LISTSERV mailing list manager LISTSERV 16.5

Help for AUXLANG Archives


AUXLANG Archives

AUXLANG Archives


AUXLANG@LISTSERV.BROWN.EDU


View:

Message:

[

First

|

Previous

|

Next

|

Last

]

By Topic:

[

First

|

Previous

|

Next

|

Last

]

By Author:

[

First

|

Previous

|

Next

|

Last

]

Font:

Proportional Font

LISTSERV Archives

LISTSERV Archives

AUXLANG Home

AUXLANG Home

AUXLANG  December 2001, Week 1

AUXLANG December 2001, Week 1

Subject:

"L. Zamenhof and Lithuania (4)"

From:

"Donald J. HARLOW" <[log in to unmask]>

Reply-To:

International Auxiliary Languages <[log in to unmask]>

Date:

Fri, 7 Dec 2001 13:27:04 -0800

Content-Type:

text/plain

Parts/Attachments:

Parts/Attachments

text/plain (254 lines)

I just received the issue 2001/5 of "Litova Stelo" in the mail, and it
contains a three-page article by Petras C^ELIAUSKAS which might prove to be
of interest to some here; so I am taking the liberty of translating it. The
title is in the subject line. I will also add some comments of my own as
footnotes. Note that in the Lithuanian examples, a following circumflex
should be taken to mean a hacek over the preceding character.

---

Today, when Esperantology has become a field of interlinguistics, Esperanto
speakers also study, among other things, the sources of Esperanto and to
what degree its structure was influenced by any definite language. In
Volume 3 of "Ingerlinguistica Tartuensis" there appeared an exhaustive
article by B. Kolker "Vklad russkogo jazyka v strukturu Esperanto"
(Contribution of the Russian language to the structure of Esperanto), (1)
where the author correctly claims that Russian was one of the basic sources
of Esperanto. But Esperanto speakers often tend to exaggerate the influence
of their own language on Esperanto when they accept similarity as proof of
such influence. B. Kolker, too, sins in this field by attributing all
similarities between Russian and Esperanto to the influence of the latter.
It would be more correct to say that Zamenhof introduced any form only
after finding analogues in several language -- he was creating an
international language, not a simplified Russian or Latin. But my purpose
here is not to criticize the above-mentioned article.

It was not Lithuanians who began to write about the influence of the
Lithuanian language on Esperanto. "Nuntempa Bulgario" in 1959 (issues 1 and
12) published two articles by Dr. Dalibor Brozovich of Yugoslavia under the
same title "Zamenhof and the Lithuanian language". He received an echo from
a Frenchman in Toulouse, Dr. Andre Albault, in an article "On the sources
of Esperanto" (Nuntempa Bulgario, 1959, issue 9).

D. Brozovich writes: "When learning Lithuanian, from the very beginning I
observed some similarities to Esperanto. Although Esperanto is so
transparanet, clear, easy, simple, and Lithuanian so complicated, archaic,
difficult -- between the two languages there is a definite, absolute,
indubitable link."

In the beginning, I want to touch on vocabulary similarities. In both
languages we will find many similar words. And we will err if we attribute
them to the influence of Lithuanian. For a long time the similarity between
Lithuanian and Latin has been known. In the 14th century that similarity
even gave rise to a theory that the Lithuanians were descended from Romans,
that the country-name "Lithuania" was a crippled form of "l'Italia". But
this is merely a baseless legend. The cause of this similarity is simple:
both languages (Lithuanian and Latin) are archaic and Indo-European, and so
originated from the same _ursprach_. Here are just a few examples:

Esperanto      Lithuanian           Latin

viro           vyras                vir
lino           linas                linus
du             du                   duo
nun            nu_n (2)             nunc
anso           a,sa (ansa) (3)      ansa
estas          esti (yra)           est
gento          gentis               gens (gentis)

Might it be supposed that such Esperanto words as viro, du, nun, gento et
al are taken from Lithuanian? Of course not. They are of Latin origin.

But the Lithuanian vocabulary, too, left its traces in Esperanto. There can
be no doubt that the word "tuj" comes from the Lithuanian "tuoj", not only
because they look alike, but also because they mean the same thing and
exist only in those two languages. This was noted by A. Albault. D.
Brozovich completely agrees with him, although he erroneously claims that
the diphthong "uo" is pronounced in southeastern Lithuanian dialects as "u"
(such pronounciation exists only the Zhemajta dialect in Western Lithuania,
where Zamenhof never was). Simply because Esperanto has no diphthong "uo"
Zamenhof modified the word, giving it an easier form.

It seems that the similarity between "ju" and the Lithuanian "juo", whose
meanings and usage coincide, is not one of mere chance:

   Ju pli multe, des pli bone = juo daugsiau, tuo geriau

The particle "c^i" is in meaning and use very similar to the Lithuanian
pronoun "s^is" (feminine "s^i"). Compare the following examples, where the
pronoun becomes the prefix "s^i-" and just as in Esperanto indicates proximity:

   tiu - tas,    c^i tiu - s^itas
   tia - toks,   c^i tia - s^itoks
   tiel - taip,  c^i tiel - s^itaip

Although in Esperanto "tiu c^i" can exist alongside "c^i tiu", Zamenhof
pointed out that "for euphony it is ordinarily preferable to put the 'c^i'
before the pointing word" (as a prefix in Lithuanian). (4)

The similarity between "c^i" and "s^is, s^i" continues beyond this. Before
nouns "c^i" plays the part of an invariant pointing adjective: "c^i
obstaklo" ("s^i kliu_tis"), "c^i monato" ("s^is me.nuo"). (5) With verbs
Zamenhof used an adverbial "c^i" in the sense of "c^i tie"; in that case
"c^i" is related to the Lithuanian "c^ia":

   c^i ne estas akvo = c^ia ne.ra vandens
   c^i ludas infanoj = c^ia z^aidz^ia vaikai

But this last use might also have been influenced by Italian, where "ci"
(pronounced "c^i") means "c^i tie". And it must be noted that this
Zamenhofian use of "c^i" has not been imitated.

