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CONLANG  April 2001, Week 2

CONLANG April 2001, Week 2

Subject:

Re: Value of Latin _x_

From:

Raymond Brown <[log in to unmask]>

Reply-To:

Constructed Languages List <[log in to unmask]>

Date:

Sat, 14 Apr 2001 08:39:59 +0000

Content-Type:

text/plain

Parts/Attachments:

Parts/Attachments

text/plain (277 lines)

At 5:19 am +0000 13/4/01, [log in to unmask] wrote:
>Well it just so happens that I've been working on the Saprutum
>writing and number systems, which are based to some extent on the
>Western Semitic alphabet, as spread all around the Mediterranian by
>the Phoenicians and borrowed by the Greeks and eventually by the
>Romans via the Etruscans.
>
>The original alphabet has 22 consonants and no vowels as follows :
>( ['] is a glottal stop, [H] is pharyngeal, [t', s', q] are glottalised
>or emphatic, and ["] is "ayn, dunno the SAMPA for that, anyway a voiced
>glottal or uvular of some sort, and [j] is the semivowel as in
>English "you" ). This is basically the arrangement of the unpointed Hebrew
>alphabet.
>
> 1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22
> '  b  g  d  h  w  z  H  t' j  k  l  m  n  s  "  p  s' q  r  S  t

Agreed on all the above, except "by the Romans via the Etruscans".  The
Roman usage seems to me to be a borrowing partly under Etruscan influence &
partly from the Italian Greeks.

>The Greeks needed vowels, but not most of the "gutteral" sounds which
>they re-used like this : (first line early stage, second the
>classical Greek alphabet)
>
> 1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23
> '  b  g  d  h  w  z  H  t' j  k  l  m  n  s  "  p  s' q  r  S  t
> a           e        h  th i              ks o     -        s     u
>                -     E:                               -           y

The archaic Greek alphabets had this 23 letter form given above, but IIRC
the pronunciation of 15 as /ks/ was not known until it was given that value
in the later eastern Greek alphabets.  18 most certainly survived, until
quite a late date in fact.  In the earliest usage IIRC 12, 18 and 21 were
all variously used to denote Greek /s/, whose exact _phonetic_
pronunciation we do (and cannot) know.

It's unlikely that the early Greeks actually realized they were "re-using"
any Phoenician symbols as vowels.  They probably didn't "hear" all the
"gutteral" sounds.  It's argued where the archaic Greek alphabet
originated, but Crete seems the most likely place.  It almost certainly
arose in a bilingual Greek-Phoenician trading base where Greeks started
using the Phoenician symbols to record their own language.

The "Classical Greek" alphabet, of course, did not in the strict sense
exist.  At the time of Classical Greek, each city used its own local
version of the alphabet.  There was no standard Greek alphabet until with
the spread of the Greek Koine (and disappearance of all but a few Doric
dlialects) the Ionian (eastern Greek) alphabet as used in Athens of 4th
cent. BC. became the standard written form of the Koine.  From that time
onwards, the upper case letters of the standard Greek alphabet have
remained basically the same till today.  (As with the Roman alphabet, the
modern familiar lower-case forms were medieval developments)

The convention of normally printing all ancient Greek texts with the modern
Greek alphabet (plus all the pre-1981 diacritics) is just that: convention.

>1. Alp the glottal stop became alpha [a];
>5. He a plain h, became [e] and I think [e:] later distinguished as <ei>;

Agreed.

>6. Waw remained a semivowel ("digamma" because it looked like an F) but
>by classical times Greek had lost this sound so the letter remained
>only as a numeral;

Lost its sound in the Ionian dialects - the Dorians and some others
retained it and used the letter.

>23. Ypsilon seems to have begun as a variant of waw/digamma with the
>arms arranged like a Y rather than both on one side. Used for the
>vowel [u] which fronted to [y] by classical times (after which [ow]
>simplified to [o:] written <ou>;

In Ionian greek - the Dorians retained [u] for Y till the end.  This was
the use the Romans _first_ encountered among the Greeks of southern Italy.

