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AUXLANG  May 2000, Week 2

AUXLANG May 2000, Week 2

Subject:

IAL phonology

From:

Oskar Gudlaugsson <[log in to unmask]>

Reply-To:

International Auxiliary Languages <[log in to unmask]>

Date:

Mon, 15 May 2000 00:40:24 GMT

Content-Type:

text/plain

Parts/Attachments:

Parts/Attachments

text/plain (157 lines)

Ok, having reasoned for a priori IALs in "Re: I'm new, what's going on?", I
now wish to present a draft scheme for the phonology of such a language.
Just as an example.

SUGGESTION OF IAL PHONOLOGY:

The phonemes of the IAL include only those which are judged to be easily
pronouncable for any human being. To insure that no-one would stumble on a
single phoneme which he or she could not easily pronounce, phonemes are
given ranges instead of values, as would be the norm in natural languages.
This basically legalizes ‘dialect’ speech, giving the speaker freedom to
choose his or her personal pronunciation of each phoneme, within certain
limits. The IAL pronunciation thus functions by relative differentiation,
instead of absolute differentiation, i.e. while pronunciation of each
phoneme is flexible, the speaker is only required to ensure clear
distinction between the phonemes within his or her own phonetic scheme.

VOWEL PHONEMES
The IAL has three vowels, /a/, /i/, and /u/, the triplet with maximal
difference in articulation, allowing clear distinction of the vowels, with
no risk of speakers’ inability to pronounce vowels interfering with
comprehension. The vowels /i/ and /u/ have corresponding approximant forms
which can be considered separate phonemes: /j/ and /w/, respectively. The
vowel /a/ can combine with each of those approximants to form the two
diphthongs /aj/ and /aw/.

Ranges:

/a/, /u/, and /i/:
In phonetic transcription (SAMPA):
/a/     [a, A, E]       Default: [A]
/u/     [u, U, o]       Default: [u]
/i/     [i, I]          Default: [i]

/w/ and /j/:
/w/ may be pronounced as a voiced labio-dental/palatal/velar approximant,
with the default being labio-velar. /j/ may be pronounced as any voiced
approximant in the dental-velar range (which would mean that it could be
pronounced as the English ‘r’), with palatal being the default.


CONSONANT PHONEMES
The IAL contains three pairs of plosives (/p, b; t, d; k, g/), two nasals
(/m, n/), one sonorant (/l/), one sibilant (/s/), and one “free-form”
fricative (/f/).

Ranges:

/p/ and /b/:
Pronounced only in the bilabial position. Two ways of distinction are
allowed:
&#8729; unvoiced - voiced. This is the default pronunciation.
&#8729; aspirated - unaspirated (voicing irrelevant).

/t/ and /d/:
Pronounced anywhere in the dental - retroflex range (preferably both in the
same position). Default is dental. Distinction can be made only in the two
ways described for /p/ and /b/.

/k/ and /g/:
Pronounced velar or uvular. Default is velar. Distinction made as per /p/
and /b/. Neither /k/ nor /g/ may precede the vowel /i/, to avoid
palatalization, which would bring the pronunciation too close to /t/, or
especially /tj/. Many speakers may also be unable to palatalize /k, g/
without taking them too far into the postalveolar area (as English ‘ch’ and
‘j’).

Additional on plosives: A slightly more complex fricatization scheme is
allowed, for weak plosives (/b, d, g/) in intervocalic position only. The
phonemes can then only become the voiced fricatives of the equivalent
position, though intervocalic /b/ may be pronounced as a voiced labio-dental
(‘v’) as well, while /d/ may only become a dental fricative. /d/ cannot be
fricatized if /s/ already occupies the voiced dental position (which it
usually won’t).

/f/ and /s/:
/s/ can be articulated anywhere in the dental - retroflex range, except
post-alveolar (where it could conflict with /sj/). It can be voiced or
unvoiced. Default is unvoiced alveolar. /f/ can be pronounced as any other
unvoiced fricative, most notably [f, x, h]. Default is labio-dental, except
velar in the combinations /fs, ft/.

/m/ and /n/:
/m/ may be pronounced as a bilabial or labiodental nasal. Default is voiced
bilabial. /n/ may be pronounced as any other nasal, normally pronounced
dental or in the same position as any consonant with which it combines
(becoming velar in front of velar /k, g/, etc). Voicing is irrelevant.

/l/:
Pronounceable as any lateral approximant, trill, tap, or flap. Default is
voiced alveolar lateral approximant ([l]). Voicing irrelevant.

PHONOTACTICS
Monosyllabic words in the IAL are as follows:

{C} {A} [V] {/n/}

{} optional
[] obligatory
C consonant
A approximant (see below for cons.-appr. combinations)
V vowel (incl. diphthongs)

Syllable-initial consonant combinations do not exist in the IAL. The
approximants /w/ and /j/ can, however, attach to some of the consonants,
according to the following pattern:

/j/ can follow /p, b, t, d, s/. /tj/, /dj/ and /sj/ may be pronounced as
post-alveolar affricates and sibilants (as ‘ch’, ‘j’ and ‘sh’).

/w/ can follow /t, d, k, g, s/.

An additional limitation to the approximants is that they cannot join with
diphthongs including the same approximant, meaning that /j/ cannot join with
/aj/, and /w/ not with /aw/. Neither can they, of course, join with their
vowel equivalents, so that /ji/ and /wu/ are disallowed.

The IAL polysyllabic word is constructed as follows:

{C} {A} [V1] {C1} [C2] [V2] {/n/}

V1 vowel, diphthong only if no consonant combination follows
C1 /m,n, s, l/, occasionally /f/
C2 consonant. In combinations, plosives only, sometimes /s/ also.
V2 monophthong vowels only

In the medial consonant combinations, the following are possible:
/mp, mb, nt, nd, nk, ng/
/lp, lb, lt, ld, lk, lg/;
/sp, st, sk/;
/ns, ls/;
/ft, fs/.
The pronunciation of phonemes in these combinations may be varied from the
normal, for facility, especially in the cases of /ns, ls, ft/.


ACCENT
Accent is not used phonemically in the IAL, though a standard accent is
given for speakers who feel the need for it. Some languages have an equally
distributed accent (e.g. Japanese), so speakers of those languages would of
course be free to speak with equal accent in the IAL as well. The default
accent mode of the IAL is, however, by stress (as opposed to pitch or
length), placed on the stem of all words. By accenting the stem, accent is
practically always on the ultimate or (most frequently) pen-ultimate
syllables.
An optional rule in accent pronunciation is that the final unaccented
syllables (generally part-of-speech markers) may be pronounced with slightly
altered vowel qualities. The vowels would then be pronounced considerably
slacker, in a more central position. The main requirements for distinctions
would then be that /u/ be kept rounded in high aperture, /a/ be kept
unrounded in low aperture, as opposed to /i/ in high aperture (though
slightly lowered from normal due to “slacking”), unrounded.This would
facilitate pronunciation for many speakers of languages with similar
treatment of unaccented vowels.
________________________________________________________________________
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December 1997, Week 5
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