axe culture or whatever is not impossible.

> > Now, with the
> > discovery of the Black Sea flood, which happened between 5600 and
> > 5500 BC, there is an alternative to Anatolia, namely what are now
> > the shallow northern extensions of the Black Sea.
> 
> This is a genuine alternative, but it doesn't really help identify
> where a given language community was located.

True.  We don't *know* that the Central European Neolithic originated
from where is now the Bay of Odessa - it's just one of several
possibilities, and we know *nothing* yet about the culture of that
area now submerged beneath the Black Sea.

> > But the problem remains that those first Neolithic farmers of Europe
> > did not use wheeled vehicles (at least, not a shred of evidence
> > has been found for them), and probably also had not domesticated
> > the horse.
> 
> These objections do not have the weight that you think they do.
> (See above.)

True.

>       Concerning the horse, John Colarusso wrote an interesting
> article a few years ago in a festschrift for my professor Howard Aronson
> saying that the IE word for "horse" and IIRC "dog" were eerily similar
> to analogs in NW-Caucasian languages, where all seem similar to some
> root for "quick".

I have no problem with NWC loanwords in PIE.

> > There is ample evidence for both wheeled vehicles and
> > domesticated horses at least in Common IE (by which I mean IE after
> > Anatolian and Tocharian split off).
> 
> Not highly relevant (see above).
> 
> > Another problem with the Anatolian origin hypothesis is that the
> > migration pathways become rather absurd.  There is lots of movement
> > around the Black and Caspian Seas required, and it is not very
> > likely that Anatolian simply stayed at home.
> 
> This is circular reasoning:  whether they "stayed at home" is precisely
> the question at hand.  And you have said yourself, and this is true,
> that the Black Sea was much smaller then.  The smaller size of the
> sea would have made movement around it much easier than is currently
> possible.

And then they could have moved by boat.

> > The Hittites and
> > their relatives evidently were newcomers on the Anatolian scene,
> > having displaced or assimilated speakers of Hattic, Hurrian and
> > other patently unrelated languages.
> 
> This is a genuine objection:  if Renfrew is right, we need to
> explain why there are all these other languages in Anatolia in
> historical times.  I will say, though, that I think at least
> some of these ethnoi were not autochthonous: the NE-Caucasian
> languages are believed to have originally been spoken *south*
> of the Caucasus,

Yes.

>       somewhere in modern Iran, not north, and this
> interestingly coheres with Diakonoff and Starostin's thesis that
> Hurrian-Urartian are related to the NE-Caucasian languages.  I must
> stress that this link is by no means widely accepted, especially
> among Caucasologists, but if it's true, it might suggest that
> Hurrian and Urartian are not urfolk.  The same might well
> be said about the Hattic-speakers; they seem, afterall, to be
> related to NW-Caucasian languages outside Anatolia.  Maybe they
> migrated into Anatolia too? Who knows, really, but the whole
> question is so unclear and backed up by so little empirical
> evidence that one cannot make any certain judgements about
> whether these other groups are original or not.

Very true.  All the languages of ancient Anatolia seem to have
relatives outside Anatolia.  The question is who moved into Anatolia
or who moved out of it.  We don't know.

> > Next (though this is not a particularly strong argument), IE and
> > Uralic look uncannily similar for "unrelated" languages.  If PIE
> > was spoken north of the Black Sea, it becomes easier to account
> > for these similarities by assuming either a distant genealogical
> > relationship or prolonged contact.
> 
> These similarities I think have been vastly overstated;  besides
> a few potential pronominal forms that look like cognates, there
> are a mere handful of lexical items that look related.

True; and many of them could be early borrowings.

>       This is
> less than 100 or so proposed cognates linking Hurrian to NE-Caucasian,
> and even that link, as I said, is widely doubted (by e.g. Johanna Nichols).
> It is also the case that no less an authority than Eric Hamp, whom
> I see whenever he's not spending his time in southern France, Wales
> or Albania (he's a Balkanist, afterall), has said that there are
> aspects of Kartvelian that also look similar and that maybe IE
> may be most closely related to that family.

Yes; the similarity between IE and Kartvelian didn't escape me.
Actually, they are about as great as those between IE and Uralic,
and I am undecided whether Uralic or Kartvelian is the next-closest
kin of IE.

>        And note that Kartvelian
> is, and probably always has been, spoken *south* of the Caucasus,
> not far from the Urartian monuments in Armenia.  (There are some
> thousands of Georgian speakers north of the Caucasus now, but
> they moved there in the second half of the 20th century.)