>8. Heth was first used for plain [h] then for [E:] eta, leaving [h]
>(mostly initial, mostly << PIE /s/) unmarked until the invention of
>"rough breathing";

Heth was used entirely for /h/ in the archaic alphabets and retained that
value in the western Greek alphabets until they gave way to the standard
Koine alphabet much later.  The early Romans would've known only H = /h/.
The use of H = /E:/ is found only in the eastern (mainly Ionian) group of
alphabets and came about since most (all?) the Asiatic Ionian dialects no
longer retained the sound /h/ - just like modern Greek.  The invention of
the two "breathings" (rough & smooth) came later, as you say, mainly to
help maintain the correct pronunciation of Koine (based on Athenian dialect
which still retained /h/).

>9. Emphatic Teth reused for aspirate theta. The [T] value is MUCH
>later!

Yep - and retained for this use in all varieties of the Greek alphabet.
There is some evidence that [T] was known as early as the 5th cent BC in
some dialects, e.g. Lakonian, but it was not general certainly and its
spread seems to have occurred sometime between the 2nd & 4th cents. AD.

>10. Semivowel Yod becomes the vowel [i] iota;
>16. "Ayn reused as the vowel [o] o-micron;

I think "interpreted" rather than "reused" is a more accurate description
of what happened.

>19. Qop was initially retained as qoppa, a variant of [k] before back
>vowels, but as this distinction was at most allophonic, the letter
>was later dropped except as a numeral;

Yep.

>This leaves the unvoiced sibilants samk [s], caddi [s'] and shin [S]
>which seem to have got a bit jumbled up in Greek.

Yes, indeed.

>Xi [ks] fills the
>no. 15 slot and judging by its shape (three horizontal lines one
>above the other) seems to be based on samk which looked like this in
>the early alphabets, usually with a vertical line going through the
>middle.

...and the vertical line is normal in earlier Greek versions also.  But its
use as /ks/ is not known in the western Greek alphabets and IIRC was not a
usage of the archaic alphabets.  It is essentially an _eastern_ Greek
development.  The western Greeks used one the "extra signs", namely X to
denote /ks/; the eastern Greeks used the same sign for /k_h/.


>Sigma has the sound [s] and name ( [samk(a)] >> [sagma] >>
>[sin~ma] ) of samk, and a shape like Hebrew samekh, so it looks like
>a variant of no. 15, but has taken over position 21 from shin. Shin
>itself would not be needed in Greek which has no [S] and would seem
>to live on only as the numeral San(pi), especially if it originally
>had shin's W shape.

The name is IMO also influenced by _samk_ but the vocalization must surely
be from [Sin].  The name must surely be a conflation of _Sin_ and _samk_.

>The odd thing is that as a number it doesn't take
>over slot 21,

Not odd at all - the _shape_ of sigma is derived from _Sin_.  Indeed, we
simply do not know how /s/ was pronounced among the ancient Greeks. (It is
the height of anglocentricism to suppose it must've been English [s]).  It
may well have been something more like the Castilian Spanish /s/, which
tends to sound more like [S] rather than [s] to English ears (I understand
the same is true of the Finnish /s/); indeed, some dialects may have had
[S] for all we know.

Sampi (which is not _san_, see below) was tacked onto the _end_ of the
alphabet, after the other additional letters, suggesting strongly that it
has no Semitic connexion.  Indeed, modern opinion seems to be that it is
derived from the strange symbol found only among some of the Asiatic
Ionians that I referred to in one of my previous emails.

>(caddi having vanished without trace as Greek had no
>need for an emphatic [s']) but turns up at the very end of the
>alphabet after the extra letters that Greek added, phi, chi, psi and
>omega.

Sorry - you are very much in error here.  _caddi_ most certainly survived
both in shape and use as /s/ in versions of the archaic, western and
eastern alphabets and was retained in its Semitic position.  It competed
with sigma to denote /s/ right up till the time that Koine made the use of
sigma universal.  It was called _san_, which is surely a conflation of
_caddi_ and _Sin_, at least by the Greeks that name it.

