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CONLANG  October 2006, Week 1

CONLANG October 2006, Week 1

Subject:

Re: Creating conlang grammars using prototypes

From:

"H. S. Teoh" <[log in to unmask]>

Reply-To:

Constructed Languages List <[log in to unmask]>

Date:

Wed, 4 Oct 2006 14:35:20 -0700

Content-Type:

text/plain

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On Wed, Oct 04, 2006 at 12:51:33PM -0700, David J. Peterson wrote:
> Much of what you wrote is right in line with what I've been thinking
> (or, really, since I'm leaving linguistics, the conclusions I've come
> to) about language.  Here are some comments:

OK, I didn't intend this to turn into a polemic against the
"establishment", but hey, every man to his own. :-)


> Teoh:
> <<
> I've been thinking for a while now about a different way of creating
> the grammar of a conlang (or analysing a natlang---but I'll defer that
> to the real linguists ;-)) than the usual approach of enumerating a
> set of syntactic rules (word order, head/tail marking, clause
> formation, etc.).
> >>
> 
> ...and...
> 
> <<
> Consider how one acquires one's L1.  (L2 learners often go the route
> of learning the rules and then memorizing the exceptions, so we'll
> leave out L2 acquisition for now.) In learning your L1, you don't
> start by first learning where to put the subject and where to put the
> verb, etc..  I.e., you don't learn the general rules first. Instead,
> you hear *specific* sentences spoken by your parents, in specific
> contexts, and you imitate what they say *in that context*.  What they
> say defines what is the "correct" way for expressing that particular
> concept, and the context in which it is said defines how that concept
> should be expressed when in that context.
> >>
> 
> I'll tell you what the Chomskyan linguists will say to this.  Of
> course, they say that children come preprogrammed with ideas about how
> language should be structured, word order, etc., but we can leave that
> out (this notion has become so absurd to me that I can't even
> entertain it in jest).

Well, *I* think that children come preprogrammed with the need to
express certain things common to all humans, and everything else is just
a matter of finding the best way to do so. If the parents think that I
should put the verb at the end of the sentence, so be it---just gimme
that ice-cream!! Uh, I mean, that ice-cream gimme!


> Specifically, the notion that children learn through imitation is
> dismissed out of hand as being unscientific--kind of "matter-of-fact"
> reasoning.  The actual arguments I've seen against the notion that
> imitation plays an important role, however, are rather unimpressive.
> For example, one is that children say things they've never heard
> before, e.g., "Mommy, I hate you" (this is a classic example).  Of
> course, they couldn't utter it without hearing the words "Mommy", "I",
> "hate" and "you", in some context at some time.  At that point, if
> they've heard a sentence like "I X you", I don't find this novel
> sentence very surprising.  Another argument is the fact that they
> overgeneralize, producing sentences like, "I holded the rabbit" or "I
> saw two mans", forms they wouldn't have heard before (or certainly not
> from their parents).  Of course, if they've heard "I X'ed Y" before,
> and understand it to be past tense, then I don't see why this isn't
> imitation (or, more appropriately, analogy).

Yes, analogy is what I was driving at. It's obvious that children won't
just imitate what you say verbatim; maybe initially they will for lack
of sufficient vocabulary/knowledge about the language, but obviously
what they hear won't cover all possible things they want to say, so they
use analogy to derive new utterances (they are more likely to be
understood this way, after all).


> Anyway, the point is, in most linguistic circles, this kind of idea
> and reasoning would be dismissed out of hand--they'd probably find a
> little naive.  But, in my opinion, they're wrong.

The human capacity for inferring the abstract out of surprisingly scant
data is impressive. One need not look very far to find evidence for
this.


> Regarding rules, there are "rules", but probably not the kind that've
> been proposed over the years.  They're merely generalizations about
> observed linguistic behavior, and are only as accurate as the users of
> the language allow them to be.  So, for example, you could state a
> rule like this:
> 
> "man" = sg.; "men" = plu.
> 
> However you want to formalize it.  This is true iff every speaker of
> English does this.  If a small percentage don't, and, say, do
> "man/mans", then it's only 98% accurate.  (Note: With children, I'd
> say it only holds if they don't grow out of it.)  This specific rule
> I'd say is pretty rock-solid in English.

Basically, the drive here is to conform to others so that you will be
understood (and also not looked down on). This isn't as bad as it
sounds: think of it as protocol negotiation so that communication can
take place most effectively. If the majority of people you want to
communicate with use man/men, that it's more efficient for you to adapt
than to insist. Therefore, past a certain threshold, a tendency does
become a rule.

But then again, this example itself is telling, because it is one of the
exceptions from the -s formation of plurals. :-)


> There are plenty that aren't, though:
> 
> "octopus" = sg.; "octopi" = plu.

Eeek! ... mixed ... plurals ... *shudder* It's octopodes, *octopodes*!
(I'm sure Greekers will agree with me here. ;-))

On a more serious note, this illustrates what I said about conforming to
the norm (or using the right protocol, if you will). Just about nobody
except obsessive Greek scholars would insist on 'octopodes', so it is
more efficient to say what others say instead, even if it's "wrong"
according to etymology. And therefore, that makes it "right" in English,
since "right" is defined to be what everyone else agrees on, as far as
language goes.


> It's common, no doubt, but there are other ways to do it--even in the
> same grammar.  For example, I have this one and "octopuses".  There's
> probably some rationale I have for using one over the other, but I'm
> pretty sure it's context- (and me-) specific.

As is many aspects of language. This is often unconscious, which
explains many cases of miscommunication as caused by mismatching
assumptions (me-specific grammar doesn't match with you-specific
grammar, even though 95% of it does).


> Now to the prototype idea.  When I said in my talk (or at least I
> think I said it in my talk...) at the LCC that the idea I was
> presenting about morphology could be extended to all theoretical
> aspects of language, this is what I meant.  So, there's two plural
> rules:
> 
> X
> N
> Z sg.
> 
> <->
> 
> X"es"
> N
> Z plu.
> 
> ...and...
> 
> X"us"
> N
> Z sg.
> 
> <->
> 
> X