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AUXLANG  August 2001, Week 5

AUXLANG August 2001, Week 5

Subject:

Tradukekzerco: Cxu la tera magneta kampo paneas?

From:

"Donald J. HARLOW" <[log in to unmask]>

Reply-To:

International Auxiliary Languages <[log in to unmask]>

Date:

Tue, 28 Aug 2001 21:12:30 -0700

Content-Type:

text/plain

Parts/Attachments:

Parts/Attachments

text/plain (285 lines)

Another astronomical posting in Esperanto, for those who care to try their
minds at the language. This one is a bit closer to home than the others,
discussing ongoing experiments to try to figure out what's happening with
the earth's magnetic field. It would be nice if we could predict a pole
reversal before it happens, though what we'd do with the prediction, I
haven't the vaguest idea.

These news notes, for those who are interested, are not, by the way, old
news; this one, for instance, dates from about five days ago. I presume
that you can find the original article in the current edition of "New
Scientist", as well as in sci.space.news. There's a URL at the end (well,
for the magazine, not the specific article).

Enjoy.

-- Don Harlow

---

Jen tria tradukekzerco, cxifoje pri nia propra planedo. Laux mi, la
prezento estas iomete sensacia kaj rilatas al afero ne tute nova (la
renversoj de la teraj magnetaj polusoj estas bone konata fenomeno jam pli
ol kvaronan jarcenton; mi legis sciencfikcian novelon pri tio, de la
lastatempe forpasinta korifeo de la vera Usona scienca fikcio Poul
Anderson, en "If" antaux multegaj jaroj).

Unu lingva noto: la anglan "convection" mi gxenerale tradukis per
"konvektado", malgraux ke en la vortaro de Katsumori, Makino kaj Yamamori,
kaj en la Astronomia Terminaro, gxi estas "konvekto". Oni devas memori, ke
en scienco ofte pli gravas procedoj (ag-radikoj) ol ajxoj (ajx-radikoj).
Ankaux PIV, kvankam ne cxiam fidinda fonto, tamen donas ne "konvekto" sed
"konvekti". Kompreneble, la substantivo "konvekto" restas valida kiam temas
pri unusola ago konvekti, sed gxenerale -- laux mi -- la sufikso -AD-
necesas por montri la dauxron de la fenomeno.

Kompreneble, komentoj kaj korektoj cxiam estas bonvenaj.

-- Don Harlow

---

New Scientist
http://www.newscientist.com

Kontaktu (anglalingve):
Claire Bowles, [log in to unmask], 44-207-331-2751

Cxu la tera magneta kampo paneas?

Se oni ne povas vojagxi al la centro de la Tero, kial ne porti la
kirligxantan koron de la planedo en onian laboratorion? Jen timiga penso,
sed Adrian CHO opinias, ke tio povus informi nin, kial ni ankoraux vivas.

Prenu 14 tunojn da eksplodemega metalo, fandu gxin en granda ujo, kaj vigle
kirlu. Staru suficxe longe for. Senlacaj esploristoj cxe la Universitato de
Marilando intencas provi tiun recepton, kaj, ne necesas diri tion, la
fajrobrigadestro jam suferas sendormajn noktojn. Sed tio tute valoros la
penon se ili solvos la longedauxran enigmon, kiel la Tero estigas sian
magnetan kampon.

Eble ecx temas pri afero de vivo aux morton. La tera kampo estas unu el
tiuj grandaj donacoj de la naturo, sxirmante nin de mortiga kosma radiado
kaj eble malebligante, ke nian atmosferon forvisxu la suna vento. Se nia
magneta kampo entute malsxaltigxus, la Tero povus farigxi same tiel sterila
kiel Marso.

Nia protekta sxirmajxo supozeble ne por cxiam paneos, sed eble okazos
baldaux provizora malsxalto. Tio povus okazi post ne pli ol 2 000 jaroj.
Mezuroj de la tera kampo montras, ke gxi plimalfortigxas, kaj sugestas, ke
ni rapidas al kamprenverso, en kiu la norda kaj suda magnetaj polusoj
intersxangxigxos. Kiam la renverso maksimumas, estos periodo, kiam la kampo
farigxos nula antaux ol reintensigxi. Tiu senprotekta periodo povus dauxri
nur kelkajn jarojn, aux gxi povus dauxri milojn. Por certe scii, ni bezonos
tre precizan modelon pri la tera koro.

La koro estas fera globo 6 960 kilometrojn diametre, kun temperaturo de pli
ol 5 000 celsie. La eksteraj 2 260 kilometroj estas likvaj, la interna
parto estas kunpremita gxis solideco. Konvektado kirlas la eksteran parton
de la koro, kiam malpli varma, pli densa fluidajxo mallevigxas pro la
gravita altiro, dum pli varma, malpli densa likvajxo levigxas por
anstatauxi gxin.