>I don't know too much about these last, from the limited material
>I have, it looks as though their shapes varied quite a bit from place
>to place in early Greek. Chi [kh] is probably a varient of kap/kappa that
>looks like a K lying on its back,

I have seen that explanation - but I suspect it.  The origin of the symbols
which the Athenians knew as phi, khi and psi is unknown, but there were
plenty of non-Greek literate communities in contact with Greeks. They were
not known in the archaic Greek alphabets, but are there in the later
western and eastern alphabets.  What is odd is that both sets of alphabets
have the same three "extra letters", but that different values are
consistently given to the last two, thus:

      SHAPE          WESTERN GREEK       EASTERN GREEK
(Athenian names)       VALUES               VALUES
       phi              /p_h/                /p_h/
       khi              /ks/                 /k_h/
       psi              /k_h/                 /ps/

>and o-mega [O:] may be originally a varient of "ayn/o-micron.

We know that it was a comparatively late deliberate addition, made simply
by putting a horizontal line beneath o-micron.

>The Etruscans took over an early form of the Western Greek alphabet

..and a very early form of it also, since the Etruscan used the Semitic
right-to-left direction of writing throughout their entire history and not
the later western Greek left-to-right direction.

>and made the changes shown below.
>
> 1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23
> a  b  g  d  e  w  z  h th  i  k  l  m  n ks  o  p  -  q  r  s  t  u
>       c        f  -     -                 -
>
>Letters not needed were dropped [z, th, ks] while <c> which was just
>a way or writing gamma became voiceless like <k> since Etruscan had
>no /k ~ g/ distinction. [w] >> [v] >> [f] was I think a sound change
>in Etruscan, there is nothing improbable about this, [w] >> [v]
>happens all the time and goes on to [f] in Irish at least.

I don't know where you got the Etruscan info from, but there are many
errors here:

15 was not part of the western Greek alphabet, so was not even borrowed to
be dropped.

18 however was part of the alphabet and was used by the Etruscans.  Indeed
the Etruscan used both 18 and 21 together; they appear to have had _two_
voiceless sibilant phonemes.  18 is usually transcribed as s-accute.

The Etruscans _did_ retain both 7 /z/ and 9 /th/ since both were needed.
They did, however, drop 2 and 4 since Etruscan had no voiced plosives.
Like modern Mandarin Chinese & Scots Gaelic, it distinguished only
aspirated & non-aspirated voiceless plosives. The Etruscan, therefore, did
retain the western Greek "phi" & "psi" with values /ph/ and /th/
respectively.

6 was certainly occasionally used as /f/, but this probably came about from
the convention of using FH (i.e. {wh}) to denote /f/ rather than an actual
sound change.  We know from inscriptions that the early Romans did the
same.  Later, when the original pronunciation of F is forgotten, the H is
simply dropped from the spelling.  But, in fact, /f/ is more commonly
denoted in Etrscan by a symbol remarkably similar to our {8} of unknown
origin and placed by the Etruscans at the end of the alphabet.

>When the
>Romans took over this alphabet they made <G> from a crossed <C> and
>for some reason put it in the space that zeta had occupied.

Mainly because Z was redundant, /z/ not being a Latin phoneme.

<u> was
>used for both [u] and [w] and <i> for [i] and [j]. Later x,

X = /ks/, with which this thread started, was there from an early (the
earliest?) date as it was part of the western Greek alphabet which the
Romans used in the normal left-to-right style of the western Greeks of
southern Italy.

>y and z
>were added on the end for use in Greek words, <y> for [y] later [i].

These were not added until the 1st cent BC and come from the standard Koine
alphabet (a standardized version of the easten Greek alphabet).

><j>, <w> and the distinction between <u> and <v> are of course
>"modern" inventions.

Yep - due to the Italian Renaissance humanists.

>I hope some of this helps, and please tell me where I'm wrong (since
>I've only got the one doctorate

...that's one more than I've managed in my 62 years.

Hope the reply helps also.

Ray.



=========================================
A mind which thinks at its own expense
will always interfere with language.
                   [J.G. Hamann 1760]
=========================================

