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AUXLANG  December 2001, Week 1

AUXLANG December 2001, Week 1

Subject:

My theory of languages

From:

Cheng Zhong Su <[log in to unmask]>

Reply-To:

International Auxiliary Languages <[log in to unmask]>

Date:

Fri, 7 Dec 2001 09:40:35 +1100

Content-Type:

text/plain

Parts/Attachments:

Parts/Attachments

text/plain (263 lines)

Dear Friends: If any one can't open my page, I put it here, hope you may get
it.
                         Law and Function of All Languages
                                                 Su Cheng Zhong

                                                   Abstract
     The fatal drawback of English is that by the increasing of the numerous
words, no body can learn a certain fraction of them during lifetime. The
second problem of English is the thinking speed is not among the fast one of
the world. This article is going to solve these issues by introduce the
¡®Language Law¡¯. Once the reform take place, every English speaker¡¯s
vocabulary will increase several times without further learning, and the
thinking speed will be going up too.

                                                 Language Law

The question is, why in English the meat of pig we give a new word call
¡®pork¡¯, yet the meat of donkey has no such right, we simply call it donkey
meat? To explain this question we must investigate every single oral action,
or as J.R.FIRTH said: ¡®one articulation type¡¯. We know that the word
¡®pork¡¯ has less mouth actions than ¡®pig meat¡¯. In fact, the real reason
to create a word ¡®pork¡¯ (or, as it¡¯s a French word we may say to adopt
the word ¡®pork¡¯,) is to reduce the times of action of mouth. It just like
that we change mathematics as ¡®math¡¯ and gymnastics as ¡®gym¡¯ now. For
the donkey meat, the explanation is that as it is rarely used, we keep the
original form, in order to save more forms for other use, and save memory.
It is not that we don¡¯t want a word that can substitute donkey meat but we
are lazy.
  There is another question left, I have said ¡®save memory¡¯ what is the
meaning?   Let¡¯s study the two terms again, when we meet a term as ¡®donkey
meat¡¯, using the old knowledge we know what it is. But for the ¡®pork¡¯ we
have to learn a new spelling form, a new sound and link it with the meaning
of ¡®pig meat¡¯. If there is only one term like that, it would be no
problem, but if we found in English there are several hundred thousands word
formed like that, the measurement of learning would be quite important. So
the reason of above question is that we give the frequent used meanings a
new word in order to reduce the oral actions but at the same time, we must
also increase our remembrances. Suppose a butcher says the word ¡®pork¡¯
instead ¡®pig meat¡¯, hundred times a day, these remembrance increasing is
worthwhile. But for a rarely used term as ¡®donkey meat¡¯, it¡¯s no reason
to create a new word and increase our remembrance.
   It¡¯s a balance between actions of mouth and remembrance. If we found a
new way to solve the problem that we can reduce the oral actions while
without increase the remembrance would you like to choice it?
  Let¡¯s have a look such a fact: from computer we know that although the
¡®Morse code¡¯ have only two symbols as 0&1, yet it also could represent all
the universe. What if a person can only utter two sounds A&B, can he
represent the world by these two sounds? Of course he can, the only
different is the representing speed could be very slow. English has about
400 different sounds (one articulation type), suppose, in the world there
are only 400 different things need to be represented, the English people
could use each sound to represent one thing, while the two sounds speaker,
some times have to give nine oral actions for one thing, as the two to power
nine is greater than 400. When English person say: ¡®I¡¯, correspondently,
the two sound speaker perhaps must say abbabbaaa. If an English person has
five oral actions in one second, the two sounds speaker must keep up with
45actions. Further more, you may find, to remember the word abbabbaaa is a
job, much harder than word I. From this example we know that a language has
more different sounds, not only save actions, easy to remember but