Do, kiel tiu cirkulanta fandigxinta metalo povas krei magnetan kampon?
Magnetismo, elektro kaj movado estas kiel special oferto de la speco
tri-kontraux-du: se vi havas du el ili, la tria senpage havigxas. En
malpeza bicikla dinamo, ekzemple, magneto kaj la rotacianta malantauxa rado
de la biciklo generas elektron. Esploristoj kredas, ke en la tera koro la
magnetismo de iu "sema kampo" de, ekzemple, proksima stelo kunlaboras kun
la movado de la kirligxanta metalo por generi elektrajn fluojn. La elektro
siavice nutras la magnetan kampon. Sub la gxustaj kondicxoj por tiu
"magneta dinamo", la sema kampo plilongigxos, tordigxos, kaj kreskos dum la
fandigxinta metalo movigxas. Fine, la kampo farigxos suficxe forta por
influi la movadon de la fluidajxo, efektive regante la propran kreskadon.
Atinginte tiun punkton, la magneta dinamo povas generi stabilan,
sinsubtenan kampon.


Turnoj kaj kirloj

Tio tamen estas nur fidata inter fizikistoj -- ili povas skribi la
ekvaciojn priskribantajn la movigxadon de konduktanto kaj la evoluadon de
magneta kampo, sed ili ne povas precize klarigi, kiel gxi atingas stabilan
staton. Cxefe tio okazas cxar la fluida fluo en la tero estas turbula,
plenplena je turnoj kaj kirloj. "Mankas al ni suficxe da komputila memoro
kaj potenco por solvi la vere etajn kirlojn," diras Gary Glatzmaier,
komputada fizikisto cxe la Universitato de Kalifornio en Santa Cruz. Kaj
modeloj tial devas subteni sin sur simpligoj kaj proksimumigoj.

Efektive, oni bezonas ion veran, kiun oni povas uzi por rafini la
komputilajn modelojn -- turbulan koron, per kiu ili povas ludi. Kelkaj
esploristaroj nun konstruas tiujn. Por kapti la efikojn de turbulado, ili
devas krei ilojn, kiuj permesas liberan fluadon al likvaj metaloj.
Esploristoj en Cadarache, Francio, jam konstruis ileton, kiun plenigos 330
libroj da fandigxinta metalo, kaj alia esploristaro cxe la Universitato de
Viskonsino, en Madison, baldaux ekfunciigos sferan imitajxon de la tera
koro, kun unumetra diametro.

Sed Daniel Lathrop, Daniel Sisan kaj Woodrow Shew cxe la Universitato de
Marilando havas la maksimume ambician projekton. Provizore, ili laboras cxe
duo da iletoj, sed ili projektas globon kun trimetra diametro, kiu enhavos
14 tunojn da natrio. Oni varmigos gxin gxis pli ol 110 celsie por fandi la
metalon, kaj helicoj kirlos la likvajxon por simuli la efikon de konvektado
en la koro. La tuta globo rotacios sepfoje en sekundo por mimi la teran
rotaciadon.

Se vi konas hxemion, alarmiloj certe sonoras cxe vi. Natrio eble estas
mirinda elektrokondukanto, sed gxi ankaux estas iom reagema. Hxemiistoj
tenas la metalon en oleo por eviti kontakton kun aero aux akvo -- alie, gxi
brulus, eble eksplodus. Kiam nur 100 kilogramoj da natrio eksplodis cxe la
franca atomesplora centro en Cadarache en 1994, mortis unu laboristo. Por
certigi sekurecon en Marilando, la tuta ilo sidos en granda metala skatolo.
"Tio bone efikos al la fajrobrigadestro kaj la sekurecestro," diras
laboratoria tehxnikisto Donald Martin.

Malgraux la risko, la sfero vere devas esti kiom eble plej granda. Grandeco
gravas, cxar la magnetaj kampoj bezonas spacon por plilongigxi, tordigxi
kaj kreskadi. Kampolinioj kaptitaj en malgranda spaco emas rezisti tian
deformigxon.

Esploristoj en Riga, Latvio, kaj en Karlsruhe, Germanio, generis magnetajn
kampojn en iom malpli grandaj ujoj, sed per trudi al natrio flui laux
helicaj vojoj. Tio ne mimas la pli malsimplan funkciadon de la tera koro,
diras Agris Gailitis cxe la Universitato de Latvio. "Vere temas pri
malmulta turbulado," li diras. En la tero, same kiel en cxiu libere fluanta
dinamo, la fluidajxo estos turbulega.

Do oni povas proksimigxi al mimado de la tera koro sole per havigo de
grandega volumeno da freneze kirligxanta fandigxinta metalo. Ju pli rapide
gxi movigxas, kaj ju pli granda estas la volumeno de la fluidajxo, des pli
la kampo tordigxos, plilongigxos kaj kreskos al stabila stato. Gxis nun,
neniu sukcesis persvadi tian libere kirligxantan fluidajxon generi magnetan
kampon. Sed trimetre diametra sfero eble sukcesos.

Teoriisto David Sweet, kiu kunlaboras kun Lathrop kaj ties kolegoj cxe la
Universitato de Marilando kaj la Nacia Laboratorio Los Alamos, jam montris,
kiel tiu giganta globo da natrio devus estigi sinsubtenan magnetan kampon
(Fiziko de Plasmo, vol. 8, p. 1944).

