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CONLANG  July 2005, Week 1

CONLANG July 2005, Week 1

Subject:

Re: THEORY: Temporal Auxiliaries, Aspectual Auxiliaries, Modal Auxiliaries

From:

Ray Brown <[log in to unmask]>

Reply-To:

Constructed Languages List <[log in to unmask]>

Date:

Thu, 7 Jul 2005 14:05:35 +0100

Content-Type:

text/plain

Parts/Attachments:

Parts/Attachments

text/plain (277 lines)

On Wednesday, July 6, 2005, at 11:11 , tomhchappell wrote:

> Thank you for contributing, Ray.

You're welcome   :)

[snip]
> "Trask on 'Tense'" -- where is that available exactly?

"A Dictionary of Grammatical Terms in Linguistics" by the late Larry Trask.
The ISBN is:
0-415-08627-2 (hardback)
0-415-08628-0 (paperback)

Well worth purchasing IMHO.

[snip]
>> [snip out information-dense discussion of TMA of French]
>> Just to confuse things, the simple past in English and the French
>> composite past tense does have a perfective meaning. But as Trask
> says:
>> "NOTE: be careful not to confuse perfective aspect with perfect
> aspect;
>> they are entirely distinct."
>
> What /is/ the difference?

I quote Trask    :)

PERFECT
"A distinctive *aspect* most typically expressing a state resulting from 
an earlier event, as in _Lisa has gone out_ (i.e. she is not here now). In 
English and other languages, the same form is used also to express other 
related but distinct aspectual notions, such as the *experiential* (e.g. 
_Lisa has worked in Paris_), present relevance of a recent event, the *hot 
news perfect* (e.g. _The President has been shot_) and the 'perfect of 
persistent situation' (e.g. _Lisa has been working here for an hour_) ... 
The perfect is somewhat anomalous among aspectual forms, and its precise 
characterization is a matter of some controversy; see Comrie (1976) for 
one view and Dahl (1985) for another. The perfect aspect can be combined 
with any tense; the examples above all illustrate the *present perfect*, 
but the *past perfect* (*pluperfect*) and *future perfect* also exist. 
Note that the unmodified term 'perfect' is often loosely applied to the 
present perfect. NOTE: it is important not to confuse the 'perfect' aspect 
with the *perfective* aspect; they are entirely distinct, in spite of the 
unfortunate similarity in their names, which results from the accident 
that Latin happened to use the same form in both funtions....."

PERCECTIVE
"A superordinate aspectual category involving a lack of explicit reference 
to the internal temporal consistency of a situation, and contrasting 
principally with the *imperfective*. In English, perfective aspect is 
chieflt expressed by the simple past-tense form, as in _The hamster 
climbed up behind the bookcase_ and _Lisa learned French in Caen_. See 
Comrie (1976) for discussion. NOTE: be careful not to confuse perfective 
aspect with perfect aspect; they are entirely distinct."

Comrie (1976) = "Aspect" by Bernard Comrie, published in 1976 by the 
Cambridge University Press.
Dahl (1985) = "Tense and Aspect Systems" by Östen Dahl, publlished in 1985 
by Blackwell.
I regret I do not have the ISBNs for either book.

I suppose in view of Trask's definition of 'perfective', I ought to add 
his definition of 'imperfective' and, just to complete things, I'll add 
'imperfect'    :)

IMPERFECTIVE
"A superordinate aspectual category making reference to the 
internalstructure of the activity expressed by the verb, and contrasting 
with the *perfective*. The imperfective may be subdivided into various 
more specialized aspectual distinctions, such as *habitual*, *progressive*
  and *iterative*. see Comrie (1976) for discussion."

IMPERFECT
"A conventional label for a verb form which simultaneously expresses 
imperfective aspect and past time reference, such as Spanish _bebía_ 'I 
used to drink', 'I was drinking'. NOTE: this term must not be coinfused 
with the distinct term *imperfective*."

[snip]
>> Exactly the same. If however French uses the perfect
>> _active_
>> participle  then the auxiliary _must_ be
>> ętre
>
> Intransitives have only active participles, right?

This must normally be  the case; it is only languages like Classical Latin 
that have an 'impersonal passive' (i.e, a passive form with no grammatical 
subject) that allow a passive participle for intransitive, e.g.
      peruentum            est
arrive-PASSIVE.PERF.PART is.3SG  = they arrive; people arrived; we arrived;
  on est arrivé etc.

