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CONLANG  October 2004, Week 1

CONLANG October 2004, Week 1

Subject:

Relative clauses and lambda calculus

From:

Pablo Barenbaum <[log in to unmask]>

Reply-To:

[log in to unmask]

Date:

Fri, 1 Oct 2004 08:52:19 -0700

Content-Type:

text/plain

Parts/Attachments:

Parts/Attachments

text/plain (310 lines)

 I've been thinking that relative clauses are just
like functions in lambda calculus, and that abstraction
could be eliminated using the S, K and I combinators.
I thought about this when reading about the obfuscated
programming language Unlambda:

http://www.eleves.ens.fr:8080/home/madore/programs/unlambda/unlambda.html

Let me explain:

 Suppose we have a language where roots are isolated
and the only thing one can do is "applying" a root to
another root. The functor would be the modifier and
the arguments modified.

 Syntax would be quite simple (in a kind of BNF):

 construct ::= root | ` construct construct

 Where ` is the apply operator. ` A B reads "apply A
to B". And every other construction would be delegated on
semantics.

 Let's work with English words as roots for some examples
(I'll also assume English semantics, but it is not the point):

 Intransitive verbs are just applied to nouns:
 ` write man
 the man writes

 Adjectives are simply intransitive verbs (just like in many
natural languages):
 ` white book
 the book is white = white book

 Of course, application is recursive:
 ` write ` tall ` red man
 the tall red man writes

 Adverbs could be applied to adjectives or verbs:

 ` ` quickly write ` ` amazingly tall man
 the amazingly tall man writes quickly

 Transitive verbs are (in currying fashion) verbs that
when applied to a nominal construction (the object, maybe?)
yields an intransitive verb that, when applied to a second
nominal construction (the subject), yields the expected
result:

 ` ` write* book man
 the man writes a book

 Where:
 ` write* book
 Corresponds to the verb "to write-a-book".

 Notice that in the language, intransitive write and
transitive write* should be different words (probably
regularly related).

 Oblique constructions should be applied to the verb, too:

 ` ` ` in sky fly plane
 the plane flies in the sky

 Many ambiguities dissapear:

 ` ` see ` ` with telescope man I
 I see [a man with a telescope]

 ` ` ` ` with telescope see man I
 I see [a man] with a telescope

 ` ` hate ` ` and dance ` eat cheese I
 I hate [dancing and eating cheese]

 ` ` ` and ` hate dance ` eat cheese I
 I hate dancing and I eat cheese

--

 Now let's analyse relative clauses:

 Just like adjectives can be interpreted like intransitive
verbs or adjectives, when translated:

 ` red book
 the book is red

 ` ` write ` red book man
 the man writes a red book

We could do the same with verbs:

 ` ` eat cheese man
 the man eats cheese

 ` write ` ` eat cheese man
 the man [who eats cheese] writes

 When the order is the expected, there are no problems.
But what if we want to express, say:

 the book [the man writes] is red

 We cannot say:

 ` red ` ` write man book
 the book [that writes a man] is red
 (The book is the writer).

 And neither:
 ` red ` ` write book man
 the man [that writes a book] is red
 (The sense of the relative clause is ok, but "red" should modify "book",
not man).

 We need more expressive constructions. Adopting lambda notation for
functions (where \ pretends to be the ASCII version of a greek lowercase
lambda):

 (\ x : ` ` write x man)

 Is a construction that, when applied to an argument
x, means "the man writes x".

For instance:

 ` (\ x : ` ` write x man) book
 the man writes a book

 ` (\ x : ` ` write x man) novel
 the man writes a novel

Therefore:

 the book [the man writes] is red

 Can be expressed as:

 ` red ` (\ x : ` ` write x man) book

Notice that if we reduce it:

 ` red ` ` write book man

It yields the previously discarded construction. Expressions
with lambdas are not necessarily equivalent when reduced.
Here, lambdas are precisely used to show that the modified
root is "book" and not "man".

--

 We could invent a way of directly translating lambda
expressions into our conlang.

 But there is an ugly problem: the name x. In math, its said
of x that it is a mute variable, as changing its name does
not change the meaning of the expression.

 Fortunately, this problem has already been solved with
the S, K and I combinators.

 Definition:

 I is the identity function:
 I = (\ x : x)
For all x:
 ` I x = x

 K is the constant function generator:
 K = (\ x : (\ y : x))
For all x, y:
 ` ` K x y = x

 And S is the substituted application function:
 S = (\ x : (\ y : (\ z : ` ` x z ` y z)))
For all x, y, z:
 ` ` ` S x y z =  ` ` x z ` y z

--

 By induction, it's not hard to prove that any lambda
expression can be reduced to an expression using these
combinators, and without any mute variable.

 A lambda expression (\ x : e) falls into one of these three cases:

1) e is x
In this case, (\ x : e) = (\ x : x) , which is precisely I!!