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September 2010, Week 5
September 2010, Week 4
September 2010, Week 3
September 2010, Week 2
September 2010, Week 1
August 2010, Week 5
August 2010, Week 4
August 2010, Week 3
August 2010, Week 2
August 2010, Week 1
July 2010, Week 5
July 2010, Week 4
July 2010, Week 3
July 2010, Week 2
July 2010, Week 1
June 2010, Week 5
June 2010, Week 4
June 2010, Week 3
June 2010, Week 2
June 2010, Week 1
May 2010, Week 5
May 2010, Week 4
May 2010, Week 3
May 2010, Week 2
May 2010, Week 1
April 2010, Week 5
April 2010, Week 4
April 2010, Week 3
April 2010, Week 2
April 2010, Week 1
March 2010, Week 5
March 2010, Week 4
March 2010, Week 3
March 2010, Week 2
March 2010, Week 1
February 2010, Week 4
February 2010, Week 3
February 2010, Week 2
February 2010, Week 1
January 2010, Week 5
January 2010, Week 4
January 2010, Week 3
January 2010, Week 2
January 2010, Week 1
December 2009, Week 5
December 2009, Week 4
December 2009, Week 3
December 2009, Week 2
December 2009, Week 1
November 2009, Week 5
November 2009, Week 4
November 2009, Week 3
November 2009, Week 2
November 2009, Week 1
October 2009, Week 5
October 2009, Week 4
October 2009, Week 3
October 2009, Week 2
October 2009, Week 1
September 2009, Week 5
September 2009, Week 4
September 2009, Week 3
September 2009, Week 2
September 2009, Week 1
August 2009, Week 5
August 2009, Week 4
August 2009, Week 3
August 2009, Week 2
August 2009, Week 1
July 2009, Week 5
July 2009, Week 4
July 2009, Week 3
July 2009, Week 2
July 2009, Week 1
June 2009, Week 5
June 2009, Week 4
June 2009, Week 3
June 2009, Week 2
June 2009, Week 1
May 2009, Week 5
May 2009, Week 4
May 2009, Week 3
May 2009, Week 2
May 2009, Week 1
April 2009, Week 5
April 2009, Week 4
April 2009, Week 3
April 2009, Week 2
April 2009, Week 1
March 2009, Week 5
March 2009, Week 4
March 2009, Week 3
March 2009, Week 2
March 2009, Week 1
February 2009, Week 4
February 2009, Week 3
February 2009, Week 2
February 2009, Week 1
January 2009, Week 5
January 2009, Week 4
January 2009, Week 3
January 2009, Week 2
January 2009, Week 1
December 2008, Week 5
December 2008, Week 4
December 2008, Week 3
December 2008, Week 2
December 2008, Week 1
November 2008, Week 5
November 2008, Week 4
November 2008, Week 3
November 2008, Week 2
November 2008, Week 1
October 2008, Week 5
October 2008, Week 4
October 2008, Week 3
October 2008, Week 2
October 2008, Week 1
September 2008, Week 5
September 2008, Week 4
September 2008, Week 3
September 2008, Week 2
September 2008, Week 1
August 2008, Week 5
August 2008, Week 4
August 2008, Week 3
August 2008, Week 2
August 2008, Week 1
July 2008, Week 5
July 2008, Week 4
July 2008, Week 3
July 2008, Week 2
July 2008, Week 1
June 2008, Week 5
June 2008, Week 4
June 2008, Week 3
June 2008, Week 2
June 2008, Week 1
May 2008, Week 5
May 2008, Week 4
May 2008, Week 3
May 2008, Week 2
May 2008, Week 1
April 2008, Week 5
April 2008, Week 4
April 2008, Week 3
April 2008, Week 2
April 2008, Week 1
March 2008, Week 5
March 2008, Week 4
March 2008, Week 3
March 2008, Week 2
March 2008, Week 1
February 2008, Week 5
February 2008, Week 4
February 2008, Week 3
February 2008, Week 2
February 2008, Week 1
January 2008, Week 5
January 2008, Week 4
January 2008, Week 3
January 2008, Week 2
January 2008, Week 1
December 2007, Week 5
December 2007, Week 4
December 2007, Week 3
December 2007, Week 2
December 2007, Week 1
November 2007, Week 5
November 2007, Week 4
November 2007, Week 3
November 2007, Week 2
November 2007, Week 1
October 2007, Week 5
October 2007, Week 4
October 2007, Week 3
October 2007, Week 2
October 2007, Week 1
September 2007, Week 5