Ili studis, kiel kirligxanta liva metalo respondas al magneta "sema" pulso
kiu ekfunkciigas sinsubtenan kampon. Je malgranda flurapideco, la kampo
interne de la likvajxo malkreskas tuj kiam la pulso malsxaltigxas. Sed la
rapideco de tiu malkresko malgrandigxas kiam la fluo kreskas. Fine, gxi
tute ne malkreskos.

Kiam la eksperimentistoj submetos sian gigantan globon da kirligxanta
natrio sub mallongaj eksplodoj de magneta sema kampo, la dinamo devus
ekvivi. Sed gxi ne tuj stabiligxos -- la dinamo ekfunkcias kiel sputanta
malnova razentondilo, diras Sweet. Liaj kalkuloj montras, ke la kampo
ekfunkcios plenforte, falos gxis nul, kaj poste revenos al plenforteco.
Tiuj pulsoj estas komunaj al cxiuj turbulaj magnetaj dinamoj, Sweet diras,
kaj estas la indikoj, kiujn Lathrop kaj liaj kolegoj sercxos por konstati,
ke ili kreis tion. Kiam la flurapideco plu kreskos, la kampo fine cxesos pulsi.

La esploristoj ankaux provos observi "saturigxon", kiam la fluanta
fluidajxo ne nur estigas magnetan kampon, sed la kampo siavice regos la
fluadon de la fluidajxo -- gxuste tio permesas al la kampo subteni sin. Por
gxuste atingi tion, oni devos zorge kirli, avertas Cary Forest, fizikisto
cxe la Universitato de Viskonsino en Madisono. La fluo devos havi apartan
econ por generi sinsubtenan kamon. "Se la fluo ne estos gxusta, vi ne
atingos dinamon," li diras. Kun malgxusta fluo, oni povus senintence simuli
la koron de la malgxusta planedo. Tero kaj Venuso similas je grandeco kaj
fundamenta konsisto, sed Tero havas kampon kaj Venuso ne. Neniu scias la
kialon, sed la fluo eble estas la distingilo.

Ili eble ne scias la precizan recepton por sukcesa fluo, sed teoriistoj
kredas, ke estas du esencaj ingrediencoj. La unua sxajne estas la diferenca
rotaciado, kiu plilongigos hazardajn magnetajn kampliniojn cxirkaux kaj
cxirkaux la akson kiel bubo plilongigas bulo da macxgumo cxirkaux kaj
cxirkaux sian fingron.

La dua ingredienco estas fluo paralela je la turna akso, kreanta masxojn de
magneta kampo kiuj sxvelas el la strikte spiralaj linioj -- imagu la bubon
tiri unusolan fadenon de la vindita gumo al la fino de la fingro. Kiam la
fluidajxo dauxre rotacias, tiuj masxoj de magneta kampo povas detordigxi
kaj la du estremajxoj kunigxi por krei sendependajn kampliniojn.

Lathrop opinias, ke la postulata fluo supozeble estigxas pro la interagado
inter turbulado kaj stabila rotaciado. "La rotaciado emas organizi la
turbuladon," li diris. Malsame al Tero, la krusto de Venuso ne rompigxis
por krei tektonajn platojn. Tio malpliigas la efikecon de la planeda
konvekta malvarmiga sistemo kaj subpremas turbuladon. Ankaux, Venuso povas
rotacii tro malrapide por kvietigi kaj organizi turbulajxojn, kiuj
estigxas. Sendepende de tio, kio mankas, io en la fluo sxajne malebligas,
ke la koro de Venuso generu kampon. Nur per konstruo de imitajxoj de la
tera koro ni ekscios, kio vere okazas.

Intertempe, ekzistas alia, pli urgxa demando, kiun oni proponu. Se la
eksperimento de Lathrop jes estigos pulsojn de magneta kampo, ne stabilan
kampon, cxu tio signifas, ke ni estas suficxe bonsxancaj vivi meze de pulso
de la tera dinamo? Cxu gxi eble baldaux paneos?

Tio estas timiga, cxar la tera kampo forpelas energiegajn partikulojn, kiuj
plongxas el la kosmo. Tiuj kosmaj radioj povas rezultigi kanceron kaj
aliajn malsanojn. La kampo ankaux forpusxas la sunan venton, la torenton da
jonigita gaso, kiu fluas el la suno. Tiu malbona vento eble forblovos la
pliparton de la marsa atmosfero kiam la Rugxa Planedo perdis sian magnetan
kampon antaux proksimume 4 miliardoj da jaroj (New Scientist, 10an de
februaro, p. 4).

La tera dinamo sxajne funkcias preter la pulsa sxalto, Glatzmaier diras. Se
li pravas, la kampo ne entute neniigxos -- almenaux ne gxis kiam la planedo
estos malvarmigxinta kelkajn miliardojn da jaroj, por malrapidigi la
konvektadon. Sed sen pli plena kompreno pri la rolo de turbulado rilate
generon de la kampo, oni ne povas esti tute certa.