A. Albault expressed one more supposition, that the pronoun "g^I' might
have been inspired by the Lithuanian "ji" (she) and "jis" (he). He
apparently thought that Lithuanians pronounce the letter "j" in the French
manner, like the Esperanto "j^". Then there would be a similarity between
"j^i" and "g^i". But such is not the case, and such a claim has no basis.
In addition, Lithuanian has no neutral gender.

After analyzing the system of participles in Lithuanian and Esperanto, D.
Brozovich writes: "If we analyze the use of '-nt-' in Esperanto, its
function in the language's system, it will be shown to be neither Romance
nor Germanic, but it completely coincides with the Lithuanian use of
participles. So the idea, the concept behind the Zamenhofian participial
system, is Lithuanian ... There remains the ineluctable fact that
Esperanto's 'ant-at-int-it-ont-ot' system is found only in Lithuanian
(there is something similar in classic Greek, but according to another
principle of construction and with an essentially different use) ... But it
might be said that Esperanto's participial system is an independent, purely
logical a priori creation of Zamenhof's. But in that case, why do we not
have in Esperanto the '-unt-' and '-ut-' participles as well, they being a
useful and logical consequence of an a priori, ideally symmetrical creation."

Yes, in Lithuanian and in Esperanto participles of both voices (active and
passive) have three times each:

   leganta = skaita,s (feminine form: skaitanti)
   leginta = skaite,s (skaic^iusi)
   legonta = skaitysia,s (skaitysianti)
   legata = skaitomas (skaitoma)
   legita = skaitytas (skaityta)
   legota = skaitysimas (skaitysima)

Although the Russian language has only four participial forms, B. Kolker
claims that possibilities are the same in Esperanto as in Russian. But he
is correct in saying that the participial suffix "-ant-" comes from Latin.
And not just "-ant-" but also "-at-":

   lau^danta - in Latin laudans (genitive: laudantis)
   lau^data  - in Latin laudatus, laudata, laudatum

Because of the similarity of participial systems, Lithuanians do not make
errors when using conjoined times (esti + participle).

Dr. D. Brozovich also found that the numeral suffix "-op-" exists only in
Lithuanian, so in his opinion Zamenhof took it from that language. It may
be that he is correct, but it must be pointed out that the meanings of the
Esperanto "-op-" and the Lithuanian "-op-" do not coincide; for example,
the numeral "du" in Lithuanian has four forms: "du, dvi; dveji, dvejos".
The words "dvejopas, trejopas" mean not "duopo, triopo" but "duspeca,
trispeca" ...

The Lithuanian language had pseudocases which are almost no longer used:

   miestas (town) - miestan (into town; eo "en urbon, urben") - miestop (to
town; eo "al urbo").

Today we say: "i, miesta,", which originates from "in miestan" and
resembles the Esperanto "en urbon". The form "miestan, mis^kan" satisfies
the Esperanto "urben, arbaren". D. Brozovich believes that this symmetry,
too, is noteworthy.

Esperanto has a regular table of correlatives: "iu - kiu - tiu - c^iu -
neniu ..." Something similar, especially for the initial letters 'k' and
't' for interrogative and demonstrative forms, also exists in other languages:

   in Russian: kto - tot; kak - tak; kogda - togda; kuda - tuda ...
   in Polish: kiedy - tedy ...
   in Latin: quam - tam, qualis - talis ...

B. Kolker claims that the correlative system "is constructed on the model
of Russian, although it has less obvious analogues in other European and
even non-European languages, as well". To this we may add that in
Lithuanian it has a _much more_ obvious analogue, because here we can
construct a similar nearly full and regular table, as in Esperanto. I wrote
about this in Litova Stelo (1983, issue 3) (6). According to the table we
can build 6 x 6 = 36 words, of which only three do not actually exist. It
must be said that the Lithuanians themselves are unaware of this table,
though they use it in practice.

I may not have mentioned all similarities between Esperanto and Lithuanian.
I do not claim that they all came into being because of the influence of
Lithuanian. It has been said above (7) that Zamenhof had the opportunity to
get acquainted with Lithuanian no earlier than 1885, when Esperanto's
system had already been created. For two years he sought and did not find a
publisher. During that time he could have made and likely did make
unimportant changes and improvements. This was easiest to do in the
vocabulary. In many languages similarities to Esperanto do not show that
Zamenhof knew all of those languages, but that he creation was brilliant
and truly international. (8)

---

(1) A good example of "transliterate as I write, not as I speak". I was
taught that the adjective genitive endings in Russian, while written "-ogo"
etc., are actually pronounced "-ovo", etc. [DH]

(2) _ indicates a macron over the preceding vowel

(3) , indicates a cedilla under the preceding vowel

(4) The usual reason given for this is that if we assume "c^i tiu / tiu
c^i" is a single word, the second variant violates the accent rule, placing
twin accents on the ultimate and antipenult. However, if we consider the
two parts as two separate words, this theoretical problem does not arise.
Today the latter is accepted wisdom, and is shown in writing by the rarity
of the hyphen joining the two parts; however, "c^i tiu" also remains the
most commonly used form, with "tiu c^i" far less common than it was even as
late as the beginning of the sixties when I was a neophyte. [DH]

(5) . indicates a dot over the preceding vowel

(6) Probably a typo for "1993", since as far as I know in 1983 the
Lithuanian Esperanto movement was not publishing this magazine.

