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CONLANG  April 2000, Week 4

CONLANG April 2000, Week 4

Subject:

Re: Morae (was: Re: Lurkers, poetic forms)

From:

Raymond Brown <[log in to unmask]>

Reply-To:

Constructed Languages List <[log in to unmask]>

Date:

Thu, 27 Apr 2000 13:23:12 +0100

Content-Type:

text/plain

Parts/Attachments:

Parts/Attachments

text/plain (110 lines)

At 12:13 pm -0600 26/4/00, dirk elzinga wrote:
[....]
>
>Perhaps its just my training, but I don't see a real difference
>between the Latin accentuation based on syllable weight and the
>Greek system based on vowel length (in principles, not
>particulars!). If a vowel is long, the syllable containing it is
>heavy. The difference is purely if a language exercises the
>moraic coda option, which Latin did, and Greek didn't.

...but Greek did!

In _both_ Latin _and_ ancient Greek:
(a) a syllable is light if its vowel is short and the syllable has no coda
cnsonant;
(b) a syllable is heavy if it contains a heavy vowel and/or it has a coda
consonant.
I.e. /me/ only is light; /me:/, /men/ and /me:n/ are all equally heavy.

In both ancient Greek and in classical Latin, the alternation of heavy and
light syllables is used to produce the various verse meters (i.e. unlike
English, verse rhythm is _not_ determined by stressed & unstressed
syllables).  For this reason, some people adopted the Latin word 'mora'
(interval of time) as the basic metric unit and explained the patterns of
metric 'feet' in ways analogous to that of 'bars' in music; the light
syllables constitute one mora, in this terminology, and the heavy syllables
two morae (therefore, e.g. one dactyl - heavy,light,light - can be shown to
be metrically the equivalent of spondee - heavy,heavy).

Thus both languages did exercise the moraic coda option as regards
determining heavy and light syllables.

The difference comes with word accent.

In Latin the word accent is one of stress and the syllable on which it
occurs is _fixed_.  The rule is simple:
IF the word is bisyllabic, THEN stress the first syllable,
ELSE
  IF the penultimate syllable is heavy, THEN stress it,
  ELSE stress the antepenultimate (whatever its weight).

(This BTW has interesting implications about the way the Greek metres - not
entirely suited to Latin - were adopted & adapted by the Romans, and has
led to the long-standing [and probably unresolvable, without time travel,]
argument about how one is, e.g., to read Vergilian hexameters.  But this is
a different topic.  It has been observed that in languages where a stress
accent occurs on a fixed syllable, e.g. Polish, Hungarian, Finnish, etc, it
is noticeably lighter than in languages like English & Russian where stress
is free & heavy.  One can reasonably assume, then, that the Latin accent
was much lighter than the stress accent of English; this must have made it
easier for them to have adopted the Greek meters.)

The ancient Greek accent was a rise in pitch on a vowel (or part of a vowel
if it was long or diphthongal).  Nor was it fixed, in the way the Latin
accent was.  If we use 'mora' in Allen's sense, and we say that a short
vowel has one mora, but a long vowel or diphthong has two morae, then the
rule is simple: the rise in pitch may occur on _any one_ of the final three
morae.  (With verbs and, generally, neuter nouns the pitch was on the 3rd
mora from the end - but otherwise you just have to learn the dictionary
form and keep the pitch in the same place, if possible, in inflected forms.)

Actually, this was not quite so simple as Allen suggests.  Final -oi and
-ai were _single_ mora, unless they occurred as optative endings of verbs
(in which case they were double!) and diphthongs followed by another vowel
were also generally monomoraic in Allen's sense.

The point is the Greeks used the system of long & short vowels only (with
no syllabic coda) for determing the permitted positions of the word pitch
accent _and_ a system of light and heavy syllables (thus including syllabic
codas) for producing verse rhythms.  Much confusion was caused in the past
by using the terms 'short' and 'long' to denote 'light' and 'heavy'
syllables; the restriction of the terms 'long' and 'short' to vowel length
only, and denoting syllabic length by the terms 'light' and 'heavy' is IMHO
"a good thing" and a long. long overdue reform.

My regret is that by using the term 'mora' _both_ as a measurement of
syllabic weight in verse rhythm _and_ as a measure of vowel length in
determing the permitted position of pitch accent in ancient Greek, the old
confusions have been resurrected under a different form.

>I don't know the history of the term 'mora' in modern
>linguistics; but in his grammar of Southern Paiute (1930),
>Edward Sapir described its stress system in terms of moras; in
>Southern Paiute, like it's cousin Shoshoni, coda consonants
>don't count in syllable weight. I wonder if Sapir would have
>used the term 'mora' if coda consonants did contribute to
>syllable weight in Southern Paiute ...

I wonder.  But the Greek pitch accent had nothing to do with syllabic
weight - Allen himself is quite clear about this.

In linking Southern Paiute & Shoshoni _stress_ to syllabic weight, you are
confirming my impression that morae have come to be used by most as units
of *syllabic weight* (and were probably originally used that way); this is
not the way Allen uses the term - he is clear about that.  My contention is
that by using this term a different way, he is potentially causing
confusion; IMHO it would be better to have two unambiguous terms: one as a
measuremt of syllabic weight, the other as a measurement of vowel length
only (sometimes, of course, as apparently in Southern Paiute, the two
coincide; but that is certainly not always the case).

Ray.


=========================================
A mind which thinks at its own expense
will always interfere with language.
                   [J.G. Hamann 1760]
=========================================

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