Minaca auxguro

Tiom pli, la tera kampo havas bone konatan emon foje renversi siajn
polusojn. Tiuj renversoj estas registritaj en la magnetismo de antikvaj
rokoj. Kaj mezuroj de la kampo montras, ke gxia forteco cximomente malkreskas.

Estas malfacile interpreti tiun malkreskon, diras Sten Odenwald, esploristo
cxe la projekto IMAGE de NASA por esplori la teran magnetosferon, la
regionon de spaco, kiun dominas la magneta kampo de la planedo. "Ni vere ne
scias, cxu la malkresko estas nura natura ondeto, cxu auxguro de io multe
pli minaca."

Se ni movigxas al kamprenverso, tiam Tero provizore ricevos pli da radiado
ol gxi aktuale ricevas. "Estos longa tempoperiodo -- eble multaj generacioj
-- kiam ni devos trovi metodon por trakti tiun ekstran energion," diras
James Green, alia esploristo de IMAGE. "Mi ne scias, cxu iu faris bonan
sciencan esploron pri tio, kiu okazos. Certe temas pri afero, kiun ni devos
esplori."

Se cxio funkcios bone, Lathrop kaj liaj kolegoj intencas, ke ilia giganta
globo funkciu kaj rotaciu antaux paso de du jaroj. Dume, Forest intencas
ekfunciigi sian unumetran globon cxe Viskonsino cxisomere, kaj kredas, ke
li la unua generos la dinamo-efikon en libere fluanta fluidajxo.

Sendepende de tio, kiu gajnos la konkuradon, diras Glatzmaier, tiuj
eksperimentoj devos doni al fizikistoj mezurpunktojn, kontraux kiuj ili
povos provi siajn vertigxe komplikajn programojn. "Ni povos apliki niajn
komputilajn modelojn al la eksperimentoj, ne al planedo aux stelo, kaj
vidi, cxu temas pri egaleco," li diras. Tio sxajne povus esti la komenco de
io grava. Post jardekoj da kvieta esplorado, dinama fiziko eble tuj
eksplodos -- kompreneble, se paroli metafore.

        ###

Verkis: Adrian Cho

New Scientist numero: 25an de auxgusto 2001

BONVOLU MENCII LA REVUON NEW SCIENTIST KIEL FONTON DE CxI TIU ARTIKOLO KAJ,
SE VI APERIGAS GxIN EN LA RETO, BONVOLU ALDONI LIGON AL:
      http://www.newscientist.com


--
Afisxis Andrew Yee en sci.space.news, 23an de auxgusto 2001



-- Don HARLOW
http://www.webcom.com/~donh/don/don.html

Branĉetoj nudaj
Antaŭ ĉiel' lazura
Lunon aĵuras.

Se vi serĉas...
   Novelojn, http://www.best.com/~donh/Esperanto/Literaturo/Noveloj/
   Poemojn, http://www.best.com/~donh/Esperanto/Literaturo/Poezio/
   Recenzojn, http://www.best.com/~donh/Esperanto/Literaturo/Recenzoj/