exchanging ideas faster. So, with more different sounds, we can solve the
oral actions¡ªremembrance problem. Suppose English has not 400 but 2000
different sounds that enable the language use a simple action ¡®pi¡¯
substitute pig, use a simple action ¡®mi¡¯ substitute meat, so when we say
¡®pimi¡¯ we know what it is without increase the actions of mouth and
remembrance.
    Another benefit of language with more different sounds is that since the
thinking process some wise like speaking in mind, so a faster spoken
language means faster thinking speed. If we think about the span of
lifetime, We may get the result that one who speak a language that have more
different sounds will thinking more ideas during life time than those
speaking a language with less different sounds.
    Not only this, the fatal difference is from the quantity of words.
Currently, English has between one to two millions of words (include
scientific words), suppose a baby, from first day of life, can remember 10
words daily, and never forget them in it¡¯s rest life, when he is eighty
years old, how many words does he get? 365¡Á80¡Á10=292000, far less than
required. In fact no one can achieve even 292000words in lifetime. And how
many words do we have? There were many different answers, The Human
Communication by Irving Azzola, said: an educated English speaker at least
must handle seventy thousands of English words. Another author J.H.Britton
write in Language A Text for Senior Students P9 said: Winston Churchill had
30000words and professor like Haldane can handle 50000 to 60000words. While,
in Shakespeare¡¯s time, there were only 30000 words in English. I believe
that¡¯s the reason of why after Shakespeare, no body can match him in
literature, for the later person need to remember much more words and has
less time to use or think of them. The Encyclopaedia of Language and
Linguistics, edited by R.E.Asher p1997 said: the words number of an educated
person must between 50000 to 250000,according to this even Churchill and
Shakespeare were illiterate. The more serious problem is as the human
knowledge going up, the number of English words is going up also. It means
the knowledge of a single person who speaks English will going narrower to
narrower. The only solution is to increase the number of different sounds.
    How to increase sound number several times? Let¡¯s study how the ancient
Greece increased their sound numbers based on Phoenician letters. The
Phoenician letters have no vowels, not because they didn¡¯t pronounce it but
they don¡¯t regard it as information carrier, so in their language, Ma, Me,
Mo was same thing and we say they just got 22 different sounds. When the
Greece learnt the letters, they took a few of them and add some new letters
as vowels. The addition not just add few sounds but increase the 22
consonant few times, for they can split the M to Ma, Me, Mo, Mao etc.
Suddenly, the Greece had a language with a sound number few times larger
than Phoenician one. From common sense we know that a language can detect
more information in the same oral action will be able to get more privilege.
We know, when sound¡¯s number increase, their thinking speed will increase
and the vocabulary of single person will increase also. This answered the
question that why the ancient Greece people have such creativities that some
body even believe, all the western culture is but explain what the ancient
Greek thinkers said.
   From this example we know, if we want increase the sound¡¯s number, the
best way is to find out a new member of sound unit, a totally different idea
must be introduced. ELL page 4233 ¡°The results of a series of
spectrogram-reading experiments conducted in 1978-79 by researchers at
Carnegie Mellon University (CMU) and at the Massachusetts Institute of
Technology (MIT) suggest that the acoustic signal contains far richer
phonetic information than previously believed.¡± From our every day life, we
know, when we sing a song, a single sound Ma could be pronounced dozens ways
according how many scales you take. If we use such elements carry
information, all the above benefit we can get. Not only the culture will
leap, the vocabulary of each single person who speaks English will increase
several times also. In fact, some countries in the world have used the