(7) In an earlier article.

(8) See e.g. Claude Piron's numerous comparisons between the Esperanto and
Chinese word-formation systems. As has been pointed out before, it's very
unlikely that Zamenhof knew jack about Chinese. [DH]


-- Don HARLOW
http://www.webcom.com/~donh/don/don.html

Pasis longa voj'
Iri ĉi tien de for;
Pasis longa temp',
Sed alvenas mia hor' ...

Por la jarfina sezono, legu kaj ĝuu:
     http://donh.best.vwh.net/Esperanto/Literaturo/Noveloj/mortigadis_leporon.html
-- Vana V., Kiel Ni Mortigadis Leporon por la Antaŭkristnaska Vespermanĝo,
humura novelo pri la nokto antaŭ la Kristnasko...
     http://donh.best.vwh.net/Esperanto/Literaturo/Noveloj/magi.html -- O.
Henry, La Donaco de la Magoj, novelo pri oferado por la amat(in)o
     http://donh.best.vwh.net/Esperanto/LiteraturoRevuoj/lm/1947/donaco_magoj.html
-- Se vi deziras alian version de la sama rakonto, jen la traduko de Sachio OKA
     http://donh.best.vwh.net/Esperanto/Literaturo/Poezio/kristnaskaj_kanzonoj.html
-- Ok tradiciaj Kristnaskaj Kanzonoj
     http://donh.best.vwh.net/Esperanto/Literaturo/Revuoj/nlr/nlr12/amikinoj.html
-- Tomaŝ Pumpr, Letero al Malgrandaj Amikinoj, Kristnaska letero
     http://donh.best.vwh.net/Esperanto/Literaturo/Revuoj/nlr/nlr12/romanco.html
-- Jan Neruda, Kristnaska Romanco, Kristnaska poemo
    http://www.uni-leipzig.de/esperanto/texte/bibl/fabeloj_andersen/alumetoj.html
-- Hans Christian Andersen, Knabineto kun alumetoj
     http://hjem.get2net.dk/chenero/hca/hcaev040_eo.html -- Jen ilustrita
versio
     http://esperanto.nu/cgi-esperanto/elibro2.pl?eL=071-6 -- Charles
Dickens, Kristnaska kanto (en PDF-formato)
     http://www.geocities.com/cigneto/thcind/kristnasko.html -- Liland
Brajant Ros' provizas 116 kristnaskajn kanzonojn en sia reta himnaro

(Ĉi tiu subskribo ree mallongiĝos post 1a de januaro)