September 2007, Week 4
September 2007, Week 3
September 2007, Week 2
September 2007, Week 1
August 2007, Week 5
August 2007, Week 4
August 2007, Week 3
August 2007, Week 2
August 2007, Week 1
July 2007, Week 5
July 2007, Week 4
July 2007, Week 3
July 2007, Week 2
July 2007, Week 1
June 2007, Week 5
June 2007, Week 4
June 2007, Week 3
June 2007, Week 2
June 2007, Week 1
May 2007, Week 5
May 2007, Week 4
May 2007, Week 3
May 2007, Week 2
May 2007, Week 1
April 2007, Week 5
April 2007, Week 4
April 2007, Week 3
April 2007, Week 2
April 2007, Week 1
March 2007, Week 5
March 2007, Week 4
March 2007, Week 3
March 2007, Week 2
March 2007, Week 1
February 2007, Week 4
February 2007, Week 3
February 2007, Week 2
February 2007, Week 1
January 2007, Week 5
January 2007, Week 4
January 2007, Week 3
January 2007, Week 2
January 2007, Week 1
December 2006, Week 5
December 2006, Week 4
December 2006, Week 3
December 2006, Week 2
December 2006, Week 1
November 2006, Week 5
November 2006, Week 4
November 2006, Week 3
November 2006, Week 2
November 2006, Week 1
October 2006, Week 5
October 2006, Week 4
October 2006, Week 3
October 2006, Week 2
October 2006, Week 1
September 2006, Week 5
September 2006, Week 4
September 2006, Week 3
September 2006, Week 2
September 2006, Week 1
August 2006, Week 5
August 2006, Week 4
August 2006, Week 3
August 2006, Week 2
August 2006, Week 1
July 2006, Week 5
July 2006, Week 4
July 2006, Week 3
July 2006, Week 2
July 2006, Week 1
June 2006, Week 5
June 2006, Week 4
June 2006, Week 3
June 2006, Week 2
June 2006, Week 1
May 2006, Week 5
May 2006, Week 4
May 2006, Week 3
May 2006, Week 2
May 2006, Week 1
April 2006, Week 5
April 2006, Week 4
April 2006, Week 3
April 2006, Week 2
April 2006, Week 1
March 2006, Week 5
March 2006, Week 4
March 2006, Week 3
March 2006, Week 2
March 2006, Week 1
February 2006, Week 4
February 2006, Week 3
February 2006, Week 2
February 2006, Week 1
January 2006, Week 5
January 2006, Week 4
January 2006, Week 3
January 2006, Week 2
January 2006, Week 1
December 2005, Week 5
December 2005, Week 4
December 2005, Week 3
December 2005, Week 2
December 2005, Week 1
November 2005, Week 5
November 2005, Week 4
November 2005, Week 3
November 2005, Week 2
November 2005, Week 1
October 2005, Week 5
October 2005, Week 4
October 2005, Week 3
October 2005, Week 2
October 2005, Week 1
September 2005, Week 5
September 2005, Week 4
September 2005, Week 3
September 2005, Week 2
September 2005, Week 1
August 2005, Week 5
August 2005, Week 4
August 2005, Week 3
August 2005, Week 2
August 2005, Week 1
July 2005, Week 5
July 2005, Week 4
July 2005, Week 3
July 2005, Week 2
July 2005, Week 1
June 2005, Week 5
June 2005, Week 4
June 2005, Week 3
June 2005, Week 2
June 2005, Week 1
May 2005, Week 5
May 2005, Week 4
May 2005, Week 3
May 2005, Week 2
May 2005, Week 1
April 2005, Week 5
April 2005, Week 4
April 2005, Week 3
April 2005, Week 2
April 2005, Week 1
March 2005, Week 5
March 2005, Week 4
March 2005, Week 3
March 2005, Week 2
March 2005, Week 1
February 2005, Week 4
February 2005, Week 3
February 2005, Week 2
February 2005, Week 1
January 2005, Week 5
January 2005, Week 4
January 2005, Week 3
January 2005, Week 2
January 2005, Week 1
December 2004, Week 5
December 2004, Week 4
December 2004, Week 3
December 2004, Week 2
December 2004, Week 1
November 2004, Week 5
November 2004, Week 4
November 2004, Week 3
November 2004, Week 2
November 2004, Week 1
October 2004, Week 5
October 2004, Week 4
October 2004, Week 3
October 2004, Week 2
October 2004, Week 1
September 2004, Week 5
September 2004, Week 4
September 2004, Week 3
September 2004, Week 2
September 2004, Week 1