technology already. We call them ¡®tone language¡¯ some languages even have
nine tones, just think about how many different sounds they have? How fast
their thinking peed would be? In fact it¡¯s not true, most sounds in tone
languages were not employed. The real employed sounds of tone languages are
between one to two thousands. Even thus, their thinking speed and vocabulary
of single person is larger than English speaker already.
  For information age, thinking speed and a big vocabulary are fatal.   ELL
P4612£º¡°Codability is a concept that has appealed to many experimental
psychologists working on short-term memory: the quantity of material
individuals are capable of retaining accurately in short-term memory is
limited, and different encodings of the same information can differ in how
readily they can be ¡®squeezed in.¡¯ An early demonstration of this was by
S.Smith (cited in Miller 1956), who trained subjects to recode a list of
binary digits (0s and 1s) into octal (the 0 to 7), so 000 is record as 1,
010 as 2, etc. Subjects so trained were able to recall accurately much
longer sequences of binary digits than subjects who had not received this
training.
Such a result points to one important general function of language in
thought: recording material in a compact form enables us to retain more of
it in short-term memory, and any thought processes that depend on
manipulation of such material should benefit. The details of this idea have
been worked out more fully recently: ¡®working memory¡¯ is the preferred
term for manipulations of material on a short-term basis, and it has been
established that immediate recall of verbal material is heavily dependent on
the operations of an ¡®articulatory loop¡¯ in working memory, whose capacity
is limited by how much the subject can say in 1.5-2seconds. If the material
takes longer than 2 seconds to say (because it contains many syllables or
because the subject is not an agile articulator) then it will not always be
accurately recalled (for a good review, see Baddeley 1986).
   This property of the human memory system has curious implications for
crosscultural intelligent testing, Many tests of intelligence include as a
component a test of ¡®digit span¡¯ or some similar measure of immediate
recall of unrelated words. Digit span (how many digits one can reliably
recall immediately after one has heard them) depends on how fast they can be
said. Compared with a monosyllabic digits speaker, subjects who speak
languages with polysyllabic digits will be able to say fewer digits in two
seconds and thus remember fewer of them. If this is not taken into account
in comparing raw intelligence test scores across language, the polysyllabic
speaker will seem less intelligent. This effect was first demonstrated for
Welsh and English by Ellis and Hennelley in 1980, and confirmed in a study
of English, Spanish, Hebrew, and Arabic by Naveh-Benjamin and Ayres (1986).
The results are quite substantial, with English speakers (mean number of
syllables per digit 1.0, the digit 7 being excluded from the Naveh-Bebjamin
and Ayres study) having a mean span of 7.21 digits, and Arabic speakers
(mean number of syllables per digit 2.25) having a mean span of 5.77. ¡°
The author is not sure wether it will effect the thought, he just said:
¡°Wether this early bottleneck in processing has any implications for more
complex thought processes is not clear: there are no reports of speakers of
a particular language being particularly disadvantaged in calculation, and
it would be fanciful to suppose that the Arabs developed algebra because
they were having such difficulties with arithmetic.¡± But in my opinion, it
could be different, just think about the first time A read 7digits, while B
read 5digits, yet it not stoped. After 10 seconds A may read 70, while B
read 50, of course A faster. And any thing when B read one times maybe A
read 1.5 times already and since life keep going on this ratio always keep
going. As for a single branch of knowledge, it could depend on other things
such as necessary. If we investigate the history we may find many historians
tell us that there are two mysteries in the histories they could not solve,
the first one is why the ancient Greece had such creativity that no one does