2) e is a constant, or another variable not being x
In this case, (\ x : e) = (\ x : a) , which is ` K a
Note that:
 ` (\ x : a) b = a = ` ` K a b

3) e is the application ` f g:
(\ x : e) = (\ x : ` f g) , which is ` ` S (\ x : f) (\ x : g)
(and then the we eliminate the lambda in the inner expressions
f and g which, by induction, are simpler and we already know how
to reduce.
Note that:
 ` (\ x : ` f g) b = ` ` (\ x : f) b ` (\x : g) b =
= ` ` ` S (\x : f) (\x : g) b

--

 A rule for mechanically eliminating abstraction in a lambda
expressions (\ x : e):

 Reading e from left to right, replace:
 ` with ` ` S
 x with I
 any constant or variable a other than x with ` K a

 If more than one lambda need to be eliminated, start with
the innermost ones first.

--

 Examples:

 (\ x : ` red x)
=> ` ` S ` K red I

 We should expect:
 ` (\ x : ` red x) book
To yield the same result as:
 ` red book

Let's reduce the expression:
 ` ` ` S ` K red I book =
= ` ` ` K red book ` I book =
= ` red ` I book = ` red book

--

 Let's eliminate the abstraction from:
 (\ x : ` ` write x man)
=> ` ` S ` ` S ` K write I ` K man

And let's now express the original problematic sentence:
 the book [the man writes] is red
 ` red ` (\ x : ` ` write x man) book

Reducing:
 ` red ` ` ` S ` ` S ` K write I ` K man book =
= ` red ` ` ` ` S ` K write I book ` ` K man book =
= ` red ` ` ` ` K write book ` I book ` ` K man book =
= ` red ` ` write ` I book ` ` K man book =
= ` red ` ` write book ` ` K man book =
= ` red ` ` write book man

(Which yields, as shown before, the correct expansion but they
are not equivalent in the language).

--

 The power of lambda expressions guarantees that every possible
relative clause is expressable in this language, and that no
ambiguities can appear in nested clauses.

 An example of a relative clause impossible in English from
the Language Construction Kit:

This is the man [my girlfriend's father is a friend of John and him]

First, let's define f (with definition as abbreviation only):

f = (\ x : ` ` be ` ` of ` ` and John x friend ` ` <POSS> ` ` <POSS> i girlfriend father)
` f x = my girlfriend's father is a friend of John and x
(Note: I write the first person pronoun as "i" to avoid confusion with "I",
the identity function! <POSS> is a root for possessive, where
` ` <POSS> X Y = X's Y).

The sentence using f:

` ` be ` f man this

Let's eliminate the abstraction of f:
 (\ x : ` ` be ` ` of ` ` and John x friend ` ` <POSS> ` ` <POSS> i girlfriend father)
becomes:
 ` ` S ` ` S ` K be ` ` S ` ` S ` K of ` ` S ` ` S ` K and ` K John
I ` K friend ` ` S ` ` S ` K <POSS> ` ` S ` ` S ` K <POSS> ` K i
` K girlfriend ` K father

Then, the whole sentence:

` ` be ` ` ` S ` ` S ` K be ` ` S ` ` S ` K of ` ` S ` ` S ` K and
` K John I ` K friend ` ` S ` ` S ` K <POSS> ` ` S ` ` S ` K <POSS>
` K i ` K girlfriend ` K father man this

Which is a bit quite long. Some tricks could be used to make it shorter.
There's much more about it in the Unlambda reference.

These kilometric expressions make me believe this is probably violating
a language universal, in the sense that it is counter-intuitive. Anyway,
at least for me, it is an interesting theoretical exercise.

 To create a real conlang, the apply operator should be grammaticalized
somehow (as an inflection, syntactically, etc.). I leave the rest as an
exercise to the conlang world.

