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TEI-L  August 2004

TEI-L August 2004

Subject:

Proposal for change to <biblStruct> (long!)

From:

Lou-on-the-desk <[log in to unmask]>

Reply-To:

Lou-on-the-desk <[log in to unmask]>

Date:

Fri, 20 Aug 2004 16:06:32 +0100

Content-Type:

text/plain

Parts/Attachments:

Parts/Attachments

text/plain (737 lines)

Over on sourceforge, over the last few weeks, a small but energetic
group has been debating the best way of handling detailed bibliographic
structures in XML, with a view to making a new structure for TEI P5. As
TEI editors, Syd and I have been watching this debate but not really
contributing much to it: they have now reached the stage of a fairly
complete proposal, and so I have asked Paul Tremblay if it's now ready
for wider discussion within the TEI community.

Here is the current state of the proposal, as currently elaborated by
Paul, Andreas Nolda, and Bruce  D'Arcus.

Please post general opinions here, for the moment. Or sign up to the
sourceforge discussion group whence this originates
([log in to unmask])!

Lou

----------------------------------------

Overview
=========

The group that has been working on bibliographic entries for TEI
proposes that <biblStruct> with its children <analytic>, <monogr>, and
<series> be replaced by two new elements: <biblItem> and
<relatedBiblItem>.

After the lengthy discussion that resulted in encoding around 200
bibliographic entries, we have come to the conclusion that the
<biblStruct> element is both too ambiguous and too restrictive. Take
an example of an article that reviews a book that was originally a
manuscript. In order to render such an entry in TEI 4, we need the
following XML:

Example 1
=========


 <biblStruct rend="article">
  <analytic rend="article">
   <author>
    <persName>
     <foreName>Frank</foreName>
     <foreName>W.</foreName>
     <surname>Heny</surname>
    </persName>
   </author>
  </analytic>
  <monogr rend="work.reviewed" >
   <author>
    <persName>
     <foreName>Noam</foreName>
     <surname>Chomsky</surname>
    </persName>
   </author>
   <title level="m">The Logical Structure of Linguistic
  Theory</title>
   <imprint>
    <pubPlace>New York</pubPlace>
    <publisher>Plenum</publisher>
    <date>1975</date>
   </imprint>
  </monogr>
  <monogr rend="manuscript">
   <author>
    <persName>
     <foreName>Noam</foreName>
     <surname>Chomsky</surname>
    </persName>
   </author>
   <title level="u">The Logical Structure of Linguistic
    Theory</title>
   <imprint>
    <pubPlace>Cambridge, Mass.</pubPlace>
    <publisher>Massachusetts Institute of Technology</publisher>
    <date>1955</date>
   </imprint>
  </monogr>
  <monogr rend="journal">
   <title level="j">Synthese</title>
   <imprint>
    <date>1979</date>
   </imprint>
   <biblScope type="volume">40</biblScope>
   <biblScope type="pages">317-352</biblScope>
  </monogr>
 </biblStruct>

Note that his entry needs three <monogr> elements. Each of these <monogr>
elements can only exist as a sibling of the others, so the true relationship
between them remains ambiguous. The sibling relationship of the second
<monogr> element does not indicate that it is the origin for its older
brother. Likewise, the proximity of the third <monogr> element to the second
<monogr> element seems to indicate a relationship, when in fact there is
none.

A better way to encode this example is to nest related items inside each
other. Here is such an example, using our proposed new elements:

Example 1 With New Elements
============================

<biblItem type="article">
  <author>
    <persName>
      <forename>Frank</forename>
      <forename>W.</forename>
      <surname>Heny</surname>
    </persName>
  </author>
  <relatedBiblItem role="work.reviewed" type="book">
    <author>
      <persName>
        <forename>Noam</forename>
        <surname>Chomsky</surname>
      </persName>
        <forename>Noam</forename>
        <surname>Chomsky</surname>
      </persName>
    </author>
    <title level="m">The Logical Structure of Linguistic Theory</title>
    <imprint>
      <pubPlace>New York</pubPlace>
      <publisher>Plenum</publisher>
      <date>1975</date>
    </imprint>
    <relatedBiblItem role="original" type="manuscript">
      <author>
        <persName>
          <forename>Noam</forename>
          <surname>Chomsky</surname>
        </persName>
      </author>
      <title level="u">The Logical Structure of Linguistic
        Theory</title>
      <imprint>
        <pubPlace>Cambridge, Mass.</pubPlace>
        <publisher>Massachusetts Institute of Technology</publisher>
        <date>1955</date>
      </imprint>
    </relatedBiblItem>
  </relatedBiblItem>
  <relatedBiblItem role="host" type="journal">
    <title level="j">Synthese</title>
    <biblScope type="volume">40</biblScope>
    <imprint>
      <date>1979</date>
    </imprint>
    <biblScope type="pages">317-352</biblScope>
  </relatedBiblItem>
</biblItem>

Note how instead of three <monogr> elements, this entry uses three
<relatedBiblItem> elements. The second <relatedBiblItem> indicates
that it is the origin to the work reviewed both by the role attribute
("original") and because it is the child of the work reviewed.

The third <relatedBiblItem> is not nested inside the first, so it correctly
shows no relationship to it. We know that this third <relatedBiblItem>
serves as the host for the actual review because its value for the role
attribute is "host".

New Structure for <biblStruct>
===============================

The elements <analytic>, <monogr>, and <series> would not be used within
<biblItem>, since we believe these concepts unneeded and too vague.  For
example, some librarians refer to an individual article as a monographic
entry, while other vehemently insist that a journal is not a monograph at
all. Does one include information about a multivolume work in a <series>
element, even though an editor of a multivolume work is distinct for the
editor of a series?

Instead, we propose that entries using <analytic>, <monograph>, and
<series> be encoded using the <relatedBiblItem> element. This new
structure would bring TEI bibliographic representation closer in line
with recent library developments, such as the Metadata Object
Description Schema (MODS) from the Library of Congress.  The proposed
relatedBiblItem element would be structurally equivalent to the
<relatedItem> element in MODS, which is itself influenced by relator
structures in Dublin Core.

Here is an example of article "Weak Indefinites"  that appears in
volume 1  of a book called *The Syntax and Semantics of Noun Phrases.*
In turn, the book *The Syntax and Semantics of Noun Phrases* appears
in a multivolume work called *From NP to DP.* In turn, volumes of this
work appears in a series called 'Linguistics Today.'

Example 2
==========

<biblItem type="article">
  <author>
    <persName>
      <forename>Gregory</forename>
      <forename>N.</forename>
      <surname>Carlson</surname>
    </persName>
  </author>
  <title level="a">Weak Indefinites</title>
  <relatedBiblItem role="host" type="book">
    <title level="m">The Syntax and Semantics of Noun Phrases</title>
    <relatedBiblItem role="host" type="book">
      <title level="m">From NP to DP</title>
      <editor>
        <persName>
          <forename>Martine</forename>
          <surname>Coene</surname>
        </persName>
      </editor>
      <editor>
        <persName>
          <forename>Yves</forename>
          <surname>D'hulst</surname>
        </persName>
      </editor>
      <imprint>
        <pubPlace>Amsterdam</pubPlace>
    <publisher>Benjamins</publisher>
        <date>2003</date>
      </imprint>
      <biblScope type="volume">1</biblScope>
    </relatedBiblItem>
    <relatedBiblItem role="host" type="series">
      <title level="s">Linguistics Today</title>
      <biblScope type="volume">55</biblScope>
    </relatedBiblItem>
    <biblScope type="pages">195-210</biblScope>
  </relatedBiblItem>
</biblItem>


In order to clarify exactly what our new structure will look like, we
have included further examples at the bottom of the page. Each example
includes an example from TEI 4 of an entry using <biblStruct>, and an
additional entry re-written this entry using our proposed
new elements.