better than them afterwards. The second one is that why after Yuan dynasty
the Chinese culture was falling down. I believe, both the mysteries link
with the actions of mouth. First we know from above between Greece and
Phoenician, there was a sudden increasing of sound¡¯s number, it made the
ancient Greece more intelligent than others. The same thing happened in
China, as Genghis Khan took over China, the Mongolian adopted Chinese
language as the official language, but they could not pronounce one of the
five tones of Chinese language at that time. The people had to follow their
examples, it means about few hundred sounds lost. According our discussion,
the information exchanging and thinking speed became slow, so the culture
became falling.  From this discussion, I believe whenever acceleration took
place the creative ability ratio changed accordingly.
   For the information age, a more serious, or we may say fatal issue is
about how to put a big quantity of words into a single person¡¯s mind. For
as
ELL P4538 said: ¡°S.C.Gilfillan argued that technology develops through
gradual evolution and accretion of details, and that the idea of a distinct
invention is conceptually ambiguous. Therefore, ¡®invention¡¯ is a matter of
language, not physical reality. ¡°
¡°Ogburn held that the accumulation of inventions followed an exponential
curve, because many new inventions are mere combinations of preexisting
elements and the more such elements exist the greater the number of new ones
that can be achieved by adding them together. But the individual human mind
is limited, and thus there is a limit to how many technical ideas a person
can remember.¡± ¡°As anthropologist Leslie A. White puts it, like all other
aspects of culture, technology depends upon the human capacity for
symbolling. Language, he says, transformed the nonprogressive, noncumulative
tool process of anthropoids into a cumulative and progressive process in the
human species.¡± P4536 said: ¡°A substantial fraction of all words used in
ordinary speech, and perhaps a majority of all nouns in modern languages,
are technological. That is, they name elements of tools, machines, chemical
processes, agricultural techniques, transportation systems and electronic
communications network. More than a million species of animals and plants
have been named, but George Basalla noted that three times as many
inventions have been patented in the United States alone.¡± ¡°Even under
more restricted definitions, technological terminology constitutes a
substantial portion of lexicon, and the processes by which these terms
emerge present interesting challenges for linguistics.¡±
How to remember a huge quantity of words is a fatal issue for English or we
say bottleneck. That is the topic, we discussed in the first paragraph. If
all English words are pronounced as single sounds, all we need to remember
is just few thousand words. The following table may explain it. In fact the
Chinese vocabulary was created like this:
First of all, let¡¯s suppose pi=pig, ca=cattle, she=sheep, hor=horse,
don=donkey, de=deer, me=meat, re=grease, hai=hair, you=young, ma=male,
fe=female, wi=wild, ca=castrate. The question is there are two ca for cattle
and castrate. The Chinese language has four tones, so the ca could be
pronounced in four different ways and caca can be distinguished from caca.
Then we have this table:
        Pig=pi  Cattle=ca       Sheep=she       Horse=hor       Donkey=don       Deer=de
Meat=me pime    came    sheme   horme   donme   deme
Meat    Pork    beef    mutton                  venison
Grease=re       pire    care    shere   horre   donre   dere
Grease  Lard    tallow  suet
Hair=hai        pihai   cahai   shehai  horhai  donhai  dehai
Hair    Bristle ox hair wool
Young=you       youpi   youca   youshe  youhor  youdon  youde
Young   Piglet  calf    lamb    fawn
Male=ma mapi    maca    mashe   mahor   madon   made
Male    Boar    bull    ram     stallion        jack ass        stag
Female=fe       fepi    feca    feshe   fehor   fedon   fede
Female  Sow     cow     ewe     mare    jenny ass       doe
Wild=wi wipi    wica    wishe   wihor   widon
Wild    Boar    buffalo goat    mustang kiang
Castrate=ca     capi    caca    cashe   cahor   cadon
Castrate        Hog     bullock wether  geld

