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CONLANG  February 2005, Week 4

CONLANG February 2005, Week 4

Subject:

Re: [OT] Psychological Reality of Linguistic Theories (was Re: stress)

From:

"Thomas R. Wier" <[log in to unmask]>

Reply-To:

Constructed Languages List <[log in to unmask]>

Date:

Tue, 22 Feb 2005 01:19:35 -0600

Content-Type:

text/plain

Parts/Attachments:

Parts/Attachments

text/plain (157 lines)

David wrote:
> Tom wrote:
> > Well... I don't like OT much either, but for separate reasons.
> > Namely: even if you can reduce the candidate set to N^2 candidates
> > (where N is the number of constraints), as has recently been proven,
> > there's no reason at all to assume that this has some sort of
> > psychological reality. That is, if you take the psychological-
> > reality predictions of particular theories seriously, it just
> > won't work, even as a kind of algorithm whose output goes
> > immediately into some kind of memory storage system. >>
>
> Since you brought it up, what do you think about this? The
> psychological reality of any given theory, I mean. I've gotten
> the impression that many linguist's don't care. A perfect example
> is with OT. Once I finally understood what OT was trying to do,
> I thought that it would be perfect for predicting how someone with
> a particular foreign accent would pronounce a particular word--that
> is, their constraints would be ranked differently than those of a
> native speaker, causing an inoptimal candidate to be the optimal
> candidate. This struck my OT professor as being totally off-the-wall,
> and said that that wasn't what OT was for. I've gotten the same
> feel from certain syntacticians about the theory of syntax they
> work in.

I would snip more, but I think all of what you say here is quite
relevant.

Basically, the status of psychological reality in linguistic theory
is a big problem that many people largely ignore.  Among the more
structurally oriented, I find that there are generally two reactions
when the question is posed, one of which is Bad and one of which is
Good.  The Bad answer is much like the one your professor gave about
OT:  if that's "not what it's about", then that just begs the
question. What *is* linguistic theory supposed to be doing if it's
not supposed to be predicting the set of strings of licit and illicit
sentences given what we know about the entities generating them? That
is, we can't just start from nowhere with theories to achieve the
desired ends.

Good theories, truly scientific theories, are ones which make testable
predictions about observable behavior of the object of inquiry and
pass those tests.  As originally formulated, OT-theorists held the
completely absurd and impossible position that the GEN function
creates an candidate set of infinite size, the individuals of which
are then judged by the EVAL function for whether they abide by the
list of constraints. The candidate that putatively wins is that which
violates the least number of highly ranked constraints.  As was once
analogized by a professor of mine, it might be compared to the mathematical
function that defines a circle:  an infinite number of points are
defined by a finite function.  But this is standing the facts on their
head:  when you draw a circle, it is not possible to actually run through
the equation an infinite number of times.  This is effectively what
the OT crowd had asked of us.  Now, there are some who take the
computational side of OT more seriously, and a person in my very
department (whom I respect highly) has proven that the set of actual
candidates can be reduced to a finite number equal to the square of
the number of constraints, as I said before.  Thus if you assume a
comparatively small number of constraints, say 100, you already have
to run through 10k (!!!) candidates for run-of-the-mill kinds of
phonology.  Thus it appears that when you try to tackle the problem,
the better results almost prove the flaw in the larger system. (Lest
it appear that I am simply ranting against OT, generative phonology
of the classical kind had much the same problem though on a lesser
scale.)

And of course syntactic theories are prone to this too. One of the
great merits of classical transformational grammar was that it made
hard predictions:  some operations like passivization were formally
more complex than other operations, such as their active counterparts.
In the 1970s, psycholinguists started putting these formalisms to the
test, and found that passivized verbs do not take any longer to process
or produce than the relevant active structures.  Thus, it appeared
that movement, like the ether of 19th century physics, could not
be detected by any kind of experimental means.  But it is worse than
that:  researchers then discovered actual counterevidence in the
form of movement paradoxes.  Thus for many speakers of English the
sentence in (a) is perfect, or at least acceptable, while the sentence
in (b) most find ungrammatical.