Yes.

>       So
> these putative Uralic similarities are no more convincing to me
> than any other branch of Nostratic/Eurastiac/(insert long range
> comparison grouping here).  Why not say that IE was spoken in
> far eastern Siberia? Afterall, Eskimo-Aleut are held by some to
> be distantly related to PIE.

According to Fortescue (and his arguments look good to me), Uralic,
Yukaghir, Chukotko-Kamchatkan and Eskimo-Aleut form a stock he named
"Uralo-Siberian".  He gives sound correspondences and 95 cognate
sets.  Proto-Uralo-Siberian would have been spoken in northern
Central Asia according to him - which is quite a long way from
the Black Sea.

>       I am being facetious, of course, but
> the point of my sarcasm is to introduce a sufficient amount of
> skepticism into this debate.  You can say that PIE was spoken
> around the Black Sea, but anyone who posits this or any other
> homeland necessarily has some castles in the air to build, because
> the amount of rock holding the castle up is currently very limited.
> 
> (What's my pet theory?  There were at least *two* waves of
> Indo-Europeanization;  one following the agricultural expansion
> into Europe, and another involving Voelkerwanderungen out of the
> steppes. The Urheimat under this conception would have been in
> parts now inundated in the Black Sea, but close to Anatolia,
> perhaps in modern Bulgaria.  But this is pure speculation, based
> on little more than a geographic center of gravity, and I don't
> take this pet theory too seriously.)

Actually, my pet theory is essentially the same, though I place
the Urheimat of "Macro-IE" in what is now the Bay of Odessa.
IE proper resulted from the second wave while the first-wave
"Macro-IE" languages disappeared from the scene, though some may
still have been spoken in Roman times.  Old Albic is meant to
represent such a "Macro-IE" language.

Greetings,

Jörg.