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March 2013, Week 3
March 2013, Week 2
March 2013, Week 1
February 2013, Week 4
February 2013, Week 3
February 2013, Week 2
February 2013, Week 1
January 2013, Week 4
January 2013, Week 3
January 2013, Week 2
January 2013, Week 1
December 2012, Week 5
December 2012, Week 4
December 2012, Week 3
December 2012, Week 2
December 2012, Week 1
November 2012, Week 4
November 2012, Week 3
November 2012, Week 2
November 2012, Week 1
October 2012, Week 5
October 2012, Week 4
October 2012, Week 3
October 2012, Week 2
October 2012, Week 1
September 2012, Week 5
September 2012, Week 4
September 2012, Week 3
September 2012, Week 2
September 2012, Week 1
August 2012, Week 4
August 2012, Week 2
August 2012, Week 1
July 2012, Week 5
July 2012, Week 4
July 2012, Week 3
July 2012, Week 2
July 2012, Week 1
June 2012, Week 5
June 2012, Week 4
June 2012, Week 3
June 2012, Week 1
May 2012, Week 5
May 2012, Week 4
May 2012, Week 3
May 2012, Week 2
May 2012, Week 1
April 2012, Week 4
April 2012, Week 3
April 2012, Week 2
April 2012, Week 1
March 2012, Week 5
March 2012, Week 4
March 2012, Week 3
March 2012, Week 2
March 2012, Week 1
February 2012, Week 5
February 2012, Week 4
February 2012, Week 3
February 2012, Week 2
February 2012, Week 1
January 2012, Week 4
December 2011, Week 5
December 2011, Week 4
December 2011, Week 3
December 2011, Week 2
December 2011, Week 1
November 2011, Week 4
November 2011, Week 3
November 2011, Week 2
November 2011, Week 1
October 2011, Week 5
October 2011, Week 4
October 2011, Week 3
October 2011, Week 2
October 2011, Week 1
September 2011, Week 5
September 2011, Week 4
September 2011, Week 3
September 2011, Week 2
September 2011, Week 1
August 2011, Week 5
August 2011, Week 4
August 2011, Week 3
August 2011, Week 2
August 2011, Week 1
July 2011, Week 4
July 2011, Week 3
July 2011, Week 2
July 2011, Week 1
June 2011, Week 4
June 2011, Week 3
June 2011, Week 2
June 2011, Week 1
May 2011, Week 5
May 2011, Week 4
May 2011, Week 3
May 2011, Week 2
May 2011, Week 1
April 2011, Week 4
April 2011, Week 3
April 2011, Week 2
April 2011, Week 1
March 2011, Week 5
March 2011, Week 4
March 2011, Week 3
March 2011, Week 2
March 2011, Week 1
February 2011, Week 4
February 2011, Week 3
February 2011, Week 2
February 2011, Week 1
January 2011, Week 5
January 2011, Week 4
January 2011, Week 3
January 2011, Week 2
January 2011, Week 1
December 2010, Week 5
December 2010, Week 4
December 2010, Week 3
December 2010, Week 2
December 2010, Week 1
November 2010, Week 4
November 2010, Week 3
November 2010, Week 2
November 2010, Week 1
October 2010, Week 5
October 2010, Week 4
October 2010, Week 3
October 2010, Week 2
October 2010, Week 1
September 2010, Week 5
September 2010, Week 4
September 2010, Week 3
September 2010, Week 2
September 2010, Week 1
August 2010, Week 5
August 2010, Week 4
August 2010, Week 3
August 2010, Week 2
August 2010, Week 1
July 2010, Week 5
July 2010, Week 4
July 2010, Week 3
July 2010, Week 2
July 2010, Week 1
June 2010, Week 5
June 2010, Week 4
June 2010, Week 3
June 2010, Week 2
June 2010, Week 1
May 2010, Week 5
May 2010, Week 4
May 2010, Week 3
May 2010, Week 2
May 2010, Week 1
April 2010, Week 5
April 2010, Week 4
April 2010, Week 3
April 2010, Week 2
April 2010, Week 1
March 2010, Week 5
March 2010, Week 4
March 2010, Week 3
March 2010, Week 2
March 2010, Week 1
February 2010, Week 4
February 2010, Week 3
February 2010, Week 2
February 2010, Week 1
January 2010, Week 5
January 2010, Week 4
January 2010, Week 3
January 2010, Week 2
January 2010, Week 1
December 2009, Week 5
December 2009, Week 4
December 2009, Week 3
December 2009, Week 2
December 2009, Week 1
November 2009, Week 5
November 2009, Week 4
November 2009, Week 3
November 2009, Week 2
November 2009, Week 1
October 2009, Week 5
October 2009, Week 4
October 2009, Week 3
October 2009, Week 2
October 2009, Week 1
September 2009, Week 5
September 2009, Week 4
September 2009, Week 3
September 2009, Week 2
September 2009, Week 1
August 2009, Week 5
August 2009, Week 4
August 2009, Week 3
August 2009, Week 2
August 2009, Week 1
July 2009, Week 5
July 2009, Week 4
July 2009, Week 3
July 2009, Week 2
July 2009, Week 1
June 2009, Week 5
June 2009, Week 4
June 2009, Week 3
June 2009, Week 2
June 2009, Week 1
May 2009, Week 5
May 2009, Week 4
May 2009, Week 3
May 2009, Week 2
May 2009, Week 1
April 2009, Week 5
April 2009, Week 4
April 2009, Week 3
April 2009, Week 2
April 2009, Week 1
March 2009, Week 5
March 2009, Week 4
March 2009, Week 3