Content Model
=============

The <biblItem> and <relatedBiblItem> should allow the same children
elements as <bibl> minus the phrase-level element content. The new
element should not allow any PCDTA. Likewise, the new elements should
not allow the elements <analytic>, <monograph>, or <series>.

Attributes
==========

We propose the following attributes for <biblItem> and <relatedBiblItem>:


* type

  type should be optional. It should indicate either a genre, such as
  "review", or the physical qualities of the element itself, such "book".

* target

  target should be optional. It should indicate that the
  <relatedBiblItem> is linked to <biblItem> in the same file.  For
  example, an XML document might have several article that are in the
  same journal.  This linking attribute would allow a user to enter
  the journal only once, and then link to it for each article.


* url

  url should be optional. It should indicate that the
  <relatedBiblItem> is linked to a <biblItem> in a different file.
  For example, an XML document might have several article that are in
  the same journal. This linking attribute would allow a user to enter
  the journal only once, and then link to it for each article.

  Depending on P5's linking model, "target" and "url" could also be
  merged into a single "xlink:href" attribute.


* form

  form should be optional. It should indicate the physical form of a
  bibliographic entry. A play recorded on a video cassette would look
  like <biblItem type="performance" form="video-cassette">.

* status

  status should be optioal. It should indicate the publication status
  of an entry. A book in manuscript form would look like this:
  <biblItem type="book" status="manuscript">. Other possible values
  for "status" are "forthcoming" and "inPrint".

We propose the following mandatory attribute for <relatedBiblItem>:

* role

  role should be mandatory.

  We would like to restrict the values of role, but do not have enough time
  to come up with a comprehensive list. However, here is a list of
  known values:

    * "host" indicates that the elements serves as a host.

    * "original" indicates that the element forms the origin.

    * "workReviewed" indicates that the element is the work reviewed.

    * "edition" indicates that the element contains separate information
      (such as an author) for that particular edition. Conversely, one
      could use the <editionStmt> if TEI 5 allows this element within
      our new elements.

    * "isBasedOn" indicates that the element forms the base for the work
      in question.

    * "isReferencedBy" indicates that the element is a reference for the
      work in question.


Rationale for New Elements
==========================

The group working on TEI 5 might ask why the element <biblItem> is
needed when three other items already exist to indicate bibliographic
information. We feel that the other three element don't quite indicate
that their contents will include specific information that a processor
would use to create automatic bibliographic entries. We would hope
that <biblItem> would replace <biblStruct>. In a less ideal situation,
we hope that <biblItem> would be accepted as a new element, while the
use of <biblStruct> would be deprecated. If neither of these cases are
possible, we at least hope that the <relatedBiblItem> would be allowed
within <bibl>.

Examples from TEI 4 and Proposed Changes
=========================================

Here are several examples taken from TEI 4. For each example, we have
included what the XML would look like with our new elements.

<biblStruct>
   <monogr>
      <author>Edward R. Tufte</author>
      <title>Envisioning Information</title>
      <imprint>
         <pubPlace>Cheshire, Conn.</pubPlace>
         <publisher>Graphics Press</publisher>
         <date>1990</date>
      </imprint>
   </monogr>
</biblStruct>


<biblItem type="book">
    <author>Edward R. Tufte</author>
    <title>Envisioning Information</title>
    <imprint>
     <pubPlace>Cheshire, Conn.</pubPlace>
       <publisher>Graphics Press</publisher>
       <date>1990</date>
    </imprint>
</biblItem>

---

<listBibl>
   <head>Bibliography</head>
   <biblStruct id="NEL80">
      <analytic>
         <author>Nelson, T. H.</author>
         <title>Replacing the printed word:
             a complete literary system.</title>
      </analytic>
      <monogr>
      <title>Information Processing '80:  Proceedings of the IFIPS
             Congress, October 1980</title>
         <editor>Simon H. Lavington</editor>
         <imprint>
            <publisher>North-Holland</publisher>
            <pubPlace>Amsterdam</pubPlace>
            <date>1980</date>
         </imprint>
         <biblScope>pp 1013&#x2013;23 </biblScope>
      </monogr>
      <note>Apparently a draft of section 4 of
          <title>Literary Machines</title>.</note>
   </biblStruct>
</listBibl>