August 2004, Week 5
August 2004, Week 4
August 2004, Week 3
August 2004, Week 2
August 2004, Week 1
July 2004, Week 5
July 2004, Week 4
July 2004, Week 3
July 2004, Week 2
July 2004, Week 1
June 2004, Week 5
June 2004, Week 4
June 2004, Week 3
June 2004, Week 2
June 2004, Week 1
May 2004, Week 5
May 2004, Week 4
May 2004, Week 3
May 2004, Week 2
May 2004, Week 1
April 2004, Week 5
April 2004, Week 4
April 2004, Week 3
April 2004, Week 2
April 2004, Week 1
March 2004, Week 5
March 2004, Week 4
March 2004, Week 3
March 2004, Week 2
March 2004, Week 1
February 2004, Week 5
February 2004, Week 4
February 2004, Week 3
February 2004, Week 2
February 2004, Week 1
January 2004, Week 5
January 2004, Week 4
January 2004, Week 3
January 2004, Week 2
January 2004, Week 1
December 2003, Week 5
December 2003, Week 4
December 2003, Week 3
December 2003, Week 2
December 2003, Week 1
November 2003, Week 5
November 2003, Week 4
November 2003, Week 3
November 2003, Week 2
November 2003, Week 1
October 2003, Week 5
October 2003, Week 4
October 2003, Week 3
October 2003, Week 2
October 2003, Week 1
September 2003, Week 5
September 2003, Week 4
September 2003, Week 3
September 2003, Week 2
September 2003, Week 1
August 2003, Week 5
August 2003, Week 4
August 2003, Week 3
August 2003, Week 2
August 2003, Week 1
July 2003, Week 5
July 2003, Week 4
July 2003, Week 3
July 2003, Week 2
July 2003, Week 1
June 2003, Week 5
June 2003, Week 4
June 2003, Week 3
June 2003, Week 2
June 2003, Week 1
May 2003, Week 5
May 2003, Week 4
May 2003, Week 3
May 2003, Week 2
May 2003, Week 1
April 2003, Week 5
April 2003, Week 4
April 2003, Week 3
April 2003, Week 2
April 2003, Week 1
March 2003, Week 5
March 2003, Week 4
March 2003, Week 3
March 2003, Week 2
March 2003, Week 1
February 2003, Week 4
February 2003, Week 3
February 2003, Week 2
February 2003, Week 1
January 2003, Week 5
January 2003, Week 4
January 2003, Week 3
January 2003, Week 2
January 2003, Week 1
December 2002, Week 5
December 2002, Week 4
December 2002, Week 3
December 2002, Week 2
December 2002, Week 1
November 2002, Week 5
November 2002, Week 4
November 2002, Week 3
November 2002, Week 2
November 2002, Week 1
October 2002, Week 5
October 2002, Week 4
October 2002, Week 3
October 2002, Week 2
October 2002, Week 1
September 2002, Week 5
September 2002, Week 4
September 2002, Week 3
September 2002, Week 2
September 2002, Week 1
August 2002, Week 5
August 2002, Week 4
August 2002, Week 3
August 2002, Week 2
August 2002, Week 1
July 2002, Week 5
July 2002, Week 4
July 2002, Week 3
July 2002, Week 2
July 2002, Week 1
June 2002, Week 5
June 2002, Week 4
June 2002, Week 3
June 2002, Week 2
June 2002, Week 1
May 2002, Week 5
May 2002, Week 4
May 2002, Week 3
May 2002, Week 2
May 2002, Week 1
April 2002, Week 5
April 2002, Week 4
April 2002, Week 3
April 2002, Week 2
April 2002, Week 1
March 2002, Week 5
March 2002, Week 4
March 2002, Week 3
March 2002, Week 2
March 2002, Week 1
February 2002, Week 4
February 2002, Week 3
February 2002, Week 2
February 2002, Week 1
January 2002, Week 5
January 2002, Week 4
January 2002, Week 3
January 2002, Week 2
January 2002, Week 1
December 2001, Week 5
December 2001, Week 4
December 2001, Week 3
December 2001, Week 2
December 2001, Week 1
November 2001, Week 5
November 2001, Week 4
November 2001, Week 3
November 2001, Week 2
November 2001, Week 1
October 2001, Week 5
October 2001, Week 4
October 2001, Week 3
October 2001, Week 2
October 2001, Week 1
September 2001, Week 5
September 2001, Week 4
September 2001, Week 3
September 2001, Week 2
September 2001, Week 1
August 2001, Week 5
August 2001, Week 4
August 2001, Week 3