March 2009, Week 2
March 2009, Week 1
February 2009, Week 4
February 2009, Week 3
February 2009, Week 2
February 2009, Week 1
January 2009, Week 5
January 2009, Week 4
January 2009, Week 3
January 2009, Week 2
January 2009, Week 1
December 2008, Week 5
December 2008, Week 4
December 2008, Week 3
December 2008, Week 2
December 2008, Week 1
November 2008, Week 5
November 2008, Week 4
November 2008, Week 3
November 2008, Week 2
November 2008, Week 1
October 2008, Week 5
October 2008, Week 4
October 2008, Week 3
October 2008, Week 2
October 2008, Week 1
September 2008, Week 5
September 2008, Week 4
September 2008, Week 3
September 2008, Week 2
September 2008, Week 1
August 2008, Week 5
August 2008, Week 4
August 2008, Week 3
August 2008, Week 2
August 2008, Week 1
July 2008, Week 5
July 2008, Week 4
July 2008, Week 3
July 2008, Week 2
July 2008, Week 1
June 2008, Week 5
June 2008, Week 4
June 2008, Week 3
June 2008, Week 2
June 2008, Week 1
May 2008, Week 5
May 2008, Week 4
May 2008, Week 3
May 2008, Week 2
May 2008, Week 1
April 2008, Week 5
April 2008, Week 4
April 2008, Week 3
April 2008, Week 2
April 2008, Week 1
March 2008, Week 5
March 2008, Week 4
March 2008, Week 3
March 2008, Week 2
March 2008, Week 1
February 2008, Week 5
February 2008, Week 4
February 2008, Week 3
February 2008, Week 2
February 2008, Week 1
January 2008, Week 5
January 2008, Week 4
January 2008, Week 3
January 2008, Week 2
January 2008, Week 1
December 2007, Week 5
December 2007, Week 4
December 2007, Week 3
December 2007, Week 2
December 2007, Week 1
November 2007, Week 5
November 2007, Week 4
November 2007, Week 3
November 2007, Week 2
November 2007, Week 1
October 2007, Week 5
October 2007, Week 4
October 2007, Week 3
October 2007, Week 2
October 2007, Week 1
September 2007, Week 5
September 2007, Week 4
September 2007, Week 3
September 2007, Week 2
September 2007, Week 1
August 2007, Week 5
August 2007, Week 4
August 2007, Week 3
August 2007, Week 2
August 2007, Week 1
July 2007, Week 5
July 2007, Week 4
July 2007, Week 3
July 2007, Week 2
July 2007, Week 1
June 2007, Week 5
June 2007, Week 4
June 2007, Week 3
June 2007, Week 2
June 2007, Week 1
May 2007, Week 5
May 2007, Week 4
May 2007, Week 3
May 2007, Week 2
May 2007, Week 1
April 2007, Week 5
April 2007, Week 4
April 2007, Week 3
April 2007, Week 2
April 2007, Week 1
March 2007, Week 5
March 2007, Week 4
March 2007, Week 3
March 2007, Week 2
March 2007, Week 1
February 2007, Week 4
February 2007, Week 3
February 2007, Week 2
February 2007, Week 1
January 2007, Week 5
January 2007, Week 4
January 2007, Week 3
January 2007, Week 2
January 2007, Week 1
December 2006, Week 5
December 2006, Week 4
December 2006, Week 3
December 2006, Week 2
December 2006, Week 1
November 2006, Week 5
November 2006, Week 4
November 2006, Week 3
November 2006, Week 2
November 2006, Week 1
October 2006, Week 5
October 2006, Week 4
October 2006, Week 3
October 2006, Week 2
October 2006, Week 1
September 2006, Week 5
September 2006, Week 4
September 2006, Week 3
September 2006, Week 2
September 2006, Week 1
August 2006, Week 5
August 2006, Week 4
August 2006, Week 3
August 2006, Week 2
August 2006, Week 1
July 2006, Week 5
July 2006, Week 4
July 2006, Week 3
July 2006, Week 2
July 2006, Week 1
June 2006, Week 5
June 2006, Week 4
June 2006, Week 3
June 2006, Week 2
June 2006, Week 1
May 2006, Week 5
May 2006, Week 4
May 2006, Week 3
May 2006, Week 2
May 2006, Week 1
April 2006, Week 5
April 2006, Week 4
April 2006, Week 3
April 2006, Week 2
April 2006, Week 1
March 2006, Week 5
March 2006, Week 4
March 2006, Week 3
March 2006, Week 2
March 2006, Week 1
February 2006, Week 4
February 2006, Week 3
February 2006, Week 2
February 2006, Week 1
January 2006, Week 5
January 2006, Week 4
January 2006, Week 3
January 2006, Week 2
January 2006, Week 1
December 2005, Week 5
December 2005, Week 4
December 2005, Week 3
December 2005, Week 2
December 2005, Week 1
November 2005, Week 5
November 2005, Week 4
November 2005, Week 3
November 2005, Week 2
November 2005, Week 1
October 2005, Week 5
October 2005, Week 4
October 2005, Week 3
October 2005, Week 2
October 2005, Week 1
September 2005, Week 5
September 2005, Week 4
September 2005, Week 3
September 2005, Week 2
September 2005, Week 1
August 2005, Week 5
August 2005, Week 4
August 2005, Week 3
August 2005, Week 2
August 2005, Week 1
July 2005, Week 5
July 2005, Week 4
July 2005, Week 3
July 2005, Week 2
July 2005, Week 1
June 2005, Week 5
June 2005, Week 4
June 2005, Week 3
June 2005, Week 2
June 2005, Week 1