<listBibl>
   <head>Bibliography</head>
   <biblItem id="NEL80" type="article">
      <author>Nelson, T. H.</author>
      <title>Replacing the printed word</title>
      <title type="subordinate">A complete literary system</title>
      <relatedBiblItem role="host" type="book">
         <title>Information Processing '80</title>
         <title type="subordinate">Proceedings of the IFIPS Congress,
October 1980</title>
         <editor>Simon H. Lavington</editor>
         <imprint>
            <publisher>North-Holland</publisher>
            <pubPlace>Amsterdam</pubPlace>
            <date>1980</date>
         </imprint>
         <biblScope type="pages">1013&#x2013;1023</biblScope>
      </relatedBiblItem>
      <note>Apparently a draft of section 4 of
          <title>Literary Machines</title>.</note>
   </biblItem>
</listBibl>

-------

<biblStruct>
   <analytic>
      <author>Thaller, Manfred</author>
      <title level="a">A Draft Proposal for a Standard for the
                       Coding of Machine Readable Sources</title>
   </analytic>
   <monogr>
      <title level="j">Historical Social Research</title>
      <imprint>
         <biblScope type="vol">40</biblScope>
         <date>October 1986</date>
         <biblScope type="pages">3-46</biblScope>
      </imprint>
   </monogr>
   <monogr>
      <title level="m">Modelling Historical Data:
                       Towards a Standard for Encoding and
                       Exchanging Machine-Readable Texts</title>
      <editor>Daniel I. Greenstein</editor>
      <imprint>
         <pubPlace>St. Katharinen</pubPlace>
         <publisher>Max-Planck-Institut f&#xFC;r Geschichte
                    In Kommission bei
                    Scripta Mercaturae Verlag</publisher>
         <date>1991</date>
      </imprint>
   </monogr>
   <series lang="DEU">
      <title level="s">Halbgraue Reihe
                       zur Historischen Fachinformatik</title>
      <respStmt>
         <resp>Herausgegeben von</resp>
         <name type="person">Manfred Thaller</name>
         <name type="org">Max-Planck-Institut f&#xFC;r Geschichte</name>
      </respStmt>
      <title level="s">Serie A: Historische Quellenkunden</title>
      <biblScope>Band 11</biblScope>
   </series>
</biblStruct>

<biblItem type="article">
   <author>Thaller, Manfred</author>
   <title>A Draft Proposal for a Standard for the Coding of Machine
Readable Sources</title>
   <relatedBiblItem role="host" type="book">
      <title>Modelling Historical Data</title>
      <title type="subordinate">Towards a Standard for Encoding and
Exchanging
      Machine-Readable Texts</title>
      <editor>Daniel I. Greenstein</editor>
      <imprint>
         <pubPlace>St. Katharinen</pubPlace>
         <publisher>Max-Planck-Institut f&#xFC;r Geschichte</publisher>
         <date>1991</date>
      </imprint>
      <relatedBiblItem role="host" type="series">
         <title lang="DEU" level="s">Historische Quellenkunden</title>
         <relatedBiblItem role="host" type="series">
            <title lang="DEU" level="s">Halbgraue Reihe zur Historischen
Fachinformatik</title>
            <respStmt>
               <resp lang="DEU">Herausgegeben von</resp>
               <name type="person">Manfred Thaller</name>
               <name type="org">Max-Planck-Institut f&#xFC;r
Geschichte</name>
            </respStmt>
            <biblScope type="series">A</biblScope>
         </relatedBiblItem>
         <biblScope type="volume">11</biblScope>
      </relatedBiblItem>
   </relatedBiblItem>
   <relatedBiblItem role="orginal" type="journal">
      <title>Historical Social Research</title>
      <biblScope type="volume">40</biblScope>
      <imprint>
         <date>1986</date>
      </imprint>
      <biblScope type="pages">3&#x2013;46</biblScope>
   </relatedBiblItem>
</biblItem>

