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AUXLANG  November 2002, Week 1

AUXLANG November 2002, Week 1

Subject:

Re: Chomskyism

From:

James Chandler <[log in to unmask]>

Reply-To:

International Auxiliary Languages <[log in to unmask]>

Date:

Mon, 4 Nov 2002 19:34:52 +0000

Content-Type:

text/plain

Parts/Attachments:

Parts/Attachments

text/plain (142 lines)

Mat:

>This is really interesting. The linguistics dept. I was at (Nottingham
>University, UK, which has since closed down) did not push Chomsky on us as
>I
>recall.

Have you ever wondered why it closed?

>Maybe this phenomenon is more American linguistics? Altho I just don't know
>of conditions in other British universities.
>I agree that no one theory should be allowed to dominate a subject, and I
>know what you are talking about with regard to getting a job etc.

The remarkable thing is that such an eccentric theory has been able to
dominate an entire academic discipline, in the way the search for the innate
pot of gold has.  In the hard sciences you would never be able to do this.
I think it has to do with the sort of people who study linguistics.  These
are people who have done language A-levels (or equivalent) and are not of a
scientific bent.  They are not the sort of people who at the age of 18 have
taken it upon themselves to read such popular science books as 'The Selfish
Gene' or 'The Blind Watchmaker' by Richard Dawkins, and therefore go into
linguistics lectures unaware that evolution is basically a) random and b)
adaptive.  Since Darwin we have known the basic mechanism of evolution, and
we must be prepared to explain the emergence of complex organs such as the
eye in terms of an accumulation of (basically) random adaptive mutations.

You would never be able to present the innateness theory to a class of maths
students, for instance.  I know because I have sat in first year maths
lectures, and I know for a fact that if a lecturer had put an obviously
dubious theory such as that up on the blackboard, about half the class,
including the people I used to sit with, would have given it five seconds
thought and then either started laughing or immediately asking the lecturer
whether he had heard of Darwinian evolution.  (These people were neither
slow nor lacking in knowledge of science.)

>But I
>think I have more sympathy for the view than you do. I think it's probably
>a
>matter of degree rather than yes/no.

But the way Chomsky has formulated his theory, in terms of very specific
principles and parameters being innately hardwired into a sort of 'language
module' of the brain, there is no room for degrees.  We are either born with
the A over A rule or not.  With the pro-drop parameter or not.  And if we
are missing one of these, the others will not be much use.  I tend to think
the human brain has an innate generic capacity for symbolic manipulation.
As James McCawley said, it is 'tabula si, rasa no' - the brain is a slate
but a structured one.  But this is not what Chomsky proposes.

>What you say about the growth of the brain is very intriguing tho. The
>aspect of the human neocortex *suddenly* expanding in size, and this
>leaving
>no time for proper development, has the ring of truth about it. Where
>specifically is that documented? In Koestler's book?

Koestler does not give a complete account of this, he more or less assumes
it as an established fact before moving on to the more interesting question
of whether it is the size of the neocortex or its (lack of) coordination
with older brain structures that is to blame for our predicament as a
species.  He does say this (ps.272-4):

"   'A Tumorous Overgrowth'

But before congratulating ourselves on having such a superior brain which
does not strangle our oesophagus [arthropods -JC] or condemn us to live by
smell [koala bear -JC], we ought to pause and examine the possibility that
man, too, might carry a constructional fault inside his skull, perhaps even
more serious than the arthropod and marsupial precedents; a constructional
error which potentially threatens his extinction - but which might still be
corrected by supreme effort of self-repair.

The first reason for this suspicion is the extraordinary rapidity of the
evolutionary growth of the human brain - a feat, as we know, unique in
evolutionary history.  To quote Professor Le Gros Clark: 'It now appears
from the fossil record that the hominid brain did not begin to enlarge
significantly before the beginning of the Pleistocene, but from the middle
Pleistocene [_circa_ half a million years ago] onwards it expanded at a most
remarkable speed - greatly exceeding the rate of evolutionary change which
had so far been recorded in any anatomical character in lower animals ...
The rapidity of the evolutionary expansion of the brain during the
Pleistocene is an example of what has been termed "explosive evolution"'.
[...]

The cause which contemporary research seems to indicate is not increase in
size, but _insufficient co-ordination_ between archicortex and neocortex -
between the phylogenetically old areas of our brain, and the new,
specifically human areas which were superimposed on it with such unseemly
haste.  This lack of co-ordination causes, to use a phrase coined by P.
MacLean, a kind of 'dichotomy in the function of the phylogenetically old
and new cortex that might account for differences between emotional and
intellectual behaviour'.  While 'our intellectual functions are carried on
in the newest and most highly developed part of the brain, our affective
behaviour continues to be dominated by a relatively crude and primitive
system.  This situation provides a clue to understanding the difference
between what we "feel" and what we "know" ...'."

If you type in 'Paul Maclean triune brain' or 'mesocorticolimbic pathway' or
other suitable strings into Google you will get some quite useful
explanations, often with nice diagrams.  I would also recommend getting hold
of a copy of 'Ghost in the Machine'.

>Finally... what was that about Chomsky's phonology?

It is not really Chomskyan phonology, but Chomsky-Halle phonology, developed
initially by Morris Halle in his book The Sound Pattern of Russian (and some
journal articles).  It is basically an attempt to do away completely with a
phonological level of representation, there being nothing except rules
between surface (syntactic) structure and phonetic output.  So where we
happily write something like /rayt/ for 'right', Chomskyans would not
recognize this as valid (eg. The Sound Pattern of English, Chomsky + Halle).

The basic idea is to make phonology a wholly-owned subsidiary of the
generative enterprise.  There has to be a single monolithic set of rules all
the way from deep structure to phonetic output.  In the 1950s,
structuralists (eg. Householder) were moving towards autonomous phonological
grammars, devices which generate all the acceptable phonological words.
This is obviously the best way of explaining both the fact that 'bnik' is
not a possible Eng word, but 'blik' is, and the concept of the word itself.
But this idea was smothered under the great blanket of generative grammar in
the 1960s.

Some linguists still reject Chomsky-Halle phonology, eg. the English
phonetician John Wells.  But there seems to be no phonological research
going on outside the SPE paradigm (at least, I have not been able to find
any).  A real tragedy - thanks Noam.

Kordiale, James Chandler
[log in to unmask]
http://www.geocities.com/idojc - IALs index
http://www.geocities.com/idojc/yindex.html - Ido index
http://groups.yahoo.com/group/idolisto - Idolisto home

"I cannot but conclude the bulk of your natives to be the most pernicious
race of little odious vermin that nature ever suffered to crawl upon the
surface of the earth." - Swift, Voyage to Brobdingnag


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