May 2005, Week 5
May 2005, Week 4
May 2005, Week 3
May 2005, Week 2
May 2005, Week 1
April 2005, Week 5
April 2005, Week 4
April 2005, Week 3
April 2005, Week 2
April 2005, Week 1
March 2005, Week 5
March 2005, Week 4
March 2005, Week 3
March 2005, Week 2
March 2005, Week 1
February 2005, Week 4
February 2005, Week 3
February 2005, Week 2
February 2005, Week 1
January 2005, Week 5
January 2005, Week 4
January 2005, Week 3
January 2005, Week 2
January 2005, Week 1
December 2004, Week 5
December 2004, Week 4
December 2004, Week 3
December 2004, Week 2
December 2004, Week 1
November 2004, Week 5
November 2004, Week 4
November 2004, Week 3
November 2004, Week 2
November 2004, Week 1
October 2004, Week 5
October 2004, Week 4
October 2004, Week 3
October 2004, Week 2
October 2004, Week 1
September 2004, Week 5
September 2004, Week 4
September 2004, Week 3
September 2004, Week 2
September 2004, Week 1
August 2004, Week 5
August 2004, Week 4
August 2004, Week 3
August 2004, Week 2
August 2004, Week 1
July 2004, Week 5
July 2004, Week 4
July 2004, Week 3
July 2004, Week 2
July 2004, Week 1
June 2004, Week 5
June 2004, Week 4
June 2004, Week 3
June 2004, Week 2
June 2004, Week 1
May 2004, Week 5
May 2004, Week 4
May 2004, Week 3
May 2004, Week 2
May 2004, Week 1
April 2004, Week 5
April 2004, Week 4
April 2004, Week 3
April 2004, Week 2
April 2004, Week 1
March 2004, Week 5
March 2004, Week 4
March 2004, Week 3
March 2004, Week 2
March 2004, Week 1
February 2004, Week 5
February 2004, Week 4
February 2004, Week 3
February 2004, Week 2
February 2004, Week 1
January 2004, Week 5
January 2004, Week 4
January 2004, Week 3
January 2004, Week 2
January 2004, Week 1
December 2003, Week 5
December 2003, Week 4
December 2003, Week 3
December 2003, Week 2
December 2003, Week 1
November 2003, Week 5
November 2003, Week 4
November 2003, Week 3
November 2003, Week 2
November 2003, Week 1
October 2003, Week 5
October 2003, Week 4
October 2003, Week 3
October 2003, Week 2
October 2003, Week 1
September 2003, Week 5
September 2003, Week 4
September 2003, Week 3
September 2003, Week 2
September 2003, Week 1
August 2003, Week 5
August 2003, Week 4
August 2003, Week 3
August 2003, Week 2
August 2003, Week 1
July 2003, Week 5
July 2003, Week 4
July 2003, Week 3
July 2003, Week 2
July 2003, Week 1
June 2003, Week 5
June 2003, Week 4
June 2003, Week 3
June 2003, Week 2
June 2003, Week 1
May 2003, Week 5
May 2003, Week 4
May 2003, Week 3
May 2003, Week 2
May 2003, Week 1
April 2003, Week 5
April 2003, Week 4
April 2003, Week 3
April 2003, Week 2
March 2003, Week 5
March 2003, Week 4
March 2003, Week 3
March 2003, Week 2
March 2003, Week 1
February 2003, Week 4
February 2003, Week 3
February 2003, Week 2
February 2003, Week 1
January 2003, Week 5
January 2003, Week 4
January 2003, Week 3
January 2003, Week 2
January 2003, Week 1
December 2002, Week 5
December 2002, Week 4
December 2002, Week 3
December 2002, Week 2
December 2002, Week 1
November 2002, Week 4
November 2002, Week 3
November 2002, Week 2
November 2002, Week 1
October 2002, Week 5
October 2002, Week 4
October 2002, Week 3
October 2002, Week 2
October 2002, Week 1
September 2002, Week 5
September 2002, Week 4
September 2002, Week 3
September 2002, Week 2
September 2002, Week 1
August 2002, Week 5
August 2002, Week 4
August 2002, Week 3
August 2002, Week 2
August 2002, Week 1
July 2002, Week 5
July 2002, Week 4
July 2002, Week 3
July 2002, Week 2
July 2002, Week 1
June 2002, Week 5
June 2002, Week 4
June 2002, Week 3
June 2002, Week 2
June 2002, Week 1
May 2002, Week 5
May 2002, Week 4
May 2002, Week 3
May 2002, Week 2
May 2002, Week 1
April 2002, Week 5
April 2002, Week 4
April 2002, Week 3
April 2002, Week 2
April 2002, Week 1
March 2002, Week 5
March 2002, Week 4
March 2002, Week 3
March 2002, Week 1
February 2002, Week 4
February 2002, Week 3
February 2002, Week 2
February 2002, Week 1
January 2002, Week 5
January 2002, Week 4
January 2002, Week 3
January 2002, Week 2
January 2002, Week 1
December 2001, Week 5
December 2001, Week 4
December 2001, Week 3
December 2001, Week 2
December 2001, Week 1
November 2001, Week 5
November 2001, Week 4
November 2001, Week 3
November 2001, Week 2
November 2001, Week 1
October 2001, Week 5
October 2001, Week 4
October 2001, Week 3
October 2001, Week 2
October 2001, Week 1
September 2001, Week 5
September 2001, Week 4
September 2001, Week 3
September 2001, Week 2
September 2001, Week 1
August 2001, Week 5
August 2001, Week 4
August 2001, Week 3
August 2001, Week 2
August 2001, Week 1