---------

<biblStruct>
   <analytic>
      <author>Lucy Allen Paton</author>
      <title>Notes on Manuscripts of the
         <title level="m" lang="FRA">Proph&#xE9;cies de Merlin</title>
      </title>
   </analytic>
   <monogr>
      <title level="j">PMLA</title>
      <imprint>
         <biblScope type="vol">8</biblScope>
         <date>1913</date>
         <biblScope type="pages">122</biblScope>
      </imprint>
   </monogr>
</biblStruct>


<biblItem type="article">
   <author>Lucy Allen Paton</author>
   <title>Notes on Manuscripts of the
      <title level="m" lang="FRA">Proph&#xE9;cies de Merlin</title>
   </title>
   <relatedBiblItem role="host" type="journal">
      <title>PMLA</title>
      <biblScope type="volume">8</biblScope>
      <imprint>
        <date>1913</date>
      </imprint>
      <biblScope type="page">122</biblScope>
   </relatedBiblItem>
</biblItem>

----------

<biblStruct>
   <monogr lang="DEU">
      <title>Des Minnesangs Fr&#xFC;hling</title>
      <note place="inline">Mit 1 Faksimile</note>
      <edition>36., neugestaltete und erweiterte Auflage</edition>
      <respStmt>
         <resp>Unter Benutzung der Ausgaben von <name>Karl
            Lachmann</name> und <name>Moriz Haupt</name>, <name>Friedrich
 Vogt</name> und <name>Carl von Kraus</name> bearbeitet von</resp>
         <name>Hugo Moser</name>
         <name>Helmut Tervooren</name>
      </respStmt>
      <imprint>
         <biblScope type="volume">I</biblScope>
         <biblScope type="volume title">Texte</biblScope>
         <pubPlace>Stuttgart</pubPlace>
         <publisher>S. Hirzel Verlag</publisher>
         <date>1977</date>
      </imprint>
   </monogr>
</biblStruct>

<biblItem type="book">
   <title lang="DEU">Texte</title>
   <relatedBiblItem role="host" type="book">
      <title lang="DEU">Des Minnesangs Fr&#xFC;hling</title>
      <edition lang="DEU">36., neugestaltete und erweiterte
Auflage</edition>
      <respStmt>
         <resp lang="DEU">Unter Benutzung der Ausgaben von <name>Karl
            Lachmann</name> und <name>Moriz Haupt</name>, <name>Friedrich
            Vogt</name> und <name>Carl von Kraus</name> bearbeitet
von</resp>
         <name>Hugo Moser</name>
         <name>Helmut Tervooren</name>
      </respStmt>
      <imprint>
         <pubPlace>Stuttgart</pubPlace>
         <publisher>S. Hirzel Verlag</publisher>
         <date>1977</date>
      </imprint>
      <biblScope type="volume">I</biblScope>
   </relatedBiblItem>
   <note lang="DEU">Mit 1 Faksimile</note>
</biblItem>

-------------

<biblStruct>
   <monogr>
      <author>Shirley, James</author>
      <title type="main">The gentlemen of Venice</title>
      <title type="subordinate">a tragi-comedie presented at the private
          house in Salisbury Court by Her Majesties servants</title>
          <note place="inline">[Microform]</note>
      <imprint>
         <pubPlace>London</pubPlace>
         <publisher>H. Moseley</publisher>
         <date>1655</date>
      </imprint>
      <extent>78 p.</extent>
   </monogr>
   <monogr>
      <imprint>
         <pubPlace>New York</pubPlace>
         <publisher>Readex Microprint</publisher>
         <date>1953</date>
      </imprint>
      <extent>1 microprint card, 23 x 15 cm.</extent>
   </monogr>
   <series>
      <title>Three centuries of drama: English, 1642&#x2013;1700</title>
   </series>
</biblStruct>

