Thank you to Trebor Jung who, in reading over my
grammar, has pointed out that I mixed up tense, mood,
and aspect for verbs. Thus what I've written about
verb prefixes doesn't make much sense currently, and I
offer for your consideration, this revised edition of
the original section of my grammar.
Also thank you to John Leland for suggesting better
names for my verb conjugations. "Corporeal,
Intellectual, and Transcendental" sound much better
than "Body, Mind and Spirit" in my opinion.
And while I'm thanking people, thanks to just about
everybody else for answering various questions, and
because I think I've done more conlanging since I
joined this list a couple of months ago than I have in
the last year. :) You are all a very good source of
And now, my revised and expanded verbs.
---Revised Tárnerdàzh Verbs---
Tense and mood is marked with a prefix.
Tense works like this:
Rising tone - past tense
Falling tone - future tense
Level tone - present
Some prefixes are:
Past Indicative - tá
Present Indicative - ta
Future Indicative - tà
Past Imperative - kó
Present Imperative - ko
Future Imperative - kò
Past Conditional - lúw
Present Conditional - luw
Future Conditional - lùw
Past Subjunctive - thér
Present Subjunctive - ther
Future Subjunctive - thèr
Recent past - sí
Recent future - sì
The interrogative is formed by using the question
marker 'sézhin' at the beginning or end of a sentence
combined with the indicative form of the verb.
The tone that marks tense has precedence over the
other tones in a verb. This becomes especially
important in verbs which are one syllable long without
the prefix. For example, 'kíla' (to be). With no
prefix, (I am) would be 'kàrb'. In the present
indicative, it would be 'tagàrb'. The 'k' becomes a
'g' because consonants can only be voiceless at the
beginnings of words. In the future indicative (I will
be) it would be 'tàgarb'. Although both of the tones
would be grammatical, because the grammaticality of
the suffix tone is redundant, it is changed so that
the prefix tone (which tells us that the verb is in
the future tense) can remain the same.
When prefixes combine with verb stems that begin in
a vowel, the stem vowel is assimilated into the prefix
vowel, with some changes. If the stem vowel ended in
an 'r', 'w', or 'y', the prefix vowel will end in the
same letter as the stem vowel. If the stem vowel was
not two letters long, it is assimilated without
changing the prefix vowel.
Causatives are formed by adding the auxilary verb
'pegíla' (to cause to be) before the main verb.
'Pegíla' agrees with the subject. The main verb
agrees with the object. For example, 'thalíloy' is
the verb (to eat). So (I am eating) is 'tadhálòg'.
("I am feeding you" = "I am causing you to eat") is
Please, if I have made any glaring mistakes, or
explained something poorly in my grammar, would
someone point them out. I'd also be curious to know
if I've broken anadewism in any way. That wasn't my
goal, but I'd be interested if it had inadvertently
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