  Currently, the Chinese language most frequently used characters are around
4000.  As each character has just one sound, let¡¯s calculate how many two
sounds or two characters words they can create. Suppose each character can
combine all the 4000 characters the two sounds words could be
4000¡Á4000=16000000. How many three sounds words can be created, like
heifer=youfeca? It would be 4000¡Á4000¡Á4000=64000000000. And we know all
those words need not to remember, just combine them together.

ELL¨D¨D¨D¨DThe Encyclopaedia of Language and Linguistics, edited by
R.E.Asher




_________________________________________________________________
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September 2009, Week 3
September 2009, Week 2
September 2009, Week 1
August 2009, Week 5
August 2009, Week 4
August 2009, Week 3
August 2009, Week 2
August 2009, Week 1
July 2009, Week 5
July 2009, Week 4
July 2009, Week 3
July 2009, Week 2
July 2009, Week 1
June 2009, Week 5
June 2009, Week 4
June 2009, Week 3
June 2009, Week 2
June 2009, Week 1
May 2009, Week 5
May 2009, Week 4
May 2009, Week 3
May 2009, Week 2
May 2009, Week 1
April 2009, Week 5
April 2009, Week 4
April 2009, Week 3
April 2009, Week 2
April 2009, Week 1
March 2009, Week 5
March 2009, Week 4
March 2009, Week 3
March 2009, Week 2
March 2009, Week 1
February 2009, Week 4
February 2009, Week 3
February 2009, Week 2
February 2009, Week 1
January 2009, Week 5
January 2009, Week 4
January 2009, Week 3
January 2009, Week 2
January 2009, Week 1
December 2008, Week 5
December 2008, Week 4
December 2008, Week 3
December 2008, Week 2
December 2008, Week 1
November 2008, Week 5
November 2008, Week 4
November 2008, Week 3
November 2008, Week 2
November 2008, Week 1
October 2008, Week 5
October 2008, Week 4
October 2008, Week 3
October 2008, Week 2
October 2008, Week 1
September 2008, Week 5
September 2008, Week 4
September 2008, Week 3
September 2008, Week 2
September 2008, Week 1
August 2008, Week 5
August 2008, Week 4
August 2008, Week 3
August 2008, Week 2
August 2008, Week 1
July 2008, Week 5
July 2008, Week 4
July 2008, Week 3
July 2008, Week 2
July 2008, Week 1
June 2008, Week 5
June 2008, Week 4
June 2008, Week 3
June 2008, Week 2
June 2008, Week 1
May 2008, Week 5
May 2008, Week 4
May 2008, Week 3
May 2008, Week 2
May 2008, Week 1
April 2008, Week 5
April 2008, Week 4
April 2008, Week 3
April 2008, Week 2
April 2008, Week 1
March 2008, Week 5
March 2008, Week 4
March 2008, Week 3
March 2008, Week 2
March 2008, Week 1
February 2008, Week 5
February 2008, Week 4
February 2008, Week 3
February 2008, Week 2
February 2008, Week 1
January 2008, Week 5
January 2008, Week 4
January 2008, Week 3
January 2008, Week 2
January 2008, Week 1
December 2007, Week 5
December 2007, Week 4
December 2007, Week 3
December 2007, Week 2
December 2007, Week 1
November 2007, Week 5
November 2007, Week 4
November 2007, Week 3
November 2007, Week 2
November 2007, Week 1
October 2007, Week 5
October 2007, Week 4
October 2007, Week 3
October 2007, Week 2
October 2007, Week 1
September 2007, Week 5
September 2007, Week 4
September 2007, Week 3
September 2007, Week 2
September 2007, Week 1
August 2007, Week 5
August 2007, Week 4
August 2007, Week 3
August 2007, Week 2
August 2007, Week 1
July 2007, Week 5
July 2007, Week 4
July 2007, Week 3
July 2007, Week 2
July 2007, Week 1
June 2007, Week 5
June 2007, Week 4
June 2007, Week 3
June 2007, Week 2
June 2007, Week 1
May 2007, Week 5
May 2007, Week 4
May 2007, Week 3
May 2007, Week 2
May 2007, Week 1
April 2007, Week 5
April 2007, Week 4
April 2007, Week 3
April 2007, Week 2
April 2007, Week 1
March 2007, Week 5
March 2007, Week 4
March 2007, Week 3
March 2007, Week 2
March 2007, Week 1
February 2007, Week 4
February 2007, Week 3
February 2007, Week 2
February 2007, Week 1
January 2007, Week 5
January 2007, Week 4
January 2007, Week 3
January 2007, Week 2
