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AUXLANG  January 2003, Week 3

AUXLANG January 2003, Week 3

Subject:

Re: The wrong question

From:

"Donald J. HARLOW" <[log in to unmask]>

Reply-To:

International Auxiliary Languages <[log in to unmask]>

Date:

Sat, 18 Jan 2003 12:21:01 -0800

Content-Type:

text/plain

Parts/Attachments:

Parts/Attachments

text/plain (138 lines)

Je 04.17 ptm 2003.01.18 +0000, James CHANDLER skribis

>Recently I have begun to wonder whether we have been asking the wrong
>question on these lists.  The question our discussions cluster around is How
>can we solve the language problem, the difficulties and obstacles caused by
>the lack of a common language for use between different language groups?
>This question is well worth addressing, but it seems to me that perhaps an
>even more serious and urgent question for our time is How can we preserve
>linguistic diversity in the world and prevent a language monoculture?

I agree that this is an important question, though I believe we should
consider it _alongside_ the other, not _instead of_ the other.

>Some idists, for example, are keen to emphasize the importance of an
>auxiliary language in order to protect their continental languages against
>the relentless march of English, we they can see encroaching on their own
>tongues at an alarming rate.  It is not just a question of Germans, for
>instance, learning English and using it with other Eng-speakers, but of
>English words being introduced into German itself, sometimes replacing
>perfectly good native words.

You will find a similar idea incorporated in the Prague Manifesto of the
Esperanto movement -- again, not as an overwhelming goal, but as one of
several coequal goals.

However, I suspect that the borrowing of words from English is _not_ going
to destroy other languages. Japan borrows words from other language (in
recent decades, particularly English) all the time, and it remains
steadfastly Japanese. Nobody, for instance, is going to recognize "pokemon"
as being from English any more than they would recognize "volapuk" as
coming from English, even though this is the case. (As a lady in Kyushu
recently pointed out on one of the Esperanto mailing lists, the suffix
-MON, even though it comes from the english "Monster", perhaps fortuitously
resembles an old Japanese endearment suffix.)

What is far more dangerous is the idea of English qua English being adopted
_alongside_ various ethnic and national languages in Europe, but in a more
privileged position, thus leading people to prefer it in their daily life
to their own languages. The battle to preserve the remains of dozens of
native Californian languages today may give you an idea of what the
resulting situation in Europe will be in two hundred years. I can't imagine
that the Lakota Sioux of Custer's era ever imagined, more than the French
do today, that their language was already threatened with extinction.

>But would a language like Ido be any more likely to ensure the long-term
>survival of European languages that the universal use of English?  Would not
>the same processes eventually threaten a language like German, Ido words
>being introduced and driving out the native word-stock?  There is no reason
>to suppose _a priori_ that an artificial language would be any less of a
>threat than a natural language like English.

I think I've raised this question before, even here, and had a couple of
people (Mike FARRIS comes to mind) doubt the possibility. Frankly, again I
see no danger to German in the borrowing of words from Ido; I do see a
danger in the placing of Ido, or whatever other planned language, in a
position of special privilege. With English, we already see the situation
in Europe (and elsewhere) in which parents are struggling to get their
children into schools in which they are taught _in English_ rather than in
their own local language, so that they will have an advantage in the job
market somewhere down the road. The situation, if Esperanto or Ido were in
a similar position, would be equally dangerous, as you suggest.

>It seems to me that the language problem is more likely to be solved
>eventually, one way or another, than the problem of language preservation.
>There will eventually be a common language understood more or less
>universally, because when people want to communicate they will find a way to
>do so, whether it is a national language like English, Spanish or Chinese,
>simplified or not (and it is hard to see how any of these could become
>universal _without_ being simplified), or by an artificial confection such
>as Esp, Ido, Glosa or Eural (I wonder how Mr Viggers is getting on with
>that?).
>
>The real question is How do we prevent the Common Language becoming the
>Single Language, driving out all other tongues and leading to the dreaded
>language monoculture?  Could a body established to police a planned language
>also act to prevent it encroaching on national languages?  Or would the
>problem be better addressed at national level, with national governments
>taking drastic measures to protect their own languages?  Of course, national
>governments in Europe may not actually have the power to do this for much
>longer, and we may have to look in future to the EU superstate to intervene
>in these matters.

It takes a long time for the non-native speaker to learn English well
enough to be able to hold his own in conversation with a native speaker.
This means that he must devote great amounts of time and effort to its
study, i.e. start early and work for years. With English, the ideal
solution to making it a regional or global interlanguage would be for it to
_replace_ other languages, and become truly universal -- leading to the
monoculture you want to avoid. I'm not sure that national governments or
the EU superstate could, or would, be able to prevent this. There are,
after all, three possible situations:

(1) There is no language such as English being used internationally in
Europe (no monoculture);
(2) The language is used by a well-educated elite, with the greater part of
the population excluded from the processes in which it is used (no
monoculture, but also no democracy);
(3) The language is used by everybody after lots and lots of study, most of
which will eventually have to be taken from the time previously used to
learn one's own "native" language (more conducive to democracy, but also
monocultural).

With Esperanto, at least -- and presumably Ido and other planned languages
designed for some degree of facility -- learning time is relatively short.
These languages have the possibility of being learned to the level required
for (3) without relegating one's native language to secondary status or
non-existence.

On the other hand, this doesn't resolve the potential problem of Esperanto
or whatever _becoming_ used in preference to the other languages, simply
because the situation militates in favor of that. I think the process
(monoculturization) would take longer, but, lacking other considerations,
the result would be just as inevitable. The question then is _how_ to avoid
this. Again, learnability suggests one answer: not teach the language until
well after the child has learned his own native language. But that has its
own problems, which we can already see among Esperanto speakers; for
instance, _what_ is a child's native language when his parents come from
two different linguistic backgrounds? As long as Frenchmen marry
Frenchwomen, the question is easy to resolve; but what happens when a
Frenchman marries a German woman and they prefer to converse in Esperanto
at home? Part of the answer, of course, comes from what language is spoken
extramurally in home region; but what happens at the point where Esperanto
(or Ido or whatever) penetrates into the streets as well as the home?

I don't have any pat answers, and I think the question is indeed worth
considering, even this early in the game.


-- Don HARLOW
http://www.webcom.com/~donh/don/don.html

Pasis longa voj'
Iri ĉi tien de for;
Pasis longa temp',
Sed alvenas mia hor' ...

Literaturaĵoj: http://donh.best.vwh.net/Esperanto/Literaturo

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December 2002, Week 5
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December 2000, Week 5
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December 1998, Week 5
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