Top of Message | Previous Page | Permalink

Advanced Options


Options

Log In

Log In

Get Password

Get Password


Search Archives

Search Archives


Subscribe or Unsubscribe

Subscribe or Unsubscribe


Archives

August 2019, Week 3
August 2019, Week 2
July 2019, Week 3
July 2019, Week 2
July 2019, Week 1
June 2019, Week 4
June 2019, Week 3
June 2019, Week 1
May 2019, Week 1
April 2019, Week 4
April 2019, Week 3
March 2019, Week 5
March 2019, Week 4
February 2019, Week 3
February 2019, Week 1
January 2019, Week 5
January 2019, Week 2
October 2018, Week 2
October 2018, Week 1
September 2018, Week 3
September 2018, Week 2
August 2018, Week 5
August 2018, Week 4
August 2018, Week 3
August 2018, Week 2
July 2018, Week 4
July 2018, Week 1
June 2018, Week 4
June 2018, Week 3
June 2018, Week 2
June 2018, Week 1
May 2018, Week 3
April 2018, Week 4
April 2018, Week 3
April 2018, Week 2
March 2018, Week 4
February 2018, Week 3
February 2018, Week 1
January 2018, Week 4
January 2018, Week 3
January 2018, Week 1
December 2017, Week 5
December 2017, Week 4
December 2017, Week 2
November 2017, Week 3
November 2017, Week 2
November 2017, Week 1
October 2017, Week 5
October 2017, Week 4
October 2017, Week 3
October 2017, Week 1
September 2017, Week 5
August 2017, Week 5
August 2017, Week 4
August 2017, Week 3
August 2017, Week 2
August 2017, Week 1
July 2017, Week 4
July 2017, Week 2
July 2017, Week 1
June 2017, Week 3
June 2017, Week 1
May 2017, Week 5
May 2017, Week 4
May 2017, Week 3
May 2017, Week 2
May 2017, Week 1
April 2017, Week 4
April 2017, Week 3
April 2017, Week 2
April 2017, Week 1
March 2017, Week 4
March 2017, Week 3
March 2017, Week 2
March 2017, Week 1
February 2017, Week 4
February 2017, Week 3
February 2017, Week 2
February 2017, Week 1
January 2017, Week 5
January 2017, Week 4
January 2017, Week 3
January 2017, Week 2
January 2017, Week 1
December 2016, Week 5
December 2016, Week 4
December 2016, Week 3
December 2016, Week 2
December 2016, Week 1
November 2016, Week 5
November 2016, Week 4
November 2016, Week 3
November 2016, Week 2
November 2016, Week 1
October 2016, Week 5
October 2016, Week 3
October 2016, Week 2
October 2016, Week 1
September 2016, Week 3
September 2016, Week 2
September 2016, Week 1
August 2016, Week 3
August 2016, Week 2
August 2016, Week 1
July 2016, Week 5
July 2016, Week 4
July 2016, Week 3
July 2016, Week 2
July 2016, Week 1
June 2016, Week 5
June 2016, Week 4
June 2016, Week 3
June 2016, Week 2
June 2016, Week 1
May 2016, Week 5
May 2016, Week 4
May 2016, Week 3
May 2016, Week 2
May 2016, Week 1
April 2016, Week 5
April 2016, Week 4
April 2016, Week 3
April 2016, Week 2
April 2016, Week 1
March 2016, Week 5
March 2016, Week 3
March 2016, Week 2
March 2016, Week 1
February 2016, Week 5
February 2016, Week 4
February 2016, Week 3
February 2016, Week 2
February 2016, Week 1
January 2016, Week 5
January 2016, Week 4
January 2016, Week 3
January 2016, Week 2
January 2016, Week 1
December 2015, Week 5
December 2015, Week 4
December 2015, Week 3
December 2015, Week 2
December 2015, Week 1
November 2015, Week 4
November 2015, Week 3
November 2015, Week 2
November 2015, Week 1
October 2015, Week 5
October 2015, Week 4
October 2015, Week 3
October 2015, Week 2
September 2015, Week 4
September 2015, Week 2
September 2015, Week 1
August 2015, Week 5
August 2015, Week 4
August 2015, Week 3
August 2015, Week 2
August 2015, Week 1
July 2015, Week 4
July 2015, Week 3
July 2015, Week 2
July 2015, Week 1
June 2015, Week 5
June 2015, Week 4
June 2015, Week 3
June 2015, Week 2
June 2015, Week 1
May 2015, Week 5
May 2015, Week 3
May 2015, Week 2
May 2015, Week 1
April 2015, Week 5
April 2015, Week 4
April 2015, Week 3
April 2015, Week 2
April 2015, Week 1
March 2015, Week 5
March 2015, Week 4
March 2015, Week 3
March 2015, Week 2
March 2015, Week 1
February 2015, Week 3
February 2015, Week 2
February 2015, Week 1
January 2015, Week 5
January 2015, Week 4
January 2015, Week 3
January 2015, Week 2
January 2015, Week 1
December 2014, Week 5
December 2014, Week 4
December 2014, Week 3
December 2014, Week 2
December 2014, Week 1
November 2014, Week 5
November 2014, Week 4
November 2014, Week 3
November 2014, Week 2
November 2014, Week 1
October 2014, Week 5
October 2014, Week 4
October 2014, Week 3
October 2014, Week 2
October 2014, Week 1
September 2014, Week 5
September 2014, Week 4
September 2014, Week 3
September 2014, Week 2
August 2014, Week 5
August 2014, Week 4
August 2014, Week 3
August 2014, Week 2
August 2014, Week 1
July 2014, Week 5
July 2014, Week 4
July 2014, Week 3
July 2014, Week 2
July 2014, Week 1
June 2014, Week 5
June 2014, Week 4
June 2014, Week 3
June 2014, Week 2
June 2014, Week 1
May 2014, Week 5
May 2014, Week 4
May 2014, Week 2
May 2014, Week 1
April 2014, Week 4
April 2014, Week 3
April 2014, Week 2
April 2014, Week 1
March 2014, Week 4
March 2014, Week 3
March 2014, Week 2
March 2014, Week 1
February 2014, Week 4
February 2014, Week 3