> Thus "I am come", not *"I have come".

Precisely. Both forms are of course OK in English, tho 'I am come' is 
somewhat archaic. But in French it is only _je suis venu/ je suis venue_ 
the form *_j'ai venu_ is not used. It is derived from Vulgar Latin:
*ego sum venutus _or_ *ego sum venuta (cf. Esperanto: mi estas venita)

[snip]
> Thank you for correcting me.
> I needed to know that "verbal" and "deverbal" didn't mean the same
> thing.
> I suppose the same is true of "adjectival" and "deadjectival"?

Hadn't thought of that. Yep - 'adjectival' means functioning as an 
adjective, so an adjectival noun means a noun functioning as an adjective,
  e.g. 'city' in _the city streets_ - we used call the 'epithet nouns' when 
I was at school. I suppose a noun derived from an adjective (e.g. 
stupidity <-- stupid) could be termed 'deadjectival' but I have never seen 
the word. (The first bit sort of looks 'dead'   :)

> Verbal nouns are usually called infinitives. In some languages like
> Latin
>> & English, there is another verbal noun with practically the same
> meaning
>> as the infinitive, but used in different situations (often in
> English the
>> choice is a matter of style); this is then called the gerund.
>
> So, that's it?  "A language's favorite verbal noun is called
> infinitive; the runner-up is called gerund."  Kind of like the
> definition of "corn" -- maize here, wheat there.

It's a rough sort of 'rule of thumb' thing - but it seems to work   :)

[snip]
> Thanks for explaining that.
> So, then, most languages only have one or two kinds of verbal (not
> deverbal) nouns -- infinitives for one, infinitives and gerunds for
> two.  Is that right?

Basically, yes I think so. But there odd exceptions e.g. the Brittonic 
languages have only one verbal noun and it is traditionally known as the 
'verbnoun'.

I should have added that some languages have verbal _adverbs_ and these 
are often called 'gerunds'. They are common IIRC in the Slav languages.

[snip]
> "Supines", in other languages, are non-finite "parts" of the verb,
> but not necessarily verbal nouns; and they don't necessarily resemble
> Latin supines in a systematic way --- they may have only a "family
> resemblance".  Is that also right?

IMO that's spot on   :)

>>> N4) An "agentive" noun --- what's the right way to say that?
>>
>> agents, actor?
>
> Now, that one really would be a /de/verbal noun, wouldn't it?
> As "employer", "employee", and "employment" are all /de/verbal nouns
> derived from the verb "employ".

Yes.

>
>> [snip -- Participles are Verbal Adjectives, not Deverbal]
>>> N6) Is the biggest difference between Participles Voice (Passive
> vs
>>> Active)?
>>
>> Not sure what you mean. Tense differences are quite common.
>
> I think in English the difference between the participle "spoken" and
> the participle "speaking" is one of Voice, not one of Tense or
> Aspect.

Not entirely. There is a difference of aspect: "speaking" is imperfective;
  "spoken" is perfect. Also if the verb is intransitive, the so-called 
'past participle' is _active_, e.g. come, gone.

> Through High School I was talked at about Past and Present Participles.

These are the traditional terms, inherited from Latin grammar. But you are 
right in that the do not strictly convey tense.

> In college I started hearing about Perfect and Progressive
> Participles.
These are better terms.

> It wasn't until a few years ago I started hearing about Active and
> Passive Participles.
The 'present'/ progressive/ imperfective participle is always active in 
English: laughing, running, speaking etc.

But the 'past'/ perfect participle is _not_ always passive. It is only 
passive if the verb is transitive.

> I guess what I was getting at is that in English, the Voice of the
> participle makes all the difference --- the Aspect and the Tense do
> not really matter.

Aspect does matter. Voice plays no part if the verb is intransitive.

> I was also wondering whether or not there are other languages for
> which for some participles the Aspect matters more than the Voice or
> the Tense;
> and whether there are some languages for which for some participles
> the Tense matters more than the Voice or the Aspect.

I don't think tense actually figures in participles, despite the 
traditional names often given to different forms. The 'future active 
participle' of Latin, for example, is aspectual IMO. AFAIK voice and 
aspect tend to get bound up together in participles.

>>> N7) Is there a real Aspectual difference between Participles
> (Perfect
>>> vs Imperfect) over and above the Voice difference?
>>
>> Yes - in languages where aspect marking is important, for example
> the Slav
>> and semitic languages.
>
> I'd love to have a specific example.