  (a)  That John married Mary we talked about.
  (b)  *We talked about that John married Mary.

(Some will find both bad, or both good, but what is relevant is that
not all do.) This should not happen if, as had been argued, topicalized
CPs like "That John married Mary" are based-generated as complements of
the verbal predicate, and are moved up the tree to some kind of
functional projection.  It thus seems that multistratality is actually
problematic and not just undetectable.

This problem of having wacky theoretical constructs is not a problem
exclusive to linguistics, of course.  In the early days of modern
heliocentrism, one of the primary rebuttals the geocentrists
gave was the Bad kind of answer that theories of astrophysics are just
supposed to "save the appearances" (i.e. record, document and predict)
the positions of the planets and stars in the heavens.  These people
simply didn't care about the actual physical mechanism that made the
planets move in the way they did.  That's why early astronomy had
all sorts of epicycles for which no particularly helpful account
(i.e., one not involving angels) could be made to explain the planets
putative motion in those epicycles.  It is for this reason that
I feel linguistics counts as a science, even if it is far from
understanding its actual subject matter.

So, to get back to the original point, for me, saying that "it's
not what it's about" is evading the question and not taking a
theory very seriously.  As for good answers, then, the Good answer
is that we still don't know enough about the workings of the brain
to be able to test any such theories, so even if it's relevant, it's
pointless asking that particular question right now.  This is much
harder to refute, because in a sense it's entirely accurate:  we
don't know enough about the brain.  But that can't be an excuse,
IMHO, not to try to find some kind of relationship between the two
sets of data.

> To an extent, I suppose it doesn't matter. My syntax
> professor made a good point about GB: if a particular theory can
> tell us something new about language, what does it matter if it's
> psychologically realistic? At the same time, I always thought that
> this was how theories started. A theortician theorizes that
> something is going on in a speaker's brain, so s/he tries to
> create a theory to model that. Outside of the cognitive realm,
> that doesn't seem to be the case anymore. Is this so? Any thoughts
> welcome.

I think this answer, too, is a little evasive, but more subtly so.
The reason is that it artificially excludes some data and includes
other data to fit with "what the theory can tell us about language".
In actual practice, in fact, theorists especially (but not exclusively)
of the Chomskyan ilk tend to harp on or ignore at will psycholinguistic
data that supports their cause.  IIRC, Chomsky has said something to
the effect that the psycholinguistic data are problematic, but this
is not a reason to throw away a whole research program like that.
This is a reasoned approach, at least in acknowledging the problem,
but it is tantamount to throwing one's hands up and walking away
from the problem.

In giving all these criticisms of structuralist approaches to linguistic
theory, I don't want to sound like some kind of arch-cognitivist.  I
find cognitivists' and functionalists' discussions far to fuzzy and
imprecise, and also misguided, because I am not convinced that every
aspect of language can be explained:  some things must simply be
taken as a given.  There are idioms and constructions in language
which simply exist and which children simply must learn, even when
they are grossly dysfunctional or just redundant, like why "France"
in French must have an article "la", or why English has negation-
raising, or why Georgian has all those ridiculous consonant clusters.

Anyways, I will leave y'all with this kind of muddle, since I think that's
the state of the field nowadays. ;-)

 ========================================================================
Thomas Wier	       "I find it useful to meet my subjects personally,
Dept. of Linguistics    because our secret police don't get it right
University of Chicago   half the time." -- octogenarian Sheikh Zayed of
1010 E. 59th Street     Abu Dhabi, to a French reporter.
Chicago, IL 60637

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December 2005, Week 5
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December 2004, Week 5
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January 2003, Week 5
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January 2003, Week 1
December 2002, Week 5
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December 2002, Week 1
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October 2002, Week 5
October 2002, Week 4
October 2002, Week 3
October 2002, Week 2
October 2002, Week 1
September 2002, Week 5
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August 2002, Week 5
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August 2002, Week 2
August 2002, Week 1
July 2002, Week 5
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July 2002, Week 1
June 2002, Week 5
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April 2002, Week 5
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December 1999, Week 5
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December 1998, Week 5
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