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CONLANG  February 2005, Week 3

CONLANG February 2005, Week 3

Subject:

Irish Gaelic is evil!

From:

Thomas Leigh <[log in to unmask]>

Reply-To:

Constructed Languages List <[log in to unmask]>

Date:

Fri, 18 Feb 2005 13:38:35 -0500

Content-Type:

text/plain

Parts/Attachments:

Parts/Attachments

text/plain (73 lines)

Och a Charsten, nach tusa a tha nad bhalgaire!
(Oh, Carsten, aren't you a scoundrel!)

Gaelic isn't evil at all. It's wonderful! It brings sunshine into your day. Silly boy! Now off into the corner with you. ;-)

> Since we're going to deal with Ireland the rest
> of this semester IIUC, I had a look at Wikipedia
> for information about the Irish orthography (or
> should I rather write áeghtdhúaekreímfbhiagh?)

LOL, but no. :-)

> and phonology. Yikes! They must be crazy.

The orthography actually makes a lot of sense and fits the language well, once you get to know it. It's often more regular than English orthography!

Of course, I'm coming from the perspective of speaking Scottish Gaelic, not Irish, but they are quite similar. Irish had a spelling reform in the 1940's (1950's?) which removed a lot of silent consonants and such, but made some things rather more difficult (IMO) in that it sometimes obscures relationships between words due to phonological changes. Scottish Gaelic spelling is closer to the traditional Gaelic orthography. (Also, Scottish Gaelic is phonologically more conservative than Irish).

> Now I understand the concept behind Christophe's
> Maggel

Naw, that was just cause he's French! ;-‏þ

> and why it is thought to be a parody of (Old?)
> Irish.

Actually, while it is true that modern Gaelic orthography is more consistent than Old Gaelic spelling, the things that strike fear into Anglophones (and others), namely all the h-digraphs and vowel digraphs and trigraphs are a feature of modern orthography. They explicitly indicate lenition and palatalization of consonants, which was not indicated in Old Gaelic spelling.

> Wikipedia writes something about velar offglides and
> palatalization, but how is that realised? And how can I see
> if a consonant is palatalized or velarized?

Phonemically, the Gaelic consonants (except for H) all come in pairs: a non-palatalized variant and a palatalized variant -- just like in (many? most?) Slavic languages. Non-palatalized ("hard", or in traditional Gaelic terminology "broad") consonants are preceded and/or followed by the vowels A, O, and U in the orthography. Palatalized ("soft", or in traditional Gaelic terminology "slender") consonants are preceded and/or followed by the vowels E and I in the orthography.

Actual phonetic realization of the non-palatalized versus palatalized contrasts varies from region to region and dialect to dialect, both in Ireland and Scotland. Especially in Irish, non-palatalized consonants may be labialized or have a labial off-glide before front vowels. Likewise, palatalized consonants (in both varieties) may have a palatal off-glide before back vowels, or, especially in Scottish Gaelic, may turn into affricates.

> The chart for
> the orthography always gives e.g. c = [k], [k_j], [k_G]
> without further explanation.

Very roughly (allowing of course for the great dialectal variation which exists in all varieties of Gaelic): c = [k] when non-palatalized before back vowels or palatalized before front vowels, [k_j] when palatalized before back vowels, and [k_G] when non-palatalized before front vowels. And so on for most other consonants.

> It seems the Irish orthography
> is rather ideographic than logical. Sorry to say so.

Just give yourself a bit of time to get used to it. It is in fact quite logical and fits the language well.

There are a few basic principles to keep in mind:

1. Consonants come in non-palatalized and palatalized varieties; non-palatalized consonants are preceded and followed by the vowels A, O, U while palatalized consonants are preceded and followed by the vowels E, I.

2. The vowel digraphs and trigraphs you see actually indicate single vowels preceded or follwed by consonants of different classes. In other words, one vowel symbol in the digraph or trigraph is actually pronounced, while the others are merely orthographic devices to indicate the palatalization or non-palatalization of the adjacent consonants. And there are rules for which vowels are pronounced and which are "consonant-affectors", so there is rarely confusion.

3. The consonant digraphs (bh, dh, etc.) represent lention, which means "softening". The sounds they represent are, in origin at least, "softened" versions of the simple sound. For example, c = [k], ch = [x]; b = [b], bh = [v]. The big exceptions are th and dh, which originally represented [D] and [T], but those sounds were lost around the 13th century or so (IIRC) and fell in with [G] and [h] respectively. F was softened right out of existence, so fh is silent, and sh = [h] (I don't know if it always did, but that's what it is in the modern Gaelic at least).

An interesting side note: in the traditional uncial hand (often called the "Gaelic alphabet" or "Irish alphabet" by the uninitiated, though it's just a variant of the Latin alphabet) used especially in Ireland, and where it was even made into a typeface that you see in books right up until the 1950's or so, lenition was indicated by a superscript dot instead of the letter h following. This is originally the "punctus delens" ("deleting point") used by medieval scribes to "erase" a mistake in copying -- a dot over a letter meant it was a mistake and was not to be pronounced when reading the word. Since /f/ disappears when lenited, early Gaelic scribes in Ireland used this punctus delens to indicate that it shouldn't be pronounced. Then gradually, the dot was extended in use so that it no longer represented the deletion of a sound, but rather the entire phonological-grammatical mechanism of which the sound change of /f/ to nothing was a part. And so eventually it came to be used over all lenited consonants, and so to indicate lenition.

Just an interesting aside! :)

And keep working on the Gaelic -- the more time you spend with it, the more you'll like it!

Le gach deagh dhùrachd,

Tòmas







Also, take a look at Polish orthography -- there are some parallels in the indication of palatalized versus non-palatalized consonants (e.g. how consonants are palatalized before the letter I, and how that letter is thus written but not pronounced to indicate palatalization of consonants before other vowels). And of course, in the phonology too (the whole consonant palatalization pair thing).

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