July 2001, Week 5
July 2001, Week 4
July 2001, Week 3
July 2001, Week 2
July 2001, Week 1
June 2001, Week 5
June 2001, Week 4
June 2001, Week 3
June 2001, Week 2
June 2001, Week 1
May 2001, Week 5
May 2001, Week 4
May 2001, Week 3
May 2001, Week 2
May 2001, Week 1
April 2001, Week 5
April 2001, Week 4
April 2001, Week 3
April 2001, Week 2
April 2001, Week 1
March 2001, Week 5
March 2001, Week 4
March 2001, Week 3
March 2001, Week 2
March 2001, Week 1
February 2001, Week 4
February 2001, Week 3
February 2001, Week 2
February 2001, Week 1
January 2001, Week 5
January 2001, Week 4
January 2001, Week 3
January 2001, Week 2
January 2001, Week 1
December 2000, Week 5
December 2000, Week 4
December 2000, Week 3
December 2000, Week 2
December 2000, Week 1
November 2000, Week 5
November 2000, Week 4
November 2000, Week 3
November 2000, Week 2
November 2000, Week 1
October 2000, Week 5
October 2000, Week 4
October 2000, Week 3
October 2000, Week 2
October 2000, Week 1
September 2000, Week 5
September 2000, Week 4
September 2000, Week 3
September 2000, Week 2
September 2000, Week 1
August 2000, Week 5
August 2000, Week 4
August 2000, Week 3
August 2000, Week 2
August 2000, Week 1
July 2000, Week 5
July 2000, Week 4
July 2000, Week 3
July 2000, Week 2
July 2000, Week 1
June 2000, Week 5
June 2000, Week 4
June 2000, Week 3
June 2000, Week 2
June 2000, Week 1
May 2000, Week 5
May 2000, Week 4
May 2000, Week 3
May 2000, Week 2
May 2000, Week 1
April 2000, Week 5
April 2000, Week 4
April 2000, Week 3
April 2000, Week 2
April 2000, Week 1
March 2000, Week 5
March 2000, Week 4
March 2000, Week 3
March 2000, Week 2
March 2000, Week 1
February 2000, Week 5
February 2000, Week 4
February 2000, Week 3
February 2000, Week 2
February 2000, Week 1
January 2000, Week 5
January 2000, Week 4
January 2000, Week 3
January 2000, Week 2
January 2000, Week 1
December 1999, Week 5
December 1999, Week 4
December 1999, Week 3
December 1999, Week 2
December 1999, Week 1
November 1999, Week 5
November 1999, Week 4
November 1999, Week 3
November 1999, Week 2
November 1999, Week 1
October 1999, Week 5
October 1999, Week 4
October 1999, Week 3
October 1999, Week 2
October 1999, Week 1
September 1999, Week 5
September 1999, Week 4
September 1999, Week 3
September 1999, Week 2
September 1999, Week 1
August 1999, Week 5
August 1999, Week 4
August 1999, Week 3
August 1999, Week 2
August 1999, Week 1
July 1999, Week 5
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July 1999, Week 3
July 1999, Week 2
July 1999, Week 1
June 1999, Week 5
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June 1999, Week 3
June 1999, Week 2
June 1999, Week 1
May 1999, Week 5
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May 1999, Week 3
May 1999, Week 2
May 1999, Week 1
April 1999, Week 5
April 1999, Week 4
April 1999, Week 3
April 1999, Week 2
April 1999, Week 1
March 1999, Week 5
March 1999, Week 4
March 1999, Week 3
March 1999, Week 2
March 1999, Week 1
February 1999, Week 5
February 1999, Week 4
February 1999, Week 3
February 1999, Week 2
February 1999, Week 1
January 1999, Week 5
January 1999, Week 4
January 1999, Week 3
January 1999, Week 2
January 1999, Week 1
December 1998, Week 5
December 1998, Week 4
December 1998, Week 3
December 1998, Week 2
December 1998, Week 1
November 1998, Week 5
November 1998, Week 4
November 1998, Week 3
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September 1998, Week 5
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July 1998, Week 5
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June 1998, Week 5
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June 1998, Week 3
June 1998, Week 2
June 1998, Week 1
May 1998, Week 5
May 1998, Week 4
May 1998, Week 3
May 1998, Week 2
May 1998, Week 1
April 1998, Week 5
April 1998, Week 4
April 1998, Week 3
April 1998, Week 2
April 1998, Week 1
March 1998, Week 5
March 1998, Week 4
March 1998, Week 3
March 1998, Week 2
March 1998, Week 1
February 1998, Week 5
February 1998, Week 4
February 1998, Week 3
February 1998, Week 2
February 1998, Week 1
January 1998, Week 5
January 1998, Week 4
January 1998, Week 3
January 1998, Week 2
January 1998, Week 1
December 1997, Week 5
December 1997, Week 4
December 1997, Week 3
December 1997, Week 2
December 1997, Week 1
November 1997, Week 5
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November 1997, Week 3
November 1997, Week 2
November 1997, Week 1
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February 1997, Week 1

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