OK - brushing the dust off my Russian - verb 'to do, to make'

                  IMPERFECTIVE   PERFECTIVE
  present active: delajuSij         -
present passive: delaemyj          -
     past active: delavSij        sdelavSij
    past passive:    -            sdelannij
         gerund*: delaja          sdelav

*verbal adverb
[Note: in the transliteration the symbols have their IPA vales, except: e 
= [je] or [jE], and y = [1] (high central vowel)]

The absence of 'present' participles in the perfectives forms is not 
surprising. As I said above I do not think tense comes into the matter. As 
in English, the so-called 'present participles' are imperfective 
participles.

The 'past participles' are more properly 'perfect participles'. Remember 
that:
(a) Imperfective and Perfective are _superordinate_ aspectual categories;
(b) "The perfect is somewhat anomalous among aspectual forms, and its 
precise characterization is a matter of some controversy" (see above)

>>> N8) Is there a real Tense difference between Participles (Past vs
>>> Present) over and above the Voice and/or Aspect difference?
>>
>> Latin even had a future participle: scripturus = going to write,
> about to
>> write ec.
>
> Thanks!  Great example!

I was tired when i wrote this and not thinking properly. The participle 
so-called future participle 'scripturus' is really aspectual.

_scripturus sum_ simply does not mean the same as 'scribam' "I shall/ will 
write". The tense in _scripturus sum- is present and denoted by _sum_ "I 
am". the sentence says that here and now (present) I am getting ready to 
write or I have the intention to write. I have occasionally referred to 
this as the 'futuritive' aspect - but there is probably a better term for 
it.

[snip]
> An example is the "verbnoun" in each of your Welsh examples above.
> You seem to have indicated that it is to be thought of as a gerund.
> For instance you translated "ganu" as "singing".

I think this is correct.