--
Pablo Barenbaum

_____________________________________________________________
Create tu cuenta webmail en http://www.starlinux.net

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April 2007, Week 2
April 2007, Week 1
March 2007, Week 5
March 2007, Week 4
March 2007, Week 3
March 2007, Week 2
March 2007, Week 1
February 2007, Week 4
February 2007, Week 3
February 2007, Week 2
February 2007, Week 1
January 2007, Week 5
January 2007, Week 4
January 2007, Week 3
January 2007, Week 2
January 2007, Week 1
December 2006, Week 5
December 2006, Week 4
December 2006, Week 3
December 2006, Week 2
December 2006, Week 1
November 2006, Week 5
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November 2006, Week 3
November 2006, Week 2
November 2006, Week 1
October 2006, Week 5
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October 2006, Week 3
October 2006, Week 2
October 2006, Week 1
September 2006, Week 5
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September 2006, Week 1
August 2006, Week 5
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August 2006, Week 1
July 2006, Week 5
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July 2006, Week 3
July 2006, Week 2
July 2006, Week 1
June 2006, Week 5
June 2006, Week 4
June 2006, Week 3
June 2006, Week 2
June 2006, Week 1
May 2006, Week 5
May 2006, Week 4
May 2006, Week 3
May 2006, Week 2
May 2006, Week 1
April 2006, Week 5
April 2006, Week 4
April 2006, Week 3
April 2006, Week 2
April 2006, Week 1
March 2006, Week 5
March 2006, Week 4
March 2006, Week 3
March 2006, Week 2
March 2006, Week 1
February 2006, Week 4
February 2006, Week 3
February 2006, Week 2
February 2006, Week 1
January 2006, Week 5
January 2006, Week 4
January 2006, Week 3
January 2006, Week 2
January 2006, Week 1
December 2005, Week 5
December 2005, Week 4
December 2005, Week 3
December 2005, Week 2
December 2005, Week 1
November 2005, Week 5
November 2005, Week 4
November 2005, Week 3
November 2005, Week 2
November 2005, Week 1
October 2005, Week 5
October 2005, Week 4
October 2005, Week 3
October 2005, Week 2
October 2005, Week 1
September 2005, Week 5
September 2005, Week 4
September 2005, Week 3
September 2005, Week 2
September 2005, Week 1
August 2005, Week 5
August 2005, Week 4
August 2005, Week 3
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August 2005, Week 1
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July 2005, Week 1
June 2005, Week 5
June 2005, Week 4
June 2005, Week 3
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May 2005, Week 5
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May 2005, Week 3
May 2005, Week 2
May 2005, Week 1
April 2005, Week 5
April 2005, Week 4
April 2005, Week 3
April 2005, Week 2
April 2005, Week 1
March 2005, Week 5
March 2005, Week 4
March 2005, Week 3
March 2005, Week 2
March 2005, Week 1
February 2005, Week 4
February 2005, Week 3
February 2005, Week 2
February 2005, Week 1
January 2005, Week 5
January 2005, Week 4
January 2005, Week 3
January 2005, Week 2
January 2005, Week 1
December 2004, Week 5
December 2004, Week 4
December 2004, Week 3
December 2004, Week 2
December 2004, Week 1
November 2004, Week 5
November 2004, Week 4
November 2004, Week 3
November 2004, Week 2
November 2004, Week 1
October 2004, Week 5
October 2004, Week 4
October 2004, Week 3
October 2004, Week 2
October 2004, Week 1
September 2004, Week 5
September 2004, Week 4
September 2004, Week 3
September 2004, Week 2
September 2004, Week 1
August 2004, Week 5
August 2004, Week 4
August 2004, Week 3
August 2004, Week 2
August 2004, Week 1
July 2004, Week 5
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July 2004, Week 3
July 2004, Week 2
July 2004, Week 1
June 2004, Week 5
June 2004, Week 4
June 2004, Week 3
June 2004, Week 2
June 2004, Week 1
May 2004, Week 5
May 2004, Week 4
May 2004, Week 3
May 2004, Week 2
May 2004, Week 1
April 2004, Week 5
April 2004, Week 4
April 2004, Week 3
April 2004, Week 2
April 2004, Week 1
March 2004, Week 5
March 2004, Week 4
March 2004, Week 3
March 2004, Week 2
March 2004, Week 1
February 2004, Week 5
February 2004, Week 4
February 2004, Week 3
February 2004, Week 2
February 2004, Week 1
January 2004, Week 5
January 2004, Week 4
January 2004, Week 3
January 2004, Week 2
January 2004, Week 1
December 2003, Week 5
December 2003, Week 4
December 2003, Week 3
December 2003, Week 2
December 2003, Week 1
November 2003, Week 5
November 2003, Week 4
November 2003, Week 3
November 2003, Week 2
November 2003, Week 1
October 2003, Week 5
October 2003, Week 4
October 2003, Week 3
October 2003, Week 2
October 2003, Week 1
September 2003, Week 5
September 2003, Week 4
September 2003, Week 3
September 2003, Week 2
September 2003, Week 1
August 2003, Week 5
August 2003, Week 4
August 2003, Week 3
August 2003, Week 2
August 2003, Week 1
July 2003, Week 5
July 2003, Week 4
July 2003, Week 3
July 2003, Week 2
July 2003, Week 1
June 2003, Week 5
June 2003, Week 4
June 2003, Week 3
June 2003, Week 2
June 2003, Week 1
May 2003, Week 5
May 2003, Week 4
May 2003, Week 3
May 2003, Week 2
May 2003, Week 1