January 2007, Week 1
December 2006, Week 5
December 2006, Week 4
December 2006, Week 3
December 2006, Week 2
December 2006, Week 1
November 2006, Week 5
November 2006, Week 4
November 2006, Week 3
November 2006, Week 2
November 2006, Week 1
October 2006, Week 5
October 2006, Week 4
October 2006, Week 3
October 2006, Week 2
October 2006, Week 1
September 2006, Week 5
September 2006, Week 4
September 2006, Week 3
September 2006, Week 2
September 2006, Week 1
August 2006, Week 5
August 2006, Week 4
August 2006, Week 3
August 2006, Week 2
August 2006, Week 1
July 2006, Week 5
July 2006, Week 4
July 2006, Week 3
July 2006, Week 2
July 2006, Week 1
June 2006, Week 5
June 2006, Week 4
June 2006, Week 3
June 2006, Week 2
June 2006, Week 1
May 2006, Week 5
May 2006, Week 4
May 2006, Week 3
May 2006, Week 2
May 2006, Week 1
April 2006, Week 5
April 2006, Week 4
April 2006, Week 3
April 2006, Week 2
April 2006, Week 1
March 2006, Week 5
March 2006, Week 4
March 2006, Week 3
March 2006, Week 2
March 2006, Week 1
February 2006, Week 4
February 2006, Week 3
February 2006, Week 2
February 2006, Week 1
January 2006, Week 5
January 2006, Week 4
January 2006, Week 3
January 2006, Week 2
January 2006, Week 1
December 2005, Week 5
December 2005, Week 4
December 2005, Week 3
December 2005, Week 2
December 2005, Week 1
November 2005, Week 5
November 2005, Week 4
November 2005, Week 3
November 2005, Week 2
November 2005, Week 1
October 2005, Week 5
October 2005, Week 4
October 2005, Week 3
October 2005, Week 2
October 2005, Week 1
September 2005, Week 5
September 2005, Week 4
September 2005, Week 3
September 2005, Week 2
September 2005, Week 1
August 2005, Week 5
August 2005, Week 4
August 2005, Week 3
August 2005, Week 2
August 2005, Week 1
July 2005, Week 5
July 2005, Week 4
July 2005, Week 3
July 2005, Week 2
July 2005, Week 1
June 2005, Week 5
June 2005, Week 4
June 2005, Week 3
June 2005, Week 2
June 2005, Week 1
May 2005, Week 5
May 2005, Week 4
May 2005, Week 3
May 2005, Week 2
May 2005, Week 1
April 2005, Week 5
April 2005, Week 4
April 2005, Week 3
April 2005, Week 2
April 2005, Week 1
March 2005, Week 5
March 2005, Week 4
March 2005, Week 3
March 2005, Week 2
March 2005, Week 1
February 2005, Week 4
February 2005, Week 3
February 2005, Week 2
February 2005, Week 1
January 2005, Week 5
January 2005, Week 4
January 2005, Week 3
January 2005, Week 2
January 2005, Week 1
December 2004, Week 5
December 2004, Week 4
December 2004, Week 3
December 2004, Week 2
December 2004, Week 1
November 2004, Week 5
November 2004, Week 4
November 2004, Week 3
November 2004, Week 2
November 2004, Week 1
October 2004, Week 5
October 2004, Week 4
October 2004, Week 3
October 2004, Week 2
October 2004, Week 1
September 2004, Week 5
September 2004, Week 4
September 2004, Week 3
September 2004, Week 2
September 2004, Week 1
August 2004, Week 5
August 2004, Week 4
August 2004, Week 3
August 2004, Week 2
August 2004, Week 1
July 2004, Week 5
July 2004, Week 4
July 2004, Week 3
July 2004, Week 2
July 2004, Week 1
June 2004, Week 5
June 2004, Week 4
June 2004, Week 3
June 2004, Week 2
June 2004, Week 1
May 2004, Week 5
May 2004, Week 4
May 2004, Week 3
May 2004, Week 2
May 2004, Week 1
April 2004, Week 5
April 2004, Week 4
April 2004, Week 3
April 2004, Week 2
April 2004, Week 1
March 2004, Week 5
March 2004, Week 4
March 2004, Week 3
March 2004, Week 2
March 2004, Week 1
February 2004, Week 5
February 2004, Week 4
February 2004, Week 3
February 2004, Week 2
February 2004, Week 1
January 2004, Week 5
January 2004, Week 4
January 2004, Week 3
January 2004, Week 2
January 2004, Week 1
December 2003, Week 5
December 2003, Week 4
December 2003, Week 3
December 2003, Week 2
December 2003, Week 1
November 2003, Week 5
November 2003, Week 4
November 2003, Week 3
November 2003, Week 2
November 2003, Week 1
October 2003, Week 5
October 2003, Week 4
October 2003, Week 3
