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CONLANG Home

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CONLANG  October 2004, Week 3

CONLANG October 2004, Week 3

Subject:

Re: Gzarondan: Phonological Review

From:

"Adrian Morgan (aka Flesh-eating Dragon)" <[log in to unmask]>

Reply-To:

Constructed Languages List <[log in to unmask]>

Date:

Sat, 16 Oct 2004 16:51:12 +0930

Content-Type:

text/plain

Parts/Attachments:

Parts/Attachments

text/plain (249 lines)

Whoops! Somehow my previous message was truncated! I have no idea how
that happened! I am now very angry with my computer, evil malicious
thing that it is!


Forget everything I've written. Except for the request for comments,
of course. Is there anything un-naturalistic about this?

I've gone and made some MAJOR changes.

I hate the way that one never knows when one is finished; it can be
infuriating!

The current version is described below, and is also online at:
http://web.netyp.com/member/dragon/create/language/gzarondaa.txt
which is where future updates will be posted.

My conlang index page:
http://web.netyp.com/member/dragon/create/language/conlanging.htm

Adrian.

**********************************************************************
*********************   Vowels and Diphthongs   **********************
**********************************************************************

+------------+------------+------------+
|   Front    |  Central   |    Back    |
+------------+------------+------------+----------------+
| /I/   /E/  | /@/   /a/  | /U/   /O/  | Short Vowels   |
| /i:/  /e:/ | /8:/  /a:/ | /o:/  /O:/ | Long Vowels    |
| /aI/       |            | /aU/       | Closing Series |
| /I8/  /E8/ |            |            | Rhotic Series  |
+------------+------------+------------+----------------+

Comments:

  * /E/ is pronounced [&] after a velar or palatal consonant, except
    in an unstressed syllable that is preceded by a syllable which
    also contains /E/.

  * /a/ is not distinguished from /@/ at the end of a word, nor is /I/
    distingued from /i:/.

**********************************************************************
***************************   Consonants   ***************************
**********************************************************************

+------------------------------+------------------+----------------+
|          FRICATIVES          |      STOPS       |     OTHER      |
+------------------------------+------------------+----------------+
| Unmarked  Labialised  Voiced | Unvoiced  Voiced | Nasals  Trills |
|                              |                  |                |
| /T/       /f/         /D/    | /p/       /b/    | /m/            |
| /s/       /S/         /z/    | /t/       /d/    | /n/     /r/    |
| /x/       /x_w/              | /k/       /g/    |                |
+------------------------------+------------------+----------------+

                        +------------------------------------------+
                        |    MISCELLANEOUS CONSONANTS              |
                        +------------------------------------------+
                        | Voiced palatal approximant:          /j/ |
                        | Voiced alveolar lateral approximant: /l/ |
                        | Unvoiced alveolar lateral fricative: /K/ |
                        +------------------------------------------+

Comments:

  * Although the category of labialised fricatives cannot be taken
    literally in the modern phonology, it does have a historical
    basis.

  * /r/ is ordinarily [r] (aveolar trill) but after /n/ it is [r\`]
    (retroflex approximant). Note that this can only occur at a word
    boundary.

  * Before a rounded vowel or /@/, the only distinction between /x/
    and /x_w/ is often the presence of a gliding [w] after the
    latter. The syllables /x_w@l/ and /x_wUl/ have no auditory
    distinction.

  * /l/ is velarised (i.e. articulated as [5]) at the end of a
    syllable and when preceded but not followed by a vowel or
    diphthong.

  * /@l/ is usually articulated as [5=] except after /l/ or at the
    beginning of a word.

  * When preceded by /l/ and followed by either /l/ or an unstressed
    syllable containing /l/, alveolar stops undergo the following
    changes: /d/ is not articulated at all (except to say that the
    preceding /l/ is not velarised if it otherwise would be) while /t/
    is articulated as [K].

  * /t/ is articulated as [?] before /K/ or [log in to unmask]

**********************************************************************
***********************   Syllable Structure   ***********************
**********************************************************************

Syllables are essentially CVC, bearing in mind that the consonant
sections may be empty, and that other possible values for the sections
are detailed below.