February 2014, Week 2
February 2014, Week 1
January 2014, Week 5
January 2014, Week 4
January 2014, Week 3
January 2014, Week 1
December 2013, Week 5
December 2013, Week 4
December 2013, Week 3
December 2013, Week 2
December 2013, Week 1
November 2013, Week 5
November 2013, Week 4
November 2013, Week 3
November 2013, Week 2
November 2013, Week 1
October 2013, Week 5
October 2013, Week 4
October 2013, Week 3
October 2013, Week 2
October 2013, Week 1
September 2013, Week 3
August 2013, Week 4
August 2013, Week 3
August 2013, Week 2
July 2013, Week 2
July 2013, Week 1
June 2013, Week 5
June 2013, Week 4
June 2013, Week 3
June 2013, Week 2
May 2013, Week 5
May 2013, Week 3
May 2013, Week 2
May 2013, Week 1
April 2013, Week 5
April 2013, Week 4
April 2013, Week 3
April 2013, Week 2
April 2013, Week 1
March 2013, Week 5
March 2013, Week 4
March 2013, Week 3
March 2013, Week 2
March 2013, Week 1
February 2013, Week 4
February 2013, Week 3
February 2013, Week 2
February 2013, Week 1
January 2013, Week 4
January 2013, Week 3
January 2013, Week 2
January 2013, Week 1
December 2012, Week 5
December 2012, Week 4
December 2012, Week 3
December 2012, Week 2
December 2012, Week 1
November 2012, Week 4
November 2012, Week 3
November 2012, Week 2
November 2012, Week 1
October 2012, Week 5
October 2012, Week 4
October 2012, Week 3
October 2012, Week 2
October 2012, Week 1
September 2012, Week 5
September 2012, Week 4
September 2012, Week 3
September 2012, Week 2
September 2012, Week 1
August 2012, Week 4
August 2012, Week 2
August 2012, Week 1
July 2012, Week 5
July 2012, Week 4
July 2012, Week 3
July 2012, Week 2
July 2012, Week 1
June 2012, Week 5
June 2012, Week 4
June 2012, Week 3
June 2012, Week 1
May 2012, Week 5
May 2012, Week 4
May 2012, Week 3
May 2012, Week 2
May 2012, Week 1
April 2012, Week 4
April 2012, Week 3
April 2012, Week 2
April 2012, Week 1
March 2012, Week 5
March 2012, Week 4
March 2012, Week 3
March 2012, Week 2
March 2012, Week 1
February 2012, Week 5
February 2012, Week 4
February 2012, Week 3
February 2012, Week 2
February 2012, Week 1
January 2012, Week 4
December 2011, Week 5
December 2011, Week 4
December 2011, Week 3
December 2011, Week 2
December 2011, Week 1
November 2011, Week 4
November 2011, Week 3
November 2011, Week 2
November 2011, Week 1
October 2011, Week 5
October 2011, Week 4
October 2011, Week 3
October 2011, Week 2
October 2011, Week 1
September 2011, Week 5
September 2011, Week 4
September 2011, Week 3
September 2011, Week 2
September 2011, Week 1
August 2011, Week 5
August 2011, Week 4
August 2011, Week 3
August 2011, Week 2
August 2011, Week 1
July 2011, Week 4
July 2011, Week 3
July 2011, Week 2
July 2011, Week 1
June 2011, Week 4
June 2011, Week 3
June 2011, Week 2
June 2011, Week 1
May 2011, Week 5
May 2011, Week 4
May 2011, Week 3
May 2011, Week 2
May 2011, Week 1
April 2011, Week 4
April 2011, Week 3
April 2011, Week 2
April 2011, Week 1
March 2011, Week 5
March 2011, Week 4
March 2011, Week 3
March 2011, Week 2
March 2011, Week 1
February 2011, Week 4
February 2011, Week 3
February 2011, Week 2
February 2011, Week 1
January 2011, Week 5
January 2011, Week 4
January 2011, Week 3
January 2011, Week 2
January 2011, Week 1
December 2010, Week 5
December 2010, Week 4
December 2010, Week 3
December 2010, Week 2
December 2010, Week 1
November 2010, Week 4
November 2010, Week 3
November 2010, Week 2
November 2010, Week 1
October 2010, Week 5
October 2010, Week 4
October 2010, Week 3
October 2010, Week 2
October 2010, Week 1
September 2010, Week 5
September 2010, Week 4
September 2010, Week 3
September 2010, Week 2
September 2010, Week 1
August 2010, Week 5
August 2010, Week 4
August 2010, Week 3
August 2010, Week 2
August 2010, Week 1
July 2010, Week 5
July 2010, Week 4
July 2010, Week 3
July 2010, Week 2
July 2010, Week 1
June 2010, Week 5
June 2010, Week 4
June 2010, Week 3
June 2010, Week 2
June 2010, Week 1
May 2010, Week 5
May 2010, Week 4
May 2010, Week 3
May 2010, Week 2
May 2010, Week 1
April 2010, Week 5
April 2010, Week 4
April 2010, Week 3
April 2010, Week 2
April 2010, Week 1
March 2010, Week 5
March 2010, Week 4
March 2010, Week 3
March 2010, Week 2
March 2010, Week 1
February 2010, Week 4
February 2010, Week 3
February 2010, Week 2
February 2010, Week 1
January 2010, Week 5
January 2010, Week 4
January 2010, Week 3
January 2010, Week 2
January 2010, Week 1
December 2009, Week 5
December 2009, Week 4
December 2009, Week 3
December 2009, Week 2
December 2009, Week 1
November 2009, Week 5
November 2009, Week 4
November 2009, Week 3
November 2009, Week 2
November 2009, Week 1
October 2009, Week 5
October 2009, Week 4
October 2009, Week 3
October 2009, Week 2
October 2009, Week 1
September 2009, Week 5
September 2009, Week 4
September 2009, Week 3
September 2009, Week 2
September 2009, Week 1
August 2009, Week 5
August 2009, Week 4
August 2009, Week 3
August 2009, Week 2
August 2009, Week 1
July 2009, Week 5
July 2009, Week 4
July 2009, Week 3