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August 2012, Week 2
August 2012, Week 1
July 2012, Week 5
July 2012, Week 4
July 2012, Week 3
July 2012, Week 2
July 2012, Week 1
June 2012, Week 5
June 2012, Week 4
June 2012, Week 3
June 2012, Week 2
June 2012, Week 1
May 2012, Week 5
May 2012, Week 4
May 2012, Week 3
May 2012, Week 2
May 2012, Week 1
April 2012, Week 5
April 2012, Week 4
April 2012, Week 3
April 2012, Week 2
April 2012, Week 1
March 2012, Week 5
March 2012, Week 4
March 2012, Week 3
March 2012, Week 2
March 2012, Week 1
February 2012, Week 5
February 2012, Week 4
February 2012, Week 3
February 2012, Week 2
February 2012, Week 1
January 2012, Week 5
January 2012, Week 4
January 2012, Week 3
January 2012, Week 2
January 2012, Week 1
December 2011, Week 5
December 2011, Week 4
December 2011, Week 3
December 2011, Week 2
December 2011, Week 1
November 2011, Week 5
November 2011, Week 4
November 2011, Week 3
November 2011, Week 2
November 2011, Week 1
October 2011, Week 5
October 2011, Week 4
October 2011, Week 3
October 2011, Week 2
October 2011, Week 1
September 2011, Week 5
September 2011, Week 4
September 2011, Week 3
September 2011, Week 2
September 2011, Week 1
August 2011, Week 5
August 2011, Week 4
August 2011, Week 3
August 2011, Week 2
August 2011, Week 1
July 2011, Week 5
July 2011, Week 4
July 2011, Week 3
July 2011, Week 2
July 2011, Week 1
June 2011, Week 5
June 2011, Week 4
June 2011, Week 3
June 2011, Week 2
June 2011, Week 1
May 2011, Week 5
May 2011, Week 4
May 2011, Week 3
May 2011, Week 2
May 2011, Week 1
April 2011, Week 5
April 2011, Week 4
April 2011, Week 3
April 2011, Week 2
April 2011, Week 1
March 2011, Week 5
March 2011, Week 4
March 2011, Week 3
March 2011, Week 2
March 2011, Week 1
February 2011, Week 4
February 2011, Week 3
February 2011, Week 2
February 2011, Week 1
January 2011, Week 5
January 2011, Week 4
January 2011, Week 3
January 2011, Week 2
January 2011, Week 1
December 2010, Week 5
December 2010, Week 4
December 2010, Week 3
December 2010, Week 2
December 2010, Week 1
November 2010, Week 5
November 2010, Week 4
November 2010, Week 3
November 2010, Week 2
November 2010, Week 1
October 2010, Week 5
October 2010, Week 4
October 2010, Week 3
October 2010, Week 2
October 2010, Week 1
September 2010, Week 5
September 2010, Week 4
September 2010, Week 3
September 2010, Week 2
September 2010, Week 1
August 2010, Week 5
August 2010, Week 4
August 2010, Week 3
August 2010, Week 2
August 2010, Week 1
July 2010, Week 5
July 2010, Week 4
July 2010, Week 3
July 2010, Week 2
July 2010, Week 1
June 2010, Week 5
June 2010, Week 4
June 2010, Week 3
June 2010, Week 2
June 2010, Week 1
May 2010, Week 5
May 2010, Week 4
May 2010, Week 3
May 2010, Week 2
May 2010, Week 1
April 2010, Week 5
April 2010, Week 4
April 2010, Week 3
April 2010, Week 2
April 2010, Week 1
March 2010, Week 5
March 2010, Week 4
March 2010, Week 3
March 2010, Week 2
March 2010, Week 1
February 2010, Week 4
February 2010, Week 3
February 2010, Week 2
February 2010, Week 1
January 2010, Week 5
January 2010, Week 4
January 2010, Week 3
January 2010, Week 2
January 2010, Week 1
December 2009, Week 5
December 2009, Week 4
December 2009, Week 3
December 2009, Week 2
December 2009, Week 1
November 2009, Week 5
November 2009, Week 4
November 2009, Week 3
November 2009, Week 2
November 2009, Week 1
October 2009, Week 5
October 2009, Week 4
October 2009, Week 3
October 2009, Week 2
October 2009, Week 1
September 2009, Week 5
September 2009, Week 4
September 2009, Week 3
September 2009, Week 2
September 2009, Week 1
August 2009, Week 5
August 2009, Week 4
August 2009, Week 3
August 2009, Week 2
August 2009, Week 1
July 2009, Week 5
July 2009, Week 4
July 2009, Week 3
July 2009, Week 2
July 2009, Week 1
June 2009, Week 5
June 2009, Week 4
June 2009, Week 3
June 2009, Week 2
June 2009, Week 1
May 2009, Week 5
May 2009, Week 4
May 2009, Week 3
May 2009, Week 2
May 2009, Week 1
April 2009, Week 5
April 2009, Week 4
April 2009, Week 3
April 2009, Week 2
April 2009, Week 1
March 2009, Week 5
March 2009, Week 4
March 2009, Week 3
March 2009, Week 2
March 2009, Week 1
February 2009, Week 4
February 2009, Week 3
February 2009, Week 2
February 2009, Week 1
