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CONLANG  January 2000, Week 2

CONLANG January 2000, Week 2

Subject:

Re: Vulgar Latin

From:

Raymond Brown <[log in to unmask]>

Reply-To:

Constructed Languages List <[log in to unmask]>

Date:

Sun, 9 Jan 2000 22:05:00 +0100

Content-Type:

text/plain

Parts/Attachments:

Parts/Attachments

text/plain (137 lines)

At 12:34 pm -0500 9/1/00, nicole perrin wrote:
>One of the proposed "Latin + Language X" combinations interested me (I
>won't tell which one, if I pursue this project it'll have to be a
>surprise), and, in case I ever get around to actually putting this
>together, what were the main differences between Classical Latin and
>Vulgar Latin?  Especially phonological differences, but also differences
>in things like the marking on verbs, nouns or adjectives (if there was
>any).

There certainly were differences!

Ah, Nicole, this would take a lot longer than an email to treat properly   :)

However......

PHONOLOGY
Accentuation
   Generally the same as in Classical Latin.  The major exceptions are
where {ie} had stress on the initial /i/, the two sounds coalesced to form
a diphthong thus, e.g. paríete(m)/ --> parjéte.
   Penultimate vowels before consonant groups ending in -r attracted the
stress so that Classical 'ténebrae' became Vulgar 'tenébre'; similarly:
íntegru(m)  --> intégru.

Vowels
  The diphthongs 'ae' had long given way to [E] (but 'au' remained -
subsequent monophthongization took place, where it did, independently in
Romance langs).
  But the most important difference was the elimination of the Classical
phonemic distinctions based on quantity.  In VL all stressed vowels got
lengthened and unstressed ones were shortened.  However, a new system in
which vowel _quality_ became phonemically distinctive developed; the new
system gave rise to nine vowels, thus:
CLASSICAL            VULGAR
  /i:/                /i/
  /i/                 /I/
  /e:/                /e/
  /e/                 /E/
  /a:/ & /a/          /a/
  /o/                 /O/
  /o:/                /o/
  /u/                 /U/
  /u:/                /u/

This system was preserved in stressed syllables in Dacia & some Sardinian
dialects.  In Continental Western Romance [o] and [U] converged to /o/;
likewise /I/ & /e/ similarly converged giving the familiar western Romance
seven vowel system, thus:
CLASSICAL            C.W.R
  /i:/                /i/
  /i/ & /e:/          /e/
  /e/                 /E/
  /a:/ & /a/          /a/
  /o/                 /O/
  /o:/ & /u/          /o/
  /u:/                /u/

In unstressed syllables syncope was particular frequent, e.g. spe:culu(m)
--> /speklo/, vetulu(m) "old" (<-- vetus) --> /vEklo/, tabula --> tabla etc.

Consonants
  Final -m fell silent except in monosyllables where it became -n.
  Final -t was dropped in most dialects (but held on in north Gaul).
  Intervocalic /b/, /d/ and /g/ tended to give way to voiced fricative
sounds, so that intervocalic 'b' and 'v' became identical.
  In many, tho not all, western dialects intervocalic /p/ /t/ and /k/
became voiced.
  But the greatest change was the palatalization of Classical /k/ and /g/
before the front vowels /i/, /e/ and /E/.  /k/ gave way variously to /tS/
or /ts/ and /g/ gave way to /dZ/; also /ti/ before _any_ vowel gave way to
/tS/ or /ts/ so that we find spellings like 'tercium' and 'nacione' for the
Classical 'tertium' & 'natione' (writing final -m does not BTW imply it was
pronounced, only that the scribe new his case endings!).
  Also the groups /kt/ and /ks/ generally gave way to /jk/ and /js/, tho in
Italy we find /tt/ and /ss/.  But the central Italian dialects tended to
assimilate consonants generally.

MORPHOLOGY
Gender
  Neuter generally disappeared - neuter nouns joining the masculines.
Occasionally a neuter plural takes on new life as a feminine singular, e.g.
folia (leaf).  But some neuters held there ground & now survive in Italian
& Romanian as masc. when singular & fem. when plural  :)

Declension
  4th declension got absorbed into the 2nd.
  5th declension generally joined the 1st (cf. Spanish 'día' <-- dies).
But some joined the 3rd, e.g. spes --> spes, spere(m) _or_ spes, spene(m).

  The accusative & abl. fell together at an early date; the gen. & dat. got
replaced more & more by 'de' + acc/abl, and 'a(d)' + acc/abl respectively.
The result was that in western Vulgar Latin we have just a two case system,
thus:

             1st decl.          2nd decl.       3rd decl
           SING.   PLUR.     SING.   PLURAL    SING.   PLURAL
Nom.       capra   capras    muros   muri      flores  flores
Oblique    capra   capras    muro    muros     flore   flores

  Adjectives followed similar patterns.

Pronouns
  Quite complicated to treat all the variations here, but the most
noteworthy developments were:
- reduction of 'ille' to 3rd person pronoun on the one hand & to the
definite article (some dialects preffered 'esse' <-- 'ipse' in both uses).
- development of 'unus' as an indefinite article.
 Abandonment of the Classical demonstrative system with 'este' <-- 'iste'
taking on a new role as 'this'.
 Generally tendency to reinforce demonstratives with a particle
corresponding to Classical 'ecce'.  In Gaul 'ecce' was used (modern French
'cette' <-- ecce ista  :)    In Italy we find 'ecco'; the modern Italian
'questo' <-- ecco istu(m).  In the Iberian peninsular it was 'accu',
Spanish 'aquel' <-- accu ille.  In Dacia we find 'acce', Romanian 'acest'
<-- acce iste.

Verbs
  A big subject, but *very, very* briefly: disappearance of inflected
passive (& deponent verbs!); replacement of Latin futures with new
analytical forms; development of new analytical perfects formed, roughly
speaking, by 'abere' (to have) if verb was transitive or 'essere' (to be)
if intransitive with the past participle.  Latin perfect remains as a past
definite, but pluperfect & fut.perfect generally disappears.  General
confusion between conjugational classes with strong tendency to redefine
the Latin 4 conjugations into only 3 groups.

I'm afraid I'll have to leave it there for the moment - tempus fugit.

Ray.


=========================================
A mind which thinks at its own expense
will always interfere with language.
                   [J.G. Hamann 1760]
=========================================

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