July 2009, Week 2
July 2009, Week 1
June 2009, Week 5
June 2009, Week 4
June 2009, Week 3
June 2009, Week 2
June 2009, Week 1
May 2009, Week 5
May 2009, Week 4
May 2009, Week 3
May 2009, Week 2
May 2009, Week 1
April 2009, Week 5
April 2009, Week 4
April 2009, Week 3
April 2009, Week 2
April 2009, Week 1
March 2009, Week 5
March 2009, Week 4
March 2009, Week 3
March 2009, Week 2
March 2009, Week 1
February 2009, Week 4
February 2009, Week 3
February 2009, Week 2
February 2009, Week 1
January 2009, Week 5
January 2009, Week 4
January 2009, Week 3
January 2009, Week 2
January 2009, Week 1
December 2008, Week 5
December 2008, Week 4
December 2008, Week 3
December 2008, Week 2
December 2008, Week 1
November 2008, Week 5
November 2008, Week 4
November 2008, Week 3
November 2008, Week 2
November 2008, Week 1
October 2008, Week 5
October 2008, Week 4
October 2008, Week 3
October 2008, Week 2
October 2008, Week 1
September 2008, Week 5
September 2008, Week 4
September 2008, Week 3
September 2008, Week 2
September 2008, Week 1
August 2008, Week 5
August 2008, Week 4
August 2008, Week 3
August 2008, Week 2
August 2008, Week 1
July 2008, Week 5
July 2008, Week 4
July 2008, Week 3
July 2008, Week 2
July 2008, Week 1
June 2008, Week 5
June 2008, Week 4
June 2008, Week 3
June 2008, Week 2
June 2008, Week 1
May 2008, Week 5
May 2008, Week 4
May 2008, Week 3
May 2008, Week 2
May 2008, Week 1
April 2008, Week 5
April 2008, Week 4
April 2008, Week 3
April 2008, Week 2
April 2008, Week 1
March 2008, Week 5
March 2008, Week 4
March 2008, Week 3
March 2008, Week 2
March 2008, Week 1
February 2008, Week 5
February 2008, Week 4
February 2008, Week 3
February 2008, Week 2
February 2008, Week 1
January 2008, Week 5
January 2008, Week 4
January 2008, Week 3
January 2008, Week 2
January 2008, Week 1
December 2007, Week 5
December 2007, Week 4
December 2007, Week 3
December 2007, Week 2
December 2007, Week 1
November 2007, Week 5
November 2007, Week 4
November 2007, Week 3
November 2007, Week 2
November 2007, Week 1
October 2007, Week 5
October 2007, Week 4
October 2007, Week 3
October 2007, Week 2
October 2007, Week 1
September 2007, Week 5
September 2007, Week 4
September 2007, Week 3
September 2007, Week 2
September 2007, Week 1
August 2007, Week 5
August 2007, Week 4
August 2007, Week 3
August 2007, Week 2
August 2007, Week 1
July 2007, Week 5
July 2007, Week 4
July 2007, Week 3
July 2007, Week 2
July 2007, Week 1
June 2007, Week 5
June 2007, Week 4
June 2007, Week 3
June 2007, Week 2
June 2007, Week 1
May 2007, Week 5
May 2007, Week 4
May 2007, Week 3
May 2007, Week 2
May 2007, Week 1
April 2007, Week 5
April 2007, Week 4
April 2007, Week 3
April 2007, Week 2
April 2007, Week 1
March 2007, Week 5
March 2007, Week 4
March 2007, Week 3
March 2007, Week 2
March 2007, Week 1
February 2007, Week 4
February 2007, Week 3
February 2007, Week 2
February 2007, Week 1
January 2007, Week 5
January 2007, Week 4
January 2007, Week 3
January 2007, Week 2
January 2007, Week 1
December 2006, Week 5
December 2006, Week 4
December 2006, Week 3
December 2006, Week 2
December 2006, Week 1
November 2006, Week 5
November 2006, Week 4
November 2006, Week 3
November 2006, Week 2
November 2006, Week 1
October 2006, Week 5
October 2006, Week 4
October 2006, Week 3
October 2006, Week 2
October 2006, Week 1
September 2006, Week 5
September 2006, Week 4
September 2006, Week 3
September 2006, Week 2
September 2006, Week 1
August 2006, Week 5
August 2006, Week 4
August 2006, Week 3
August 2006, Week 2
August 2006, Week 1
July 2006, Week 5
July 2006, Week 4
July 2006, Week 3
July 2006, Week 2
July 2006, Week 1
June 2006, Week 5
June 2006, Week 4
June 2006, Week 3
June 2006, Week 2
June 2006, Week 1
May 2006, Week 5
May 2006, Week 4
May 2006, Week 3
May 2006, Week 2
May 2006, Week 1
April 2006, Week 5
April 2006, Week 4
April 2006, Week 3
April 2006, Week 2
April 2006, Week 1
March 2006, Week 5
March 2006, Week 4
March 2006, Week 3
March 2006, Week 2
March 2006, Week 1
February 2006, Week 4
February 2006, Week 3
February 2006, Week 2
February 2006, Week 1
January 2006, Week 5
January 2006, Week 4
January 2006, Week 3
January 2006, Week 2
January 2006, Week 1
December 2005, Week 5
December 2005, Week 4
December 2005, Week 3
December 2005, Week 2
December 2005, Week 1
November 2005, Week 5
November 2005, Week 4
November 2005, Week 3
November 2005, Week 2
November 2005, Week 1
October 2005, Week 5
October 2005, Week 4
October 2005, Week 3
October 2005, Week 2
October 2005, Week 1
September 2005, Week 5
September 2005, Week 4
September 2005, Week 3
September 2005, Week 2
September 2005, Week 1
August 2005, Week 5
August 2005, Week 4
August 2005, Week 3
August 2005, Week 2
August 2005, Week 1
July 2005, Week 5
July 2005, Week 4
July 2005, Week 3
July 2005, Week 2
July 2005, Week 1
June 2005, Week 5
June 2005, Week 4
June 2005, Week 3
June 2005, Week 2
June 2005, Week 1
May 2005, Week 5
May 2005, Week 4
May 2005, Week 3
May 2005, Week 2