January 2009, Week 5
January 2009, Week 4
January 2009, Week 3
January 2009, Week 2
January 2009, Week 1
December 2008, Week 5
December 2008, Week 4
December 2008, Week 3
December 2008, Week 2
December 2008, Week 1
November 2008, Week 5
November 2008, Week 4
November 2008, Week 3
November 2008, Week 2
November 2008, Week 1
October 2008, Week 5
October 2008, Week 4
October 2008, Week 3
October 2008, Week 2
October 2008, Week 1
September 2008, Week 5
September 2008, Week 4
September 2008, Week 3
September 2008, Week 2
September 2008, Week 1
August 2008, Week 5
August 2008, Week 4
August 2008, Week 3
August 2008, Week 2
August 2008, Week 1
July 2008, Week 5
July 2008, Week 4
July 2008, Week 3
July 2008, Week 2
July 2008, Week 1
June 2008, Week 5
June 2008, Week 4
June 2008, Week 3
June 2008, Week 2
June 2008, Week 1
May 2008, Week 5
May 2008, Week 4
May 2008, Week 3
May 2008, Week 2
May 2008, Week 1
April 2008, Week 5
April 2008, Week 4
April 2008, Week 3
April 2008, Week 2
April 2008, Week 1
March 2008, Week 5
March 2008, Week 4
March 2008, Week 3
March 2008, Week 2
March 2008, Week 1
February 2008, Week 5
February 2008, Week 4
February 2008, Week 3
February 2008, Week 2
February 2008, Week 1
January 2008, Week 5
January 2008, Week 4
January 2008, Week 3
January 2008, Week 2
January 2008, Week 1
December 2007, Week 5
December 2007, Week 4
December 2007, Week 3
December 2007, Week 2
December 2007, Week 1
November 2007, Week 5
November 2007, Week 4
November 2007, Week 3
November 2007, Week 2
November 2007, Week 1
October 2007, Week 5
October 2007, Week 4
October 2007, Week 3
October 2007, Week 2
October 2007, Week 1
September 2007, Week 5
September 2007, Week 4
September 2007, Week 3
September 2007, Week 2
September 2007, Week 1
August 2007, Week 5
August 2007, Week 4
August 2007, Week 3
August 2007, Week 2
August 2007, Week 1
July 2007, Week 5
July 2007, Week 4
July 2007, Week 3
July 2007, Week 2
July 2007, Week 1
June 2007, Week 5
June 2007, Week 4
June 2007, Week 3
June 2007, Week 2
June 2007, Week 1
May 2007, Week 5
May 2007, Week 4
May 2007, Week 3
May 2007, Week 2
May 2007, Week 1
April 2007, Week 5
April 2007, Week 4
April 2007, Week 3
April 2007, Week 2
April 2007, Week 1
March 2007, Week 5
March 2007, Week 4
March 2007, Week 3
March 2007, Week 2
March 2007, Week 1
February 2007, Week 4
February 2007, Week 3
February 2007, Week 2
February 2007, Week 1
January 2007, Week 5
January 2007, Week 4
January 2007, Week 3
January 2007, Week 2
January 2007, Week 1
December 2006, Week 5
December 2006, Week 4
December 2006, Week 3
December 2006, Week 2
December 2006, Week 1
November 2006, Week 5
November 2006, Week 4
November 2006, Week 3
November 2006, Week 2
November 2006, Week 1
October 2006, Week 5
October 2006, Week 4
October 2006, Week 3
October 2006, Week 2
October 2006, Week 1
September 2006, Week 5
September 2006, Week 4
September 2006, Week 3
September 2006, Week 2
September 2006, Week 1
August 2006, Week 5
August 2006, Week 4
August 2006, Week 3
August 2006, Week 2
August 2006, Week 1
July 2006, Week 5
July 2006, Week 4
July 2006, Week 3
July 2006, Week 2
July 2006, Week 1
June 2006, Week 5
June 2006, Week 4
June 2006, Week 3
June 2006, Week 2
June 2006, Week 1
May 2006, Week 5
May 2006, Week 4
May 2006, Week 3
May 2006, Week 2
May 2006, Week 1
April 2006, Week 5
April 2006, Week 4
April 2006, Week 3
April 2006, Week 2
April 2006, Week 1
March 2006, Week 5
March 2006, Week 4
March 2006, Week 3
March 2006, Week 2
March 2006, Week 1
February 2006, Week 4
February 2006, Week 3
February 2006, Week 2
February 2006, Week 1
January 2006, Week 5
January 2006, Week 4
January 2006, Week 3
January 2006, Week 2
January 2006, Week 1
December 2005, Week 5
December 2005, Week 4
December 2005, Week 3
December 2005, Week 2
December 2005, Week 1
November 2005, Week 5
November 2005, Week 4
November 2005, Week 3
November 2005, Week 2
November 2005, Week 1
October 2005, Week 5
October 2005, Week 4
October 2005, Week 3
October 2005, Week 2
October 2005, Week 1
September 2005, Week 5
September 2005, Week 4
September 2005, Week 3
September 2005, Week 2
September 2005, Week 1
August 2005, Week 5
August 2005, Week 4
August 2005, Week 3
August 2005, Week 2