<biblItem type="book">
   <author>Shirley, James</author>
   <title>The gentlemen of Venice</title>
   <title type="subordinate">A tragi-comedie presented at the private
house in
      Salisbury Court by Her Majesties servants</title>
   <imprint>
      <pubPlace>London</pubPlace>
      <publisher>H. Moseley</publisher>
      <date>1655</date>
   </imprint>
   <extent type="pages">78</extent>
   <relatedBiblItem role="reprint" type="microform">
      <imprint>
         <pubPlace>New York</pubPlace>
         <publisher>Readex Microprint</publisher>
         <date>1953</date>
      </imprint>
      <extent>1 microprint card, 23 x 15 cm</extent>
      <relatedBiblItem role="host" type="series">
         <title>Three centuries of drama</title>
         <title type="subordinate">English, 1642&#x2013;1700</title>
      </relatedBiblItem>
   </relatedBiblItem>
</biblItem>

-----------

<biblStruct>
   <analytic>
      <author>Wrigley, E. A.</author>
      <title>Parish registers and the historian</title>
   </analytic>
   <monogr>
      <editor>Steel, D. J.</editor>
      <title>National index of parish registers</title>
      <imprint>
         <pubPlace>London</pubPlace>
         <publisher>Society of Genealogists</publisher>
         <date value="1968">1968</date>
      </imprint>
      <biblScope type="volume">vol. 1</biblScope>
      <biblScope type="pages">pp. 155&#x2013;167.</biblScope>
   </monogr>
</biblStruct>

<biblItem type="article">
   <author>Wrigley, E. A.</author>
   <title>Parish registers and the historian</title>
   <relatedBiblItem role="host" type="book">
     <editor>Steel, D. J.</editor>
     <title>National index of parish registers</title>
     <imprint>
       <pubPlace>London</pubPlace>
         <publisher>Society of Genealogists</publisher>
         <date>1968</date>
     </imprint>
     <biblScope type="volume">1</biblScope>
     <biblScope type="pages">155&#x2013;167</biblScope>
   </relatedBiblItem>
</biblItem>

----------

<biblStruct>
   <analytic>
      <author>Boguraev, Branimir</author>
      <author>Neff, Mary</author>
      <title>Text Representation, Dictionary Structure,
             and Lexical Knowledge</title>
   </analytic>
   <monogr>
      <title level="j">Literary &amp; Linguistic Computing</title>
      <imprint>
         <biblScope type="volume">7</biblScope>
         <biblScope type="issue">2</biblScope>
         <date>1992</date>
         <biblScope type="pages">110-112</biblScope>
      </imprint>
   </monogr>
</biblStruct>


<biblItem type="article">
   <author>Boguraev, Branimir</author>
   <author>Neff, Mary</author>
   <title>Text Representation, Dictionary Structure,
          and Lexical Knowledge</title>
   <relatedBiblItem role="host" type="journal">
     <title>Literary &amp; Linguistic Computing</title>
     <biblScope type="volume">7</biblScope>
     <imprint>
       <date>1992</date>
     </imprint>
     <biblScope type="issue">2</biblScope>
     <biblScope type="pages">110&#x2013;112</biblScope>
   </relatedBiblItem>
</biblItem>

----------------------

<biblStruct>
   <analytic>
      <author>Chesnutt, David</author>
      <title>Historical Editions in the States</title>
   </analytic>
   <monogr>
      <title level="j">Computers and the Humanities</title>
      <imprint>
         <biblScope>25.6</biblScope>
         <date value="1991-12">(December, 1991):</date>
         <biblScope>377&#x2013;380</biblScope>
      </imprint>
   </monogr>
</biblStruct>


<biblItem>
   <author>Chesnutt, David</author>
   <title>Historical Editions in the States</title>
   <relatedBiblItem role="host" type="journal">
      <title level="j">Computers and the Humanities</title>
      <biblScope type="volume">25</biblScope>
      <imprint>
         <date value="1991-12">December, 1991</date>
      </imprint>
      <biblScope type="issue">6</biblScope>
      <biblScope type="pages">377&#x2013;380</biblScope>
   </relatedBiblItem>
</biblItem>

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