May 2005, Week 1
April 2005, Week 5
April 2005, Week 4
April 2005, Week 3
April 2005, Week 2
April 2005, Week 1
March 2005, Week 5
March 2005, Week 4
March 2005, Week 3
March 2005, Week 2
March 2005, Week 1
February 2005, Week 4
February 2005, Week 3
February 2005, Week 2
February 2005, Week 1
January 2005, Week 5
January 2005, Week 4
January 2005, Week 3
January 2005, Week 2
January 2005, Week 1
December 2004, Week 5
December 2004, Week 4
December 2004, Week 3
December 2004, Week 2
December 2004, Week 1
November 2004, Week 5
November 2004, Week 4
November 2004, Week 3
November 2004, Week 2
November 2004, Week 1
October 2004, Week 5
October 2004, Week 4
October 2004, Week 3
October 2004, Week 2
October 2004, Week 1
September 2004, Week 5
September 2004, Week 4
September 2004, Week 3
September 2004, Week 2
September 2004, Week 1
August 2004, Week 5
August 2004, Week 4
August 2004, Week 3
August 2004, Week 2
August 2004, Week 1
July 2004, Week 5
July 2004, Week 4
July 2004, Week 3
July 2004, Week 2
July 2004, Week 1
June 2004, Week 5
June 2004, Week 4
June 2004, Week 3
June 2004, Week 2
June 2004, Week 1
May 2004, Week 5
May 2004, Week 4
May 2004, Week 3
May 2004, Week 2
May 2004, Week 1
April 2004, Week 5
April 2004, Week 4
April 2004, Week 3
April 2004, Week 2
April 2004, Week 1
March 2004, Week 5
March 2004, Week 4
March 2004, Week 3
March 2004, Week 2
March 2004, Week 1
February 2004, Week 5
February 2004, Week 4
February 2004, Week 3
February 2004, Week 2
February 2004, Week 1
January 2004, Week 5
January 2004, Week 4
January 2004, Week 3
January 2004, Week 2
January 2004, Week 1
December 2003, Week 5
December 2003, Week 4
December 2003, Week 3
December 2003, Week 2
December 2003, Week 1
November 2003, Week 5
November 2003, Week 4
November 2003, Week 3
November 2003, Week 2
November 2003, Week 1
October 2003, Week 5
October 2003, Week 4
October 2003, Week 3
October 2003, Week 2
October 2003, Week 1
September 2003, Week 5
September 2003, Week 4
September 2003, Week 3
September 2003, Week 2
September 2003, Week 1
August 2003, Week 5
August 2003, Week 4
August 2003, Week 3
August 2003, Week 2
August 2003, Week 1
July 2003, Week 5
July 2003, Week 4
July 2003, Week 3
July 2003, Week 2
July 2003, Week 1
June 2003, Week 5
June 2003, Week 4
June 2003, Week 3
June 2003, Week 2
June 2003, Week 1
May 2003, Week 5
May 2003, Week 4
May 2003, Week 3
May 2003, Week 2
May 2003, Week 1
April 2003, Week 5
April 2003, Week 4
April 2003, Week 3
April 2003, Week 2
March 2003, Week 5
March 2003, Week 4
March 2003, Week 3
March 2003, Week 2
March 2003, Week 1
February 2003, Week 4
February 2003, Week 3
February 2003, Week 2
February 2003, Week 1
January 2003, Week 5
January 2003, Week 4
January 2003, Week 3
January 2003, Week 2
January 2003, Week 1
December 2002, Week 5
December 2002, Week 4
December 2002, Week 3
December 2002, Week 2
December 2002, Week 1
November 2002, Week 4
November 2002, Week 3
November 2002, Week 2
November 2002, Week 1
October 2002, Week 5
October 2002, Week 4
October 2002, Week 3
October 2002, Week 2
October 2002, Week 1
September 2002, Week 5
September 2002, Week 4
September 2002, Week 3
September 2002, Week 2
September 2002, Week 1
August 2002, Week 5
August 2002, Week 4
August 2002, Week 3
August 2002, Week 2
August 2002, Week 1
July 2002, Week 5
July 2002, Week 4
July 2002, Week 3
July 2002, Week 2
July 2002, Week 1
June 2002, Week 5
June 2002, Week 4
June 2002, Week 3
June 2002, Week 2
June 2002, Week 1
May 2002, Week 5
May 2002, Week 4
May 2002, Week 3
May 2002, Week 2
May 2002, Week 1
April 2002, Week 5
April 2002, Week 4
April 2002, Week 3
April 2002, Week 2
April 2002, Week 1
March 2002, Week 5
March 2002, Week 4
March 2002, Week 3
March 2002, Week 1
February 2002, Week 4
February 2002, Week 3
February 2002, Week 2
February 2002, Week 1
January 2002, Week 5
January 2002, Week 4
January 2002, Week 3
January 2002, Week 2
January 2002, Week 1
December 2001, Week 5
December 2001, Week 4
December 2001, Week 3
December 2001, Week 2
December 2001, Week 1
November 2001, Week 5
November 2001, Week 4
November 2001, Week 3
November 2001, Week 2
November 2001, Week 1
October 2001, Week 5
October 2001, Week 4
October 2001, Week 3
October 2001, Week 2
October 2001, Week 1
September 2001, Week 5
September 2001, Week 4
September 2001, Week 3
September 2001, Week 2
September 2001, Week 1
August 2001, Week 5
August 2001, Week 4
August 2001, Week 3
August 2001, Week 2
August 2001, Week 1
July 2001, Week 5
July 2001, Week 4
July 2001, Week 3
July 2001, Week 2
July 2001, Week 1
June 2001, Week 5
June 2001, Week 4
June 2001, Week 3
June 2001, Week 2
June 2001, Week 1
May 2001, Week 5
May 2001, Week 4
May 2001, Week 3
May 2001, Week 2
May 2001, Week 1
April 2001, Week 5
April 2001, Week 4
April 2001, Week 3
April 2001, Week 2
April 2001, Week 1
March 2001, Week 5
March 2001, Week 4
March 2001, Week 3
March 2001, Week 2
March 2001, Week 1
February 2001, Week 4
February 2001, Week 3