Ray
===============================================
http://home.freeuk.com/ray.brown
[log in to unmask]
===============================================
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January 2009, Week 2
January 2009, Week 1
December 2008, Week 5
December 2008, Week 4
December 2008, Week 3
December 2008, Week 2
December 2008, Week 1
November 2008, Week 5
November 2008, Week 4
November 2008, Week 3
November 2008, Week 2
November 2008, Week 1
October 2008, Week 5
October 2008, Week 4
October 2008, Week 3
October 2008, Week 2
October 2008, Week 1
September 2008, Week 5
September 2008, Week 4
September 2008, Week 3
September 2008, Week 2
September 2008, Week 1
August 2008, Week 5
August 2008, Week 4
August 2008, Week 3
August 2008, Week 2
August 2008, Week 1
July 2008, Week 5
July 2008, Week 4
July 2008, Week 3
July 2008, Week 2
July 2008, Week 1
June 2008, Week 5
June 2008, Week 4
June 2008, Week 3
June 2008, Week 2
June 2008, Week 1
May 2008, Week 5
May 2008, Week 4
May 2008, Week 3
May 2008, Week 2
May 2008, Week 1
April 2008, Week 5
April 2008, Week 4
April 2008, Week 3
April 2008, Week 2
April 2008, Week 1
March 2008, Week 5
March 2008, Week 4
March 2008, Week 3
March 2008, Week 2
March 2008, Week 1
February 2008, Week 5
February 2008, Week 4
February 2008, Week 3
February 2008, Week 2
February 2008, Week 1
January 2008, Week 5
January 2008, Week 4
January 2008, Week 3
January 2008, Week 2
January 2008, Week 1
December 2007, Week 5
December 2007, Week 4
December 2007, Week 3
December 2007, Week 2
December 2007, Week 1
November 2007, Week 5
November 2007, Week 4
November 2007, Week 3
November 2007, Week 2
November 2007, Week 1
October 2007, Week 5
October 2007, Week 4
October 2007, Week 3
October 2007, Week 2
October 2007, Week 1
September 2007, Week 5
September 2007, Week 4
September 2007, Week 3
September 2007, Week 2
September 2007, Week 1
August 2007, Week 5
August 2007, Week 4
August 2007, Week 3
August 2007, Week 2
August 2007, Week 1
July 2007, Week 5
July 2007, Week 4
July 2007, Week 3
July 2007, Week 2
July 2007, Week 1
June 2007, Week 5
June 2007, Week 4
June 2007, Week 3
June 2007, Week 2
June 2007, Week 1
May 2007, Week 5
May 2007, Week 4
May 2007, Week 3
May 2007, Week 2
May 2007, Week 1
April 2007, Week 5
April 2007, Week 4
April 2007, Week 3
April 2007, Week 2
April 2007, Week 1
March 2007, Week 5
March 2007, Week 4
March 2007, Week 3
March 2007, Week 2
March 2007, Week 1
February 2007, Week 4
February 2007, Week 3
February 2007, Week 2
February 2007, Week 1
January 2007, Week 5
January 2007, Week 4
January 2007, Week 3
January 2007, Week 2
January 2007, Week 1
December 2006, Week 5
December 2006, Week 4
December 2006, Week 3
December 2006, Week 2
December 2006, Week 1
November 2006, Week 5
November 2006, Week 4
November 2006, Week 3
November 2006, Week 2
November 2006, Week 1
October 2006, Week 5
October 2006, Week 4
October 2006, Week 3
October 2006, Week 2
October 2006, Week 1
September 2006, Week 5
September 2006, Week 4
September 2006, Week 3
September 2006, Week 2
September 2006, Week 1
August 2006, Week 5
August 2006, Week 4
August 2006, Week 3
August 2006, Week 2
August 2006, Week 1
July 2006, Week 5
July 2006, Week 4
July 2006, Week 3
July 2006, Week 2
July 2006, Week 1
June 2006, Week 5
June 2006, Week 4
June 2006, Week 3
June 2006, Week 2
June 2006, Week 1
May 2006, Week 5
May 2006, Week 4
May 2006, Week 3
May 2006, Week 2
May 2006, Week 1
April 2006, Week 5
April 2006, Week 4
April 2006, Week 3
April 2006, Week 2
April 2006, Week 1
March 2006, Week 5
March 2006, Week 4
March 2006, Week 3
March 2006, Week 2
March 2006, Week 1
February 2006, Week 4
February 2006, Week 3
February 2006, Week 2
February 2006, Week 1
January 2006, Week 5
January 2006, Week 4
January 2006, Week 3
January 2006, Week 2
January 2006, Week 1
December 2005, Week 5
December 2005, Week 4
December 2005, Week 3
December 2005, Week 2
December 2005, Week 1
November 2005, Week 5
November 2005, Week 4
November 2005, Week 3
November 2005, Week 2
November 2005, Week 1
October 2005, Week 5
October 2005, Week 4
October 2005, Week 3
October 2005, Week 2
October 2005, Week 1
September 2005, Week 5
September 2005, Week 4
September 2005, Week 3