April 2003, Week 5
April 2003, Week 4
April 2003, Week 3
April 2003, Week 2
April 2003, Week 1
March 2003, Week 5
March 2003, Week 4
March 2003, Week 3
March 2003, Week 2
March 2003, Week 1
February 2003, Week 4
February 2003, Week 3
February 2003, Week 2
February 2003, Week 1
January 2003, Week 5
January 2003, Week 4
January 2003, Week 3
January 2003, Week 2
January 2003, Week 1
December 2002, Week 5
December 2002, Week 4
December 2002, Week 3
December 2002, Week 2
December 2002, Week 1
November 2002, Week 5
November 2002, Week 4
November 2002, Week 3
November 2002, Week 2
November 2002, Week 1
October 2002, Week 5
October 2002, Week 4
October 2002, Week 3
October 2002, Week 2
October 2002, Week 1
September 2002, Week 5
September 2002, Week 4
September 2002, Week 3
September 2002, Week 2
September 2002, Week 1
August 2002, Week 5
August 2002, Week 4
August 2002, Week 3
August 2002, Week 2
August 2002, Week 1
July 2002, Week 5
July 2002, Week 4
July 2002, Week 3
July 2002, Week 2
July 2002, Week 1
June 2002, Week 5
June 2002, Week 4
June 2002, Week 3
June 2002, Week 2
June 2002, Week 1
May 2002, Week 5
May 2002, Week 4
May 2002, Week 3
May 2002, Week 2
May 2002, Week 1
April 2002, Week 5
April 2002, Week 4
April 2002, Week 3
April 2002, Week 2
April 2002, Week 1
March 2002, Week 5
March 2002, Week 4
March 2002, Week 3
March 2002, Week 2
March 2002, Week 1
February 2002, Week 4
February 2002, Week 3
February 2002, Week 2
February 2002, Week 1
January 2002, Week 5
January 2002, Week 4
January 2002, Week 3
January 2002, Week 2
January 2002, Week 1
December 2001, Week 5
December 2001, Week 4
December 2001, Week 3
December 2001, Week 2
December 2001, Week 1
November 2001, Week 5
November 2001, Week 4
November 2001, Week 3
November 2001, Week 2
November 2001, Week 1
October 2001, Week 5
October 2001, Week 4
October 2001, Week 3
October 2001, Week 2
October 2001, Week 1
September 2001, Week 5
September 2001, Week 4
September 2001, Week 3
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September 2001, Week 1
August 2001, Week 5
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August 2001, Week 3
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July 2001, Week 2
July 2001, Week 1
June 2001, Week 5
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June 2001, Week 3
June 2001, Week 2
June 2001, Week 1
May 2001, Week 5
May 2001, Week 4
May 2001, Week 3
May 2001, Week 2
May 2001, Week 1
April 2001, Week 5
April 2001, Week 4
April 2001, Week 3
April 2001, Week 2
April 2001, Week 1
March 2001, Week 5
March 2001, Week 4
March 2001, Week 3
March 2001, Week 2
March 2001, Week 1
February 2001, Week 4
February 2001, Week 3
February 2001, Week 2
February 2001, Week 1
January 2001, Week 5
January 2001, Week 4
January 2001, Week 3
January 2001, Week 2
January 2001, Week 1
December 2000, Week 5
December 2000, Week 4
December 2000, Week 3
December 2000, Week 2
December 2000, Week 1
November 2000, Week 5
November 2000, Week 4
November 2000, Week 3
November 2000, Week 2
November 2000, Week 1
October 2000, Week 5
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October 2000, Week 1
September 2000, Week 5
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September 2000, Week 2
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July 2000, Week 1
June 2000, Week 5
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June 2000, Week 3
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June 2000, Week 1
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May 2000, Week 1
April 2000, Week 5
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April 2000, Week 2
April 2000, Week 1
March 2000, Week 5
March 2000, Week 4
March 2000, Week 3
March 2000, Week 2
March 2000, Week 1
February 2000, Week 5
February 2000, Week 4
February 2000, Week 3
February 2000, Week 2
February 2000, Week 1
January 2000, Week 5
January 2000, Week 4
January 2000, Week 3
January 2000, Week 2
January 2000, Week 1
December 1999, Week 5
December 1999, Week 4
December 1999, Week 3
December 1999, Week 2
December 1999, Week 1
November 1999, Week 5
November 1999, Week 4
November 1999, Week 3
November 1999, Week 2
November 1999, Week 1
October 1999, Week 5
October 1999, Week 4
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October 1999, Week 1
September 1999, Week 5
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September 1999, Week 1
August 1999, Week 5
August 1999, Week 4
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June 1999, Week 5
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April 1999, Week 1
March 1999, Week 5
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February 1999, Week 5
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December 1998, Week 5
December 1998, Week 4
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October 1998, Week 5
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October 1998, Week 3
October 1998, Week 2
October 1998, Week 1
September 1998, Week 5
September 1998, Week 4
September 1998, Week 3

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