February 2001, Week 2
February 2001, Week 1
January 2001, Week 5
January 2001, Week 4
January 2001, Week 3
January 2001, Week 2
January 2001, Week 1
December 2000, Week 5
December 2000, Week 4
December 2000, Week 3
December 2000, Week 2
December 2000, Week 1
November 2000, Week 5
November 2000, Week 4
November 2000, Week 3
November 2000, Week 2
November 2000, Week 1
October 2000, Week 5
October 2000, Week 4
October 2000, Week 3
October 2000, Week 2
October 2000, Week 1
September 2000, Week 5
September 2000, Week 4
September 2000, Week 3
September 2000, Week 2
September 2000, Week 1
August 2000, Week 5
August 2000, Week 4
August 2000, Week 3
August 2000, Week 2
August 2000, Week 1
July 2000, Week 5
July 2000, Week 4
July 2000, Week 3
July 2000, Week 2
July 2000, Week 1
June 2000, Week 5
June 2000, Week 4
June 2000, Week 3
June 2000, Week 2
June 2000, Week 1
May 2000, Week 5
May 2000, Week 4
May 2000, Week 3
May 2000, Week 2
May 2000, Week 1
April 2000, Week 5
April 2000, Week 4
April 2000, Week 3
April 2000, Week 2
April 2000, Week 1
March 2000, Week 5
March 2000, Week 4
March 2000, Week 3
March 2000, Week 2
March 2000, Week 1
February 2000, Week 5
February 2000, Week 4
February 2000, Week 3
February 2000, Week 2
February 2000, Week 1
January 2000, Week 5
January 2000, Week 4
January 2000, Week 3
January 2000, Week 2
January 2000, Week 1
December 1999, Week 5
December 1999, Week 4
December 1999, Week 3
December 1999, Week 2
December 1999, Week 1
November 1999, Week 5
November 1999, Week 4
November 1999, Week 3
November 1999, Week 2
November 1999, Week 1
October 1999, Week 5
October 1999, Week 4
October 1999, Week 3
October 1999, Week 2
October 1999, Week 1
September 1999, Week 5
September 1999, Week 4
September 1999, Week 3
September 1999, Week 2
September 1999, Week 1
August 1999, Week 5
August 1999, Week 4
August 1999, Week 3
August 1999, Week 2
August 1999, Week 1
July 1999, Week 5
July 1999, Week 4
July 1999, Week 3
July 1999, Week 2
July 1999, Week 1
June 1999, Week 5
June 1999, Week 4
June 1999, Week 3
June 1999, Week 2
June 1999, Week 1
May 1999, Week 5
May 1999, Week 4
May 1999, Week 3
May 1999, Week 2
May 1999, Week 1
April 1999, Week 5
April 1999, Week 4
April 1999, Week 3
April 1999, Week 2
April 1999, Week 1
March 1999, Week 5
March 1999, Week 4
March 1999, Week 3
March 1999, Week 2
March 1999, Week 1
February 1999, Week 5
February 1999, Week 4
February 1999, Week 3
February 1999, Week 2
February 1999, Week 1
January 1999, Week 5
January 1999, Week 4
January 1999, Week 3
January 1999, Week 2
January 1999, Week 1
December 1998, Week 5
December 1998, Week 4
December 1998, Week 3
December 1998, Week 2
December 1998, Week 1
November 1998, Week 5
November 1998, Week 4
November 1998, Week 3
November 1998, Week 2
November 1998, Week 1
October 1998, Week 5
October 1998, Week 4
October 1998, Week 3
October 1998, Week 2
October 1998, Week 1
September 1998, Week 5
September 1998, Week 4
September 1998, Week 3
September 1998, Week 2
September 1998, Week 1
August 1998, Week 4
August 1998, Week 3
August 1998, Week 2
August 1998, Week 1
July 1998, Week 5
July 1998, Week 4
July 1998, Week 3
July 1998, Week 2
July 1998, Week 1
June 1998, Week 5
June 1998, Week 4
June 1998, Week 3
June 1998, Week 2
June 1998, Week 1
May 1998, Week 5
May 1998, Week 4
May 1998, Week 3
May 1998, Week 2
May 1998, Week 1
April 1998, Week 5
April 1998, Week 4
April 1998, Week 3
April 1998, Week 2
April 1998, Week 1
March 1998, Week 5
March 1998, Week 4
March 1998, Week 3
March 1998, Week 2
March 1998, Week 1
February 1998, Week 5
February 1998, Week 4
February 1998, Week 3
February 1998, Week 2
February 1998, Week 1
January 1998, Week 5
January 1998, Week 4
January 1998, Week 3
January 1998, Week 2
January 1998, Week 1
December 1997, Week 5
December 1997, Week 4
December 1997, Week 3
December 1997, Week 2
December 1997, Week 1
November 1997, Week 5
November 1997, Week 4
November 1997, Week 3
November 1997, Week 2
November 1997, Week 1
October 1997, Week 5
October 1997, Week 4
October 1997, Week 3
October 1997, Week 2
October 1997, Week 1
September 1997, Week 5
September 1997, Week 4
September 1997, Week 3
September 1997, Week 2
September 1997, Week 1
August 1997, Week 5
August 1997, Week 4
August 1997, Week 3
August 1997, Week 2
August 1997, Week 1
July 1997, Week 5
July 1997, Week 4
July 1997, Week 3
July 1997, Week 2
July 1997, Week 1
June 1997, Week 5
June 1997, Week 4
June 1997, Week 3
June 1997, Week 2
June 1997, Week 1
May 1997, Week 5
May 1997, Week 4
May 1997, Week 3
May 1997, Week 2
May 1997, Week 1
April 1997, Week 5
April 1997, Week 4
April 1997, Week 3
April 1997, Week 2
April 1997, Week 1
March 1997, Week 5
March 1997, Week 4
March 1997, Week 3
March 1997, Week 2
March 1997, Week 1
February 1997, Week 5
February 1997, Week 4
February 1997, Week 3
February 1997, Week 2
February 1997, Week 1

ATOM RSS1 RSS2



LISTSERV.BROWN.EDU

CataList Email List Search Powered by the LISTSERV Email List Manager