October 2003, Week 2
October 2003, Week 1
September 2003, Week 5
September 2003, Week 4
September 2003, Week 3
September 2003, Week 2
September 2003, Week 1
August 2003, Week 5
August 2003, Week 4
August 2003, Week 3
August 2003, Week 2
August 2003, Week 1
July 2003, Week 5
July 2003, Week 4
July 2003, Week 3
July 2003, Week 2
July 2003, Week 1
June 2003, Week 5
June 2003, Week 4
June 2003, Week 3
June 2003, Week 2
June 2003, Week 1
May 2003, Week 5
May 2003, Week 4
May 2003, Week 3
May 2003, Week 2
May 2003, Week 1
April 2003, Week 5
April 2003, Week 4
April 2003, Week 3
April 2003, Week 2
March 2003, Week 5
March 2003, Week 4
March 2003, Week 3
March 2003, Week 2
March 2003, Week 1
February 2003, Week 4
February 2003, Week 3
February 2003, Week 2
February 2003, Week 1
January 2003, Week 5
January 2003, Week 4
January 2003, Week 3
January 2003, Week 2
January 2003, Week 1
December 2002, Week 5
December 2002, Week 4
December 2002, Week 3
December 2002, Week 2
December 2002, Week 1
November 2002, Week 4
November 2002, Week 3
November 2002, Week 2
November 2002, Week 1
October 2002, Week 5
October 2002, Week 4
October 2002, Week 3
October 2002, Week 2
October 2002, Week 1
September 2002, Week 5
September 2002, Week 4
September 2002, Week 3
September 2002, Week 2
September 2002, Week 1
August 2002, Week 5
August 2002, Week 4
August 2002, Week 3
August 2002, Week 2
August 2002, Week 1
July 2002, Week 5
July 2002, Week 4
July 2002, Week 3
July 2002, Week 2
July 2002, Week 1
June 2002, Week 5
June 2002, Week 4
June 2002, Week 3
June 2002, Week 2
June 2002, Week 1
May 2002, Week 5
May 2002, Week 4
May 2002, Week 3
May 2002, Week 2
May 2002, Week 1
April 2002, Week 5
April 2002, Week 4
April 2002, Week 3
April 2002, Week 2
April 2002, Week 1
March 2002, Week 5
March 2002, Week 4
March 2002, Week 3
March 2002, Week 1
February 2002, Week 4
February 2002, Week 3
February 2002, Week 2
February 2002, Week 1
January 2002, Week 5
January 2002, Week 4
January 2002, Week 3
January 2002, Week 2
January 2002, Week 1
December 2001, Week 5
December 2001, Week 4
December 2001, Week 3
December 2001, Week 2
December 2001, Week 1
November 2001, Week 5
November 2001, Week 4
November 2001, Week 3
November 2001, Week 2
November 2001, Week 1
October 2001, Week 5
October 2001, Week 4
October 2001, Week 3
October 2001, Week 2
October 2001, Week 1
September 2001, Week 5
September 2001, Week 4
September 2001, Week 3
September 2001, Week 2
September 2001, Week 1
August 2001, Week 5
August 2001, Week 4
August 2001, Week 3
August 2001, Week 2
August 2001, Week 1
July 2001, Week 5
July 2001, Week 4
July 2001, Week 3
July 2001, Week 2
July 2001, Week 1
June 2001, Week 5
June 2001, Week 4
June 2001, Week 3
June 2001, Week 2
June 2001, Week 1
May 2001, Week 5
May 2001, Week 4
May 2001, Week 3
May 2001, Week 2
May 2001, Week 1
April 2001, Week 5
April 2001, Week 4
April 2001, Week 3
April 2001, Week 2
April 2001, Week 1
March 2001, Week 5
March 2001, Week 4
March 2001, Week 3
March 2001, Week 2
March 2001, Week 1
February 2001, Week 4
February 2001, Week 3
February 2001, Week 2
February 2001, Week 1
January 2001, Week 5
January 2001, Week 4
January 2001, Week 3
January 2001, Week 2
January 2001, Week 1
December 2000, Week 5
December 2000, Week 4
December 2000, Week 3
December 2000, Week 2
December 2000, Week 1
November 2000, Week 5
November 2000, Week 4
November 2000, Week 3
November 2000, Week 2
November 2000, Week 1
October 2000, Week 5
October 2000, Week 4
October 2000, Week 3
October 2000, Week 2
October 2000, Week 1
September 2000, Week 5
September 2000, Week 4
September 2000, Week 3
September 2000, Week 2
September 2000, Week 1
August 2000, Week 5
August 2000, Week 4
August 2000, Week 3
August 2000, Week 2
August 2000, Week 1
July 2000, Week 5
July 2000, Week 4
July 2000, Week 3
July 2000, Week 2
July 2000, Week 1
June 2000, Week 5
June 2000, Week 4