September 2005, Week 2
September 2005, Week 1
August 2005, Week 5
August 2005, Week 4
August 2005, Week 3
August 2005, Week 2
August 2005, Week 1
July 2005, Week 5
July 2005, Week 4
July 2005, Week 3
July 2005, Week 2
July 2005, Week 1
June 2005, Week 5
June 2005, Week 4
June 2005, Week 3
June 2005, Week 2
June 2005, Week 1
May 2005, Week 5
May 2005, Week 4
May 2005, Week 3
May 2005, Week 2
May 2005, Week 1
April 2005, Week 5
April 2005, Week 4
April 2005, Week 3
April 2005, Week 2
April 2005, Week 1
March 2005, Week 5
March 2005, Week 4
March 2005, Week 3
March 2005, Week 2
March 2005, Week 1
February 2005, Week 4
February 2005, Week 3
February 2005, Week 2
February 2005, Week 1
January 2005, Week 5
January 2005, Week 4
January 2005, Week 3
January 2005, Week 2
January 2005, Week 1
December 2004, Week 5
December 2004, Week 4
December 2004, Week 3
December 2004, Week 2
December 2004, Week 1
November 2004, Week 5
November 2004, Week 4
November 2004, Week 3
November 2004, Week 2
November 2004, Week 1
October 2004, Week 5
October 2004, Week 4
October 2004, Week 3
October 2004, Week 2
October 2004, Week 1
September 2004, Week 5
September 2004, Week 4
September 2004, Week 3
September 2004, Week 2
September 2004, Week 1
August 2004, Week 5
August 2004, Week 4
August 2004, Week 3
August 2004, Week 2
August 2004, Week 1
July 2004, Week 5
July 2004, Week 4
July 2004, Week 3
July 2004, Week 2
July 2004, Week 1
June 2004, Week 5
June 2004, Week 4
June 2004, Week 3
June 2004, Week 2
June 2004, Week 1
May 2004, Week 5
May 2004, Week 4
May 2004, Week 3
May 2004, Week 2
May 2004, Week 1
April 2004, Week 5
April 2004, Week 4
April 2004, Week 3
April 2004, Week 2
April 2004, Week 1
March 2004, Week 5
March 2004, Week 4
March 2004, Week 3
March 2004, Week 2
March 2004, Week 1
February 2004, Week 5
February 2004, Week 4
February 2004, Week 3
February 2004, Week 2
February 2004, Week 1
January 2004, Week 5
January 2004, Week 4
January 2004, Week 3
January 2004, Week 2
January 2004, Week 1
December 2003, Week 5
December 2003, Week 4
December 2003, Week 3
December 2003, Week 2
December 2003, Week 1
November 2003, Week 5
November 2003, Week 4
November 2003, Week 3
November 2003, Week 2
November 2003, Week 1
October 2003, Week 5
October 2003, Week 4
October 2003, Week 3
October 2003, Week 2
October 2003, Week 1
September 2003, Week 5
September 2003, Week 4
September 2003, Week 3
September 2003, Week 2
September 2003, Week 1
August 2003, Week 5
August 2003, Week 4
August 2003, Week 3
August 2003, Week 2
August 2003, Week 1
July 2003, Week 5
July 2003, Week 4
July 2003, Week 3
July 2003, Week 2
July 2003, Week 1
June 2003, Week 5
June 2003, Week 4
June 2003, Week 3
June 2003, Week 2
June 2003, Week 1
May 2003, Week 5
May 2003, Week 4
May 2003, Week 3
May 2003, Week 2
May 2003, Week 1
April 2003, Week 5
April 2003, Week 4
April 2003, Week 3
April 2003, Week 2
April 2003, Week 1
March 2003, Week 5
March 2003, Week 4
March 2003, Week 3
March 2003, Week 2
March 2003, Week 1
February 2003, Week 4
February 2003, Week 3
February 2003, Week 2
February 2003, Week 1
January 2003, Week 5
January 2003, Week 4
January 2003, Week 3
January 2003, Week 2
January 2003, Week 1
December 2002, Week 5
December 2002, Week 4
December 2002, Week 3
December 2002, Week 2
December 2002, Week 1
November 2002, Week 5
November 2002, Week 4
November 2002, Week 3
November 2002, Week 2
November 2002, Week 1
October 2002, Week 5
October 2002, Week 4
October 2002, Week 3
October 2002, Week 2
October 2002, Week 1
September 2002, Week 5
September 2002, Week 4
September 2002, Week 3
September 2002, Week 2
September 2002, Week 1
August 2002, Week 5
August 2002, Week 4
August 2002, Week 3
August 2002, Week 2
August 2002, Week 1
July 2002, Week 5
July 2002, Week 4
July 2002, Week 3
July 2002, Week 2
July 2002, Week 1
June 2002, Week 5
June 2002, Week 4
June 2002, Week 3
June 2002, Week 2
June 2002, Week 1
May 2002, Week 5
May 2002, Week 4
May 2002, Week 3
May 2002, Week 2
May 2002, Week 1
April 2002, Week 5
April 2002, Week 4
April 2002, Week 3
April 2002, Week 2
April 2002, Week 1
March 2002, Week 5
March 2002, Week 4
March 2002, Week 3
March 2002, Week 2
March 2002, Week 1
February 2002, Week 4