Syllable-Initial Section:

  * All consonants are permitted at the syllable-initial section, as
    are the following structures:

    +------------+------------+----------+------------+
    | L-Series   | R-Series   | S-Series | Affricates |
    +------------+------------+----------+------------+
    | /pl/  /bl/ | /pr/  /br/ | /sp/     |            |
    |            | /tr/  /dr/ | /st/     | /ts/       |
    | /kl/  /gl/ | /kr/  /gr/ | /sk/     | /gz/       |
    | /fl/  /Tl/ | /fr/  /Tr/ | /sf/     |            |
    | /sl/  /Sl/ |            |          |            |
    +------------+------------+----------+------------+

Syllable-Internal Section:

   * The inside of a syllable may contain any vowel or diphthong, or
     else one of the following (known as the Lateral Series):
     /Il/ /El/ /8:l/ /al/ /Ol/.

Syllable-Final Section:

  * The following consonants cannot occur at the syllable-final
    section: voiced fricatives, trills, non-lateral approximants, /K/
    and /x_w/. All other consonants are permitted.

  * The following structures can occur: /mp/, /nt/, /nd/.

**********************************************************************
********************   Phonological Constraints   ********************
**********************************************************************

Constraints that apply within syllables only:

  * /r/ cannot be followed by a member of the rhotic series unless the
    syllable is stressed.

  * A member of the L-series or R-series cannot be followed by a
    member of the lateral series unless the syllable-final section is
    empty.

  * /l/ cannot appear after /o:/ or /O:/.

Constraints that apply anywhere within a word:

  * Consecutive vowels and diphthongs are illegal.

  * Three consonants in a row are illegal unless both of the following
    apply: (a) the first is a nasal or velar stop, and (b) the
    following vowel is not [log in to unmask] Note that an /l/ occuring as part of
    the lateral series does not count as a consonant.

  * Consecutive stops are illegal unless the first is velar.

  * Consecutive fricatives are illegal unless place of articulation
    contrasts or the following syllable is stressed. Note that
    fricatives listed as labialised in the phonological inventory are
    deemed not to contrast with their non-labialised equivalents.

  * A nasal cannot be followed by /r/.

  * There are no geminated consonants. For a similar reason, /l/
    cannot appear after a member of the lateral series.

**********************************************************************
****************************   Stress   ******************************
**********************************************************************

Stress is not regular, but some generalisations can be made:

When syllables are LIKELY to be stressed:

  * The first syllable that can be stressed usually is stressed.

  * Stress gravitates toward syllables beginning with an approximant,
    velar fricative, lateral or trill.

When syllables CANNOT be stressed:

  * /@/ cannot be stressed except when the other restrictions below
    rule out all alternatives.

  * A word cannot be stressed on its final syllable if that syllable
    contains a short vowel.

  * Stress cannot appear on consecutive syllables in the same word.

Other stress rules:

  * Prefixes and suffixes do not modify the stress on the root, but an
    infix will often do so.

**********************************************************************
****************************   Spelling   ****************************
**********************************************************************

+----------+---------+----------+---------+
| Spelling | Phoneme | Spelling | Phoneme |
+----------+---------+----------+---------+
| i        | /I/     | ii       | /i:/    |
| e        | /E/     | ei       | /e:/    |
| u        | /@/     | uj       | /8:/    |
| a        | /a/     | aa       | /a:/    |
| w        | /U/     | ow       | /o:/    |
| o        | /O/     | oo       | /O:/    |
+----------+---------+----------+---------+

  * Use 'i' in place of 'ii' at the end of a word.
  * Use 'a' in place of 'u' at the end of a word.

+----------+---------+
| Spelling | Phoneme |
+----------+---------+
| ai       | /aI/    |
| aw       | /aU/    |
| ij       | /I8/    |
| ej       | /E8/    |
+----------+---------+

+----------+---------+----------+---------+----------+---------+
| Spelling | Phoneme | Spelling | Phoneme | Spelling | Phoneme |
+----------+---------+----------+---------+----------+---------+
| m        | /m/     | b        | /b/     | p        | /p/     |
| n        | /n/     | d        | /d/     | t        | /t/     |
|          |         | g        | /g/     | k        | /k/     |
+----------+---------+----------+---------+----------+---------+

+----------+---------+----------+---------+----------+---------+
| Spelling | Phoneme | Spelling | Phoneme | Spelling | Phoneme |
+----------+---------+----------+---------+----------+---------+
| v        | /D/     | h        | /T/     | f        | /f/     |
| z        | /z/     | s        | /s/     | x        | /S/     |
|          |         | c        | /x/     | q        | /x_w/   |
+----------+---------+----------+---------+----------+---------+