August 2005, Week 1
July 2005, Week 5
July 2005, Week 4
July 2005, Week 3
July 2005, Week 2
July 2005, Week 1
June 2005, Week 5
June 2005, Week 4
June 2005, Week 3
June 2005, Week 2
June 2005, Week 1
May 2005, Week 5
May 2005, Week 4
May 2005, Week 3
May 2005, Week 2
May 2005, Week 1
April 2005, Week 5
April 2005, Week 4
April 2005, Week 3
April 2005, Week 2
April 2005, Week 1
March 2005, Week 5
March 2005, Week 4
March 2005, Week 3
March 2005, Week 2
March 2005, Week 1
February 2005, Week 4
February 2005, Week 3
February 2005, Week 2
February 2005, Week 1
January 2005, Week 5
January 2005, Week 4
January 2005, Week 3
January 2005, Week 2
January 2005, Week 1
December 2004, Week 5
December 2004, Week 4
December 2004, Week 3
December 2004, Week 2
December 2004, Week 1
November 2004, Week 5
November 2004, Week 4
November 2004, Week 3
November 2004, Week 2
November 2004, Week 1
October 2004, Week 5
October 2004, Week 4
October 2004, Week 3
October 2004, Week 2
October 2004, Week 1
September 2004, Week 5
September 2004, Week 4
September 2004, Week 3
September 2004, Week 2
September 2004, Week 1
August 2004, Week 5
August 2004, Week 4
August 2004, Week 3
August 2004, Week 2
August 2004, Week 1
July 2004, Week 5
July 2004, Week 4
July 2004, Week 3
July 2004, Week 2
July 2004, Week 1
June 2004, Week 5
June 2004, Week 4
June 2004, Week 3
June 2004, Week 2
June 2004, Week 1
May 2004, Week 5
May 2004, Week 4
May 2004, Week 3
May 2004, Week 2
May 2004, Week 1
April 2004, Week 5
April 2004, Week 4
April 2004, Week 3
April 2004, Week 2
April 2004, Week 1
March 2004, Week 5
March 2004, Week 4
March 2004, Week 3
March 2004, Week 2
March 2004, Week 1
February 2004, Week 5
February 2004, Week 4
February 2004, Week 3
February 2004, Week 2
February 2004, Week 1
January 2004, Week 5
January 2004, Week 4
January 2004, Week 3
January 2004, Week 2
January 2004, Week 1
December 2003, Week 5
December 2003, Week 4
December 2003, Week 3
December 2003, Week 2
December 2003, Week 1
November 2003, Week 5
November 2003, Week 4
November 2003, Week 3
November 2003, Week 2
November 2003, Week 1
October 2003, Week 5
October 2003, Week 4
October 2003, Week 3
October 2003, Week 2
October 2003, Week 1
September 2003, Week 5
September 2003, Week 4
September 2003, Week 3
September 2003, Week 2
September 2003, Week 1
August 2003, Week 5
August 2003, Week 4
August 2003, Week 3
August 2003, Week 2
August 2003, Week 1
July 2003, Week 5
July 2003, Week 4
July 2003, Week 3
July 2003, Week 2
July 2003, Week 1
June 2003, Week 5
June 2003, Week 4
June 2003, Week 3
June 2003, Week 2
June 2003, Week 1
May 2003, Week 5
May 2003, Week 4
May 2003, Week 3
May 2003, Week 2
May 2003, Week 1
April 2003, Week 5
April 2003, Week 4
April 2003, Week 3
April 2003, Week 2
April 2003, Week 1
March 2003, Week 5
March 2003, Week 4
March 2003, Week 3
March 2003, Week 2
March 2003, Week 1
February 2003, Week 4
February 2003, Week 3
February 2003, Week 2
February 2003, Week 1
January 2003, Week 5
January 2003, Week 4
January 2003, Week 3
January 2003, Week 2
January 2003, Week 1
December 2002, Week 5
December 2002, Week 4
December 2002, Week 3
December 2002, Week 2
December 2002, Week 1
November 2002, Week 5
November 2002, Week 4
November 2002, Week 3
November 2002, Week 2
November 2002, Week 1
October 2002, Week 5
October 2002, Week 4
October 2002, Week 3
October 2002, Week 2
October 2002, Week 1
September 2002, Week 5
September 2002, Week 4
September 2002, Week 3
September 2002, Week 2
September 2002, Week 1
August 2002, Week 5
August 2002, Week 4
August 2002, Week 3
August 2002, Week 2
August 2002, Week 1
July 2002, Week 5
July 2002, Week 4
July 2002, Week 3
July 2002, Week 2
July 2002, Week 1
June 2002, Week 5
June 2002, Week 4
June 2002, Week 3
June 2002, Week 2
June 2002, Week 1
May 2002, Week 5
May 2002, Week 4
May 2002, Week 3
May 2002, Week 2
May 2002, Week 1
April 2002, Week 5
April 2002, Week 4
April 2002, Week 3
April 2002, Week 2
April 2002, Week 1
March 2002, Week 5
March 2002, Week 4
March 2002, Week 3
March 2002, Week 2
March 2002, Week 1
February 2002, Week 4
February 2002, Week 3
February 2002, Week 2
February 2002, Week 1
January 2002, Week 5
January 2002, Week 4
January 2002, Week 3
January 2002, Week 2