February 2002, Week 3
February 2002, Week 2
February 2002, Week 1
January 2002, Week 5
January 2002, Week 4
January 2002, Week 3
January 2002, Week 2
January 2002, Week 1
December 2001, Week 5
December 2001, Week 4
December 2001, Week 3
December 2001, Week 2
December 2001, Week 1
November 2001, Week 5
November 2001, Week 4
November 2001, Week 3
November 2001, Week 2
November 2001, Week 1
October 2001, Week 5
October 2001, Week 4
October 2001, Week 3
October 2001, Week 2
October 2001, Week 1
September 2001, Week 5
September 2001, Week 4
September 2001, Week 3
September 2001, Week 2
September 2001, Week 1
August 2001, Week 5
August 2001, Week 4
August 2001, Week 3
August 2001, Week 2
August 2001, Week 1
July 2001, Week 5
July 2001, Week 4
July 2001, Week 3
July 2001, Week 2
July 2001, Week 1
June 2001, Week 5
June 2001, Week 4
June 2001, Week 3
June 2001, Week 2
June 2001, Week 1
May 2001, Week 5
May 2001, Week 4
May 2001, Week 3
May 2001, Week 2
May 2001, Week 1
April 2001, Week 5
April 2001, Week 4
April 2001, Week 3
April 2001, Week 2
April 2001, Week 1
March 2001, Week 5
March 2001, Week 4
March 2001, Week 3
March 2001, Week 2
March 2001, Week 1
February 2001, Week 4
February 2001, Week 3
February 2001, Week 2
February 2001, Week 1
January 2001, Week 5
January 2001, Week 4
January 2001, Week 3
January 2001, Week 2
January 2001, Week 1
December 2000, Week 5
December 2000, Week 4
December 2000, Week 3
December 2000, Week 2
December 2000, Week 1
November 2000, Week 5
November 2000, Week 4
November 2000, Week 3
November 2000, Week 2
November 2000, Week 1
October 2000, Week 5
October 2000, Week 4
October 2000, Week 3
October 2000, Week 2
October 2000, Week 1
September 2000, Week 5
September 2000, Week 4
September 2000, Week 3
September 2000, Week 2
September 2000, Week 1
August 2000, Week 5
August 2000, Week 4
August 2000, Week 3
August 2000, Week 2
August 2000, Week 1
July 2000, Week 5
July 2000, Week 4
July 2000, Week 3
July 2000, Week 2
July 2000, Week 1
June 2000, Week 5
June 2000, Week 4
June 2000, Week 3
June 2000, Week 2
June 2000, Week 1
May 2000, Week 5
May 2000, Week 4
May 2000, Week 3
May 2000, Week 2
May 2000, Week 1
April 2000, Week 5
April 2000, Week 4
April 2000, Week 3
April 2000, Week 2
April 2000, Week 1
March 2000, Week 5
March 2000, Week 4
March 2000, Week 3
March 2000, Week 2
March 2000, Week 1
February 2000, Week 5
February 2000, Week 4
February 2000, Week 3
February 2000, Week 2
February 2000, Week 1
January 2000, Week 5
January 2000, Week 4
January 2000, Week 3
January 2000, Week 2
January 2000, Week 1
December 1999, Week 5
December 1999, Week 4
December 1999, Week 3
December 1999, Week 2
December 1999, Week 1
November 1999, Week 5
November 1999, Week 4
November 1999, Week 3
November 1999, Week 2
November 1999, Week 1
October 1999, Week 5
October 1999, Week 4
October 1999, Week 3
October 1999, Week 2
October 1999, Week 1
September 1999, Week 5
September 1999, Week 4
September 1999, Week 3
September 1999, Week 2
September 1999, Week 1
August 1999, Week 5
August 1999, Week 4
August 1999, Week 3
August 1999, Week 2
August 1999, Week 1
July 1999, Week 5
July 1999, Week 4
July 1999, Week 3
July 1999, Week 2
July 1999, Week 1
June 1999, Week 5
June 1999, Week 4
June 1999, Week 3
June 1999, Week 2
June 1999, Week 1
May 1999, Week 5
May 1999, Week 4
May 1999, Week 3
May 1999, Week 2
May 1999, Week 1
April 1999, Week 5
April 1999, Week 4
April 1999, Week 3
April 1999, Week 2
April 1999, Week 1
March 1999, Week 5
March 1999, Week 4
March 1999, Week 3
March 1999, Week 2
March 1999, Week 1
February 1999, Week 5
February 1999, Week 4
February 1999, Week 3
February 1999, Week 2
February 1999, Week 1
January 1999, Week 5
January 1999, Week 4
January 1999, Week 3
January 1999, Week 2
January 1999, Week 1
December 1998, Week 5
December 1998, Week 4
December 1998, Week 3
December 1998, Week 2
December 1998, Week 1
November 1998, Week 5
November 1998, Week 4
November 1998, Week 3
November 1998, Week 2
November 1998, Week 1
October 1998, Week 5
October 1998, Week 4
October 1998, Week 3
October 1998, Week 2
October 1998, Week 1
September 1998, Week 5
September 1998, Week 4
September 1998, Week 3

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