+----------+---------+
| Spelling | Phoneme |
+----------+---------+
| r        | /r/     |
| y        | /j/     |
| l        | /l/     |
| yl       | /K/     |
+----------+---------+

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December 2007, Week 2
December 2007, Week 1
November 2007, Week 5
November 2007, Week 4
November 2007, Week 3
November 2007, Week 2
November 2007, Week 1
October 2007, Week 5
October 2007, Week 4
October 2007, Week 3
October 2007, Week 2
October 2007, Week 1
September 2007, Week 5
September 2007, Week 4
September 2007, Week 3
September 2007, Week 2
September 2007, Week 1
August 2007, Week 5
August 2007, Week 4
August 2007, Week 3
August 2007, Week 2
August 2007, Week 1
July 2007, Week 5
July 2007, Week 4
July 2007, Week 3
July 2007, Week 2
July 2007, Week 1
June 2007, Week 5
June 2007, Week 4
June 2007, Week 3
June 2007, Week 2
June 2007, Week 1
May 2007, Week 5
May 2007, Week 4
May 2007, Week 3
May 2007, Week 2
May 2007, Week 1
April 2007, Week 5
April 2007, Week 4
April 2007, Week 3
April 2007, Week 2
April 2007, Week 1
March 2007, Week 5
March 2007, Week 4
March 2007, Week 3
March 2007, Week 2
March 2007, Week 1
February 2007, Week 4
February 2007, Week 3
February 2007, Week 2
February 2007, Week 1
January 2007, Week 5
January 2007, Week 4
January 2007, Week 3
January 2007, Week 2
January 2007, Week 1
December 2006, Week 5
December 2006, Week 4
December 2006, Week 3
December 2006, Week 2
December 2006, Week 1
November 2006, Week 5
November 2006, Week 4
November 2006, Week 3
November 2006, Week 2
November 2006, Week 1
October 2006, Week 5
October 2006, Week 4
October 2006, Week 3
October 2006, Week 2
October 2006, Week 1
September 2006, Week 5
September 2006, Week 4
September 2006, Week 3
September 2006, Week 2
September 2006, Week 1
August 2006, Week 5
August 2006, Week 4
August 2006, Week 3
August 2006, Week 2
August 2006, Week 1
July 2006, Week 5
July 2006, Week 4
July 2006, Week 3
July 2006, Week 2
July 2006, Week 1
June 2006, Week 5
June 2006, Week 4
June 2006, Week 3
June 2006, Week 2
June 2006, Week 1
May 2006, Week 5
May 2006, Week 4
May 2006, Week 3
May 2006, Week 2
May 2006, Week 1
April 2006, Week 5
April 2006, Week 4
April 2006, Week 3
April 2006, Week 2
April 2006, Week 1
March 2006, Week 5
March 2006, Week 4
March 2006, Week 3
March 2006, Week 2
March 2006, Week 1
February 2006, Week 4
February 2006, Week 3
February 2006, Week 2
February 2006, Week 1
January 2006, Week 5
January 2006, Week 4
January 2006, Week 3
January 2006, Week 2
January 2006, Week 1
December 2005, Week 5
December 2005, Week 4
December 2005, Week 3
December 2005, Week 2
December 2005, Week 1
November 2005, Week 5
November 2005, Week 4
November 2005, Week 3
November 2005, Week 2
November 2005, Week 1
October 2005, Week 5
October 2005, Week 4
October 2005, Week 3
October 2005, Week 2
October 2005, Week 1
September 2005, Week 5
September 2005, Week 4
September 2005, Week 3
September 2005, Week 2
September 2005, Week 1
August 2005, Week 5
August 2005, Week 4
August 2005, Week 3
August 2005, Week 2
August 2005, Week 1
July 2005, Week 5
July 2005, Week 4
July 2005, Week 3
July 2005, Week 2
July 2005, Week 1
June 2005, Week 5
June 2005, Week 4
June 2005, Week 3
June 2005, Week 2
June 2005, Week 1
May 2005, Week 5
May 2005, Week 4
May 2005, Week 3
May 2005, Week 2
May 2005, Week 1
April 2005, Week 5
April 2005, Week 4
April 2005, Week 3
April 2005, Week 2
April 2005, Week 1
March 2005, Week 5
March 2005, Week 4
March 2005, Week 3
March 2005, Week 2
March 2005, Week 1
February 2005, Week 4
February 2005, Week 3
February 2005, Week 2
February 2005, Week 1
January 2005, Week 5
January 2005, Week 4
January 2005, Week 3
January 2005, Week 2
January 2005, Week 1
December 2004, Week 5
December 2004, Week 4
December 2004, Week 3
December 2004, Week 2
December 2004, Week 1
November 2004, Week 5
November 2004, Week 4
November 2004, Week 3
November 2004, Week 2
November 2004, Week 1
October 2004, Week 5
October 2004, Week 4
October 2004, Week 3
October 2004, Week 2
October 2004, Week 1
September 2004, Week 5
September 2004, Week 4
September 2004, Week 3
September 2004, Week 2
September 2004, Week 1
August 2004, Week 5
August 2004, Week 4
August 2004, Week 3
August 2004, Week 2
August 2004, Week 1
July 2004, Week 5
July 2004, Week 4
July 2004, Week 3
July 2004, Week 2
July 2004, Week 1
June 2004, Week 5
June 2004, Week 4
June 2004, Week 3
June 2004, Week 2
June 2004, Week 1
May 2004, Week 5
May 2004, Week 4
May 2004, Week 3
May 2004, Week 2
May 2004, Week 1
April 2004, Week 5
April 2004, Week 4
April 2004, Week 3
April 2004, Week 2
April 2004, Week 1
March 2004, Week 5
March 2004, Week 4
March 2004, Week 3
March 2004, Week 2
March 2004, Week 1
February 2004, Week 5
February 2004, Week 4
February 2004, Week 3
February 2004, Week 2
February 2004, Week 1
January 2004, Week 5
January 2004, Week 4
January 2004, Week 3
January 2004, Week 2
January 2004, Week 1
December 2003, Week 5
December 2003, Week 4
December 2003, Week 3
December 2003, Week 2
December 2003, Week 1
November 2003, Week 5
November 2003, Week 4
November 2003, Week 3
November 2003, Week 2
November 2003, Week 1
October 2003, Week 5
October 2003, Week 4
October 2003, Week 3
October 2003, Week 2
October 2003, Week 1
September 2003, Week 5
September 2003, Week 4
September 2003, Week 3
September 2003, Week 2
September 2003, Week 1
August 2003, Week 5
August 2003, Week 4
August 2003, Week 3
August 2003, Week 2
August 2003, Week 1
July 2003, Week 5
July 2003, Week 4
July 2003, Week 3
July 2003, Week 2
July 2003, Week 1
June 2003, Week 5
June 2003, Week 4
June 2003, Week 3
June 2003, Week 2
June 2003, Week 1
May 2003, Week 5
May 2003, Week 4
May 2003, Week 3
May 2003, Week 2
May 2003, Week 1
April 2003, Week 5
April 2003, Week 4
April 2003, Week 3
April 2003, Week 2
April 2003, Week 1
March 2003, Week 5
March 2003, Week 4
March 2003, Week 3
March 2003, Week 2
March 2003, Week 1
February 2003, Week 4
February 2003, Week 3
February 2003, Week 2
February 2003, Week 1
January 2003, Week 5
January 2003, Week 4
January 2003, Week 3
January 2003, Week 2
January 2003, Week 1
December 2002, Week 5
December 2002, Week 4
December 2002, Week 3
December 2002, Week 2
December 2002, Week 1
November 2002, Week 5
November 2002, Week 4
November 2002, Week 3
November 2002, Week 2
November 2002, Week 1
October 2002, Week 5
October 2002, Week 4
October 2002, Week 3
October 2002, Week 2
October 2002, Week 1
September 2002, Week 5
September 2002, Week 4
September 2002, Week 3
September 2002, Week 2
September 2002, Week 1
August 2002, Week 5
August 2002, Week 4
August 2002, Week 3
August 2002, Week 2
August 2002, Week 1
July 2002, Week 5
July 2002, Week 4
July 2002, Week 3
July 2002, Week 2
July 2002, Week 1
June 2002, Week 5
June 2002, Week 4
June 2002, Week 3
June 2002, Week 2
June 2002, Week 1
May 2002, Week 5
May 2002, Week 4
May 2002, Week 3
May 2002, Week 2
May 2002, Week 1
April 2002, Week 5
April 2002, Week 4
April 2002, Week 3
April 2002, Week 2
April 2002, Week 1
March 2002, Week 5
March 2002, Week 4
March 2002, Week 3
March 2002, Week 2
March 2002, Week 1
February 2002, Week 4
February 2002, Week 3
February 2002, Week 2
February 2002, Week 1
January 2002, Week 5
January 2002, Week 4
January 2002, Week 3
January 2002, Week 2
January 2002, Week 1
December 2001, Week 5
December 2001, Week 4
December 2001, Week 3
December 2001, Week 2
December 2001, Week 1
November 2001, Week 5
November 2001, Week 4
November 2001, Week 3
November 2001, Week 2
November 2001, Week 1
October 2001, Week 5