January 2002, Week 1
December 2001, Week 5
December 2001, Week 4
December 2001, Week 3
December 2001, Week 2
December 2001, Week 1
November 2001, Week 5
November 2001, Week 4
November 2001, Week 3
November 2001, Week 2
November 2001, Week 1
October 2001, Week 5
October 2001, Week 4
October 2001, Week 3
October 2001, Week 2
October 2001, Week 1
September 2001, Week 5
September 2001, Week 4
September 2001, Week 3
September 2001, Week 2
September 2001, Week 1
August 2001, Week 5
August 2001, Week 4
August 2001, Week 3
August 2001, Week 2
August 2001, Week 1
July 2001, Week 5
July 2001, Week 4
July 2001, Week 3
July 2001, Week 2
July 2001, Week 1
June 2001, Week 5
June 2001, Week 4
June 2001, Week 3
June 2001, Week 2
June 2001, Week 1
May 2001, Week 5
May 2001, Week 4
May 2001, Week 3
May 2001, Week 2
May 2001, Week 1
April 2001, Week 5
April 2001, Week 4
April 2001, Week 3
April 2001, Week 2
April 2001, Week 1
March 2001, Week 5
March 2001, Week 4
March 2001, Week 3
March 2001, Week 2
March 2001, Week 1
February 2001, Week 4
February 2001, Week 3
February 2001, Week 2
February 2001, Week 1
January 2001, Week 5
January 2001, Week 4
January 2001, Week 3
January 2001, Week 2
January 2001, Week 1
December 2000, Week 5
December 2000, Week 4
December 2000, Week 3
December 2000, Week 2
December 2000, Week 1
November 2000, Week 5
November 2000, Week 4
November 2000, Week 3
November 2000, Week 2
November 2000, Week 1
October 2000, Week 5
October 2000, Week 4
October 2000, Week 3
October 2000, Week 2
October 2000, Week 1
September 2000, Week 5
September 2000, Week 4
September 2000, Week 3
September 2000, Week 2
September 2000, Week 1
August 2000, Week 5
August 2000, Week 4
August 2000, Week 3
August 2000, Week 2
August 2000, Week 1
July 2000, Week 5
July 2000, Week 4
July 2000, Week 3
July 2000, Week 2
July 2000, Week 1
June 2000, Week 5
June 2000, Week 4
June 2000, Week 3
June 2000, Week 2
June 2000, Week 1
May 2000, Week 5
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May 2000, Week 3
May 2000, Week 2
May 2000, Week 1
April 2000, Week 5
April 2000, Week 4
April 2000, Week 3
April 2000, Week 2
April 2000, Week 1
March 2000, Week 5
March 2000, Week 4
March 2000, Week 3
March 2000, Week 2
March 2000, Week 1
February 2000, Week 5
February 2000, Week 4
February 2000, Week 3
February 2000, Week 2
February 2000, Week 1
January 2000, Week 5
January 2000, Week 4
January 2000, Week 3
January 2000, Week 2
January 2000, Week 1
December 1999, Week 5
December 1999, Week 4
December 1999, Week 3
December 1999, Week 2
December 1999, Week 1
November 1999, Week 5
November 1999, Week 4
November 1999, Week 3
November 1999, Week 2
November 1999, Week 1
October 1999, Week 5
October 1999, Week 4
October 1999, Week 3
October 1999, Week 2
October 1999, Week 1
September 1999, Week 5
September 1999, Week 4
September 1999, Week 3
September 1999, Week 2
September 1999, Week 1
August 1999, Week 5
August 1999, Week 4
August 1999, Week 3
August 1999, Week 2
August 1999, Week 1
July 1999, Week 5
July 1999, Week 4
July 1999, Week 3
July 1999, Week 2
July 1999, Week 1
June 1999, Week 5
June 1999, Week 4
June 1999, Week 3
June 1999, Week 2
June 1999, Week 1
May 1999, Week 5
May 1999, Week 4
May 1999, Week 3
May 1999, Week 2
May 1999, Week 1
April 1999, Week 5
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April 1999, Week 3
April 1999, Week 2
April 1999, Week 1
March 1999, Week 5
March 1999, Week 4
March 1999, Week 3
March 1999, Week 2
March 1999, Week 1
February 1999, Week 5
February 1999, Week 4
February 1999, Week 3
February 1999, Week 2
February 1999, Week 1
January 1999, Week 5
January 1999, Week 4
January 1999, Week 3
January 1999, Week 2
January 1999, Week 1
December 1998, Week 5
December 1998, Week 4
December 1998, Week 3
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December 1998, Week 1
November 1998, Week 5
November 1998, Week 4
November 1998, Week 3
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November 1998, Week 1
October 1998, Week 5
October 1998, Week 4
October 1998, Week 3
October 1998, Week 2
October 1998, Week 1
September 1998, Week 5
September 1998, Week 4
September 1998, Week 3

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