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August 2001, Week 1
July 2001, Week 5
July 2001, Week 4
July 2001, Week 3
July 2001, Week 2
July 2001, Week 1
June 2001, Week 5
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June 2001, Week 3
June 2001, Week 2
June 2001, Week 1
May 2001, Week 5
May 2001, Week 4
May 2001, Week 3
May 2001, Week 2
May 2001, Week 1
April 2001, Week 5
April 2001, Week 4
April 2001, Week 3
April 2001, Week 2
April 2001, Week 1
March 2001, Week 5
March 2001, Week 4
March 2001, Week 3
March 2001, Week 2
March 2001, Week 1
February 2001, Week 4
February 2001, Week 3
February 2001, Week 2
February 2001, Week 1
January 2001, Week 5
January 2001, Week 4
January 2001, Week 3
January 2001, Week 2
January 2001, Week 1
December 2000, Week 5
December 2000, Week 4
December 2000, Week 3
December 2000, Week 2
December 2000, Week 1
November 2000, Week 5
November 2000, Week 4
November 2000, Week 3
November 2000, Week 2
November 2000, Week 1
October 2000, Week 5
October 2000, Week 4
October 2000, Week 3
October 2000, Week 2
October 2000, Week 1
September 2000, Week 5
September 2000, Week 4
September 2000, Week 3
September 2000, Week 2
September 2000, Week 1
August 2000, Week 5
August 2000, Week 4
August 2000, Week 3
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July 2000, Week 2
July 2000, Week 1
June 2000, Week 5
June 2000, Week 4
June 2000, Week 3
June 2000, Week 2
June 2000, Week 1
May 2000, Week 5
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May 2000, Week 2
May 2000, Week 1
April 2000, Week 5
April 2000, Week 4
April 2000, Week 3
April 2000, Week 2
April 2000, Week 1
March 2000, Week 5
March 2000, Week 4
March 2000, Week 3
March 2000, Week 2
March 2000, Week 1
February 2000, Week 5
February 2000, Week 4
February 2000, Week 3
February 2000, Week 2
February 2000, Week 1
January 2000, Week 5
January 2000, Week 4
January 2000, Week 3
January 2000, Week 2
January 2000, Week 1
December 1999, Week 5
December 1999, Week 4
December 1999, Week 3
December 1999, Week 2
December 1999, Week 1
November 1999, Week 5
November 1999, Week 4
November 1999, Week 3
November 1999, Week 2
November 1999, Week 1
October 1999, Week 5
October 1999, Week 4
October 1999, Week 3
October 1999, Week 2
October 1999, Week 1
September 1999, Week 5
September 1999, Week 4
September 1999, Week 3
September 1999, Week 2
September 1999, Week 1
August 1999, Week 5
August 1999, Week 4
August 1999, Week 3
August 1999, Week 2
August 1999, Week 1
July 1999, Week 5
July 1999, Week 4
July 1999, Week 3
July 1999, Week 2
July 1999, Week 1
June 1999, Week 5
June 1999, Week 4
June 1999, Week 3
June 1999, Week 2
June 1999, Week 1
May 1999, Week 5
May 1999, Week 4
May 1999, Week 3
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May 1999, Week 1
April 1999, Week 5
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April 1999, Week 3
April 1999, Week 2
April 1999, Week 1
March 1999, Week 5
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March 1999, Week 3
March 1999, Week 2
March 1999, Week 1
February 1999, Week 5
February 1999, Week 4
February 1999, Week 3
February 1999, Week 2
February 1999, Week 1
January 1999, Week 5
January 1999, Week 4
January 1999, Week 3
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January 1999, Week 1
December 1998, Week 5
December 1998, Week 4
December 1998, Week 3
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November 1998, Week 3
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October 1998, Week 3
October 1998, Week 2
October 1998, Week 1
September 1998, Week 5
September 1998, Week 4
September 1998, Week 3

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