October 2001, Week 4
October 2001, Week 3
October 2001, Week 2
October 2001, Week 1
September 2001, Week 5
September 2001, Week 4
September 2001, Week 3
September 2001, Week 2
September 2001, Week 1
August 2001, Week 5
August 2001, Week 4
August 2001, Week 3
August 2001, Week 2
August 2001, Week 1
July 2001, Week 5
July 2001, Week 4
July 2001, Week 3
July 2001, Week 2
July 2001, Week 1
June 2001, Week 5
June 2001, Week 4
June 2001, Week 3
June 2001, Week 2
June 2001, Week 1
May 2001, Week 5
May 2001, Week 4
May 2001, Week 3
May 2001, Week 2
May 2001, Week 1
April 2001, Week 5
April 2001, Week 4
April 2001, Week 3
April 2001, Week 2
April 2001, Week 1
March 2001, Week 5
March 2001, Week 4
March 2001, Week 3
March 2001, Week 2
March 2001, Week 1
February 2001, Week 4
February 2001, Week 3
February 2001, Week 2
February 2001, Week 1
January 2001, Week 5
January 2001, Week 4
January 2001, Week 3
January 2001, Week 2
January 2001, Week 1
December 2000, Week 5
December 2000, Week 4
December 2000, Week 3
December 2000, Week 2
December 2000, Week 1
November 2000, Week 5
November 2000, Week 4
November 2000, Week 3
November 2000, Week 2
November 2000, Week 1
October 2000, Week 5
October 2000, Week 4
October 2000, Week 3
October 2000, Week 2
October 2000, Week 1
September 2000, Week 5
September 2000, Week 4
September 2000, Week 3
September 2000, Week 2
September 2000, Week 1
August 2000, Week 5
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August 2000, Week 3
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July 2000, Week 1
June 2000, Week 5
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May 2000, Week 1
April 2000, Week 5
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April 2000, Week 2
April 2000, Week 1
March 2000, Week 5
March 2000, Week 4
March 2000, Week 3
March 2000, Week 2
March 2000, Week 1
February 2000, Week 5
February 2000, Week 4
February 2000, Week 3
February 2000, Week 2
February 2000, Week 1
January 2000, Week 5
January 2000, Week 4
January 2000, Week 3
January 2000, Week 2
January 2000, Week 1
December 1999, Week 5
December 1999, Week 4
December 1999, Week 3
December 1999, Week 2
December 1999, Week 1
November 1999, Week 5
November 1999, Week 4
November 1999, Week 3
November 1999, Week 2
November 1999, Week 1
October 1999, Week 5
October 1999, Week 4
October 1999, Week 3
October 1999, Week 2
October 1999, Week 1
September 1999, Week 5
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September 1999, Week 1
August 1999, Week 5
August 1999, Week 4
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June 1999, Week 5
June 1999, Week 4
June 1999, Week 3
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June 1999, Week 1
May 1999, Week 5
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May 1999, Week 3
May 1999, Week 2
May 1999, Week 1
April 1999, Week 5
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April 1999, Week 3
April 1999, Week 2
April 1999, Week 1
March 1999, Week 5
March 1999, Week 4
March 1999, Week 3
March 1999, Week 2
March 1999, Week 1
February 1999, Week 5
February 1999, Week 4
February 1999, Week 3
February 1999, Week 2
February 1999, Week 1
January 1999, Week 5
January 1999, Week 4
January 1999, Week 3
January 1999, Week 2
January 1999, Week 1
December 1998, Week 5
December 1998, Week 4
December 1998, Week 3
December 1998, Week 2
December 1998, Week 1
November 1998, Week 5
November 1998, Week 4
November 1998, Week 3
November 1998, Week 2
November 1998, Week 1
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October 1998, Week 4
October 1998, Week 3
October 1998, Week 2
October 1998, Week 1
September 1998, Week 5
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September 1998, Week 3

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