June 2000, Week 3
June 2000, Week 2
June 2000, Week 1
May 2000, Week 5
May 2000, Week 4
May 2000, Week 3
May 2000, Week 2
May 2000, Week 1
April 2000, Week 5
April 2000, Week 4
April 2000, Week 3
April 2000, Week 2
April 2000, Week 1
March 2000, Week 5
March 2000, Week 4
March 2000, Week 3
March 2000, Week 2
March 2000, Week 1
February 2000, Week 5
February 2000, Week 4
February 2000, Week 3
February 2000, Week 2
February 2000, Week 1
January 2000, Week 5
January 2000, Week 4
January 2000, Week 3
January 2000, Week 2
January 2000, Week 1
December 1999, Week 5
December 1999, Week 4
December 1999, Week 3
December 1999, Week 2
December 1999, Week 1
November 1999, Week 5
November 1999, Week 4
November 1999, Week 3
November 1999, Week 2
November 1999, Week 1
October 1999, Week 5
October 1999, Week 4
October 1999, Week 3
October 1999, Week 2
October 1999, Week 1
September 1999, Week 5
September 1999, Week 4
September 1999, Week 3
September 1999, Week 2
September 1999, Week 1
August 1999, Week 5
August 1999, Week 4
August 1999, Week 3
August 1999, Week 2
August 1999, Week 1
July 1999, Week 5
July 1999, Week 4
July 1999, Week 3
July 1999, Week 2
July 1999, Week 1
June 1999, Week 5
June 1999, Week 4
June 1999, Week 3
June 1999, Week 2
June 1999, Week 1
May 1999, Week 5
May 1999, Week 4
May 1999, Week 3
May 1999, Week 2
May 1999, Week 1
April 1999, Week 5
April 1999, Week 4
April 1999, Week 3
April 1999, Week 2
April 1999, Week 1
March 1999, Week 5
March 1999, Week 4
March 1999, Week 3
March 1999, Week 2
March 1999, Week 1
February 1999, Week 5
February 1999, Week 4
February 1999, Week 3
February 1999, Week 2
February 1999, Week 1
January 1999, Week 5
January 1999, Week 4
January 1999, Week 3
January 1999, Week 2
January 1999, Week 1
December 1998, Week 5
December 1998, Week 4
December 1998, Week 3
December 1998, Week 2
December 1998, Week 1
November 1998, Week 5
November 1998, Week 4
November 1998, Week 3
November 1998, Week 2
November 1998, Week 1
October 1998, Week 5
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October 1998, Week 1
September 1998, Week 5
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July 1998, Week 5
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July 1998, Week 3
July 1998, Week 2
July 1998, Week 1
June 1998, Week 5
June 1998, Week 4
June 1998, Week 3
June 1998, Week 2
June 1998, Week 1
May 1998, Week 5
May 1998, Week 4
May 1998, Week 3
May 1998, Week 2
May 1998, Week 1
April 1998, Week 5
April 1998, Week 4
April 1998, Week 3
April 1998, Week 2
April 1998, Week 1
March 1998, Week 5
March 1998, Week 4
March 1998, Week 3
March 1998, Week 2
March 1998, Week 1
February 1998, Week 5
February 1998, Week 4
February 1998, Week 3
February 1998, Week 2
February 1998, Week 1
January 1998, Week 5
January 1998, Week 4
January 1998, Week 3
January 1998, Week 2
January 1998, Week 1
December 1997, Week 5
December 1997, Week 4
December 1997, Week 3
December 1997, Week 2
December 1997, Week 1
November 1997, Week 5
November 1997, Week 4
November 1997, Week 3
November 1997, Week 2
November 1997, Week 1
October 1997, Week 5
October 1997, Week 4
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September 1997, Week 5
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August 1997, Week 5
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July 1997, Week 2
July 1997, Week 1
June 1997, Week 5
June 1997, Week 4
June 1997, Week 3
June 1997, Week 2
June 1997, Week 1
May 1997, Week 5
May 1997, Week 4
May 1997, Week 3
May 1997, Week 2
May 1997, Week 1
April 1997, Week 5
April 1997, Week 4
April 1997, Week 3
April 1997, Week 2
April 1997, Week 1
March 1997, Week 5
March 1997, Week 4
March 1997, Week 3
March 1997, Week 2
March 1997, Week 1
February 1997, Week 5
February 1997, Week 4
February 1997, Week 3
February 1997, Week 2
February 1997, Week 1

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