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AUXLANG  February 2005, Week 3

AUXLANG February 2005, Week 3

Subject:

Re: Least common denominator

From:

Antony Alexander <[log in to unmask]>

Reply-To:

International Auxiliary Languages <[log in to unmask]>

Date:

Tue, 15 Feb 2005 16:04:22 -0500

Content-Type:

text/plain

Parts/Attachments:

Parts/Attachments

text/plain (132 lines)

Todd - you wrote (last week):

> The main point is about difficulty in learning, so I'm thinking about
> the things that make languages hard for adult learners.  I've narrowed
> it down to three important ones (and I'm not, for now, considering
> phonological aspects, such as pronunciation and abundance of homonyms).

> 1.  Irregularities, or exceptions to rules.

> 2.  Having to memorize things that have no semantic payoff.

> 3.  Having to make distinctions or keep track of things that one doesn't
> have to keep track of in one's native language(s).


Don’t you agree that 1. is accepted by every significant conIAL and has been since the start of the
movement? As a result, I can’t see that Esperanto scores above average on this one.

And the same for 2. according to your definition (universal redundancy). Linguistic gender is a
good example because it will find few if any defenders among IALers.

Less universal examples of “semantic overkill” might be more controversial. Take synonyms, for
instance. One man’s synonym might be another man’s near-synonym, separated from its near-
neighbour by a vital nuance.

This is why I think the initial core universal vocabulary should be connected to the senses - visual,
tangible, emotional etc. - and exclude wholly abstract or philosophical words. Synonyms in the
former category are easier to identify.

Anyway, 1. and 2. (according to your definition) are pretty much “old hat” (or so I would contend)
so far as the AUXLANG movement is concerned - which leaves us with your 3.:

3.  Having to make distinctions or keep track of things that one doesn't
have to keep track of in one's native language(s).

Yes, this is the controversial one, all right.

And I think its implications are easier to understand if phrased rather differently - as in the
following question:

Where should the coming global conIAL be pitched, both “horizontally” - as regards geographical
spread and influence, and “vertically” - as regards class penetration?

These two questions are linked, but can be answered separately. About the first, there is probably
a large measure of agreement among auxlangers that the coming conIAL should be, as far as
possible, global - not Eurocentric, Sinocentric, Afrocentric etc. - which means in practice that it
should contain words from a wide variety of different languages (or, at least, from all the language
families to start with), and should have a grammar amenable to usage everywhere.

Moreover, nobody would expect complete universality to begin with, in practice as well as
intention. For instance, much or most of the standard medical/scientific terminology of Latin/
Greek origin would probably be incorporated into the IAL wholesale.

The second question is just as important, but seems to have been given much less attention. I
wonder whether this is because conIAL authors have tended to be middle-class intellectuals
socialising mainly with their own kind - if not linguistics graduates to boot - and have
consequently neglected the vast numbers of people in every society who barely read (though they
might watch television) and normally use a restricted vocabulary and grammar. Won't the IAL be
for them too?

One of the few IAL authors to tackle this issue head-on was Prof. Lancelot Hogben, whose
communist sympathies evidently prompted him to formulate Interglossa - an elementary three-
tense language - and aim it squarely at the international proletariat (too bad if his
bourgeois successors subsequently gentrified it!).

Hogben certainly had a point. For instance we know that many "working-class" creoles and
dialects of national languages avoid plural nouns, use simple negation (e.g. just the word “ne”), do
not differentiate between adjectives and adverbs, omit auxiliary verbs (as understood) and use
serial verbs, juxtaposition rather than the genitive case to denote possession, and other basic
types of "grammatical shorthand" - how much more do they refrain from distinct transitive and
intransitive verb forms, a reflexive, plural adjectives, an accusative case inflection and coded
word-classes, as in Esperanto!


We seem to be moving into a world where capitalists (and also the remaining monarchies and
ecclesiastical hierarchies) have lost most of their power, much of which has accrued to the masses
- whether through direct action, market forces or the ballot box. In other words there has been a
swing to the left.

So while this great historical phase is underway it surely makes sense to aim the IAL at the usage
of the masses. Previously Robert Craig and I sought to do this via a simplifed and
orthographically-reformed version of English (and others are continuing on the same path, e.g.
http://www.worldlanguageprocess.org/essays/corpus.htm). However, I now think it probable that
any but a consciously-globalist IAL free from all the tokens of nationalism would fail today’s all-
important political correctness test.

The rise of China is probably symptomatic of this global shift to the left (or so I would argue) and
it just so happens that Chinese analytical grammar is analogous to the likely requirements of an
initial IAL or “global pidgin”. So if China becomes the dominant superpower - a fait accompli if the
economic trajectory of the past few decades continues - it might well find its hegemonic aims and
aspirations better realised through a constructed IAL somewhat compatible to the structure of the
Chinese language (and hence conducive to the expression of Chinese thought) rather than directly
through its own language - the tones, script, and certain grammatical features of which would
probably present insuperable difficulties to the world at large.

However, this initial stage will inevitably pass, and further cultural developments will take place -
as expressed by an evolving global language. In LangX (http://langx.org - sorry, iofm.com has
very recently deleted my former website and all links to it are now dead) I set out an illustrative
scheme of what might happen.

The excellence of Esperanto and other conIALs won’t be lost - it jus’ ain’t suit'ble for de biginnin’.
I think Esperanto will find most expression at levels 2 & 3 (Lang29 & 33) and the genius of certain
other conlangs further up the hierarchy.

And yes, there will be a marvellous global civilisation in the future (at least, the Holy Books of the
great world Faiths have predicted one, and even communists and materialists tend to believe in
somethig similar), but it must be based upon social justice and order (the material well-being and
security of everyone, not just of the "righteous") - hence the initial sovereignty of the Left.

And that means a marvellous global language - not just a rudimentary vehicle whose sound is
rooted in immediacy and whose grammar is mainly context, but a womderful development from it.

And of course a plural will be required, along with a host of other grammatical niceties conducive
to an advanced civilisation (many barely used today, even when they are extant).

The numeral is a multiplier but the plural is a differentiator:

“I have ten cow” = “I possess ten walking hunks of meat / calf-producers / milk producers”

“I have ten cows” = “all that + they are individuals”

Want another example?

If a storeman making a regular order asks for “ten oil” both parties understand this to mean “ten
identical (drums, cases etc.) of oil”, but if an aromatherapist asked for “ten oils” it would mean
“ten (bottles) of (different) oils”.

Those cultures (e.g. the Chinese) which dispense with the plural also tend to employ expressions
such as “the nail which is sticking up gets hammered down”!

Antony Alexander

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April 2003, Week 5
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March 2003, Week 5
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March 2003, Week 1
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February 2003, Week 1
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January 2003, Week 1
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December 2002, Week 3
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December 2002, Week 1
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November 2002, Week 3
November 2002, Week 2
November 2002, Week 1
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April 2002, Week 1
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March 2002, Week 1
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February 2002, Week 1
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January 2002, Week 2
January 2002, Week 1
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August 2001, Week 1
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July 2001, Week 1
June 2001, Week 5
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June 2001, Week 1
May 2001, Week 5
May 2001, Week 4
May 2001, Week 3
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May 2001, Week 1
April 2001, Week 5
April 2001, Week 4
April 2001, Week 3
April 2001, Week 2
April 2001, Week 1
March 2001, Week 5
March 2001, Week 4
March 2001, Week 3
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March 2001, Week 1
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February 2001, Week 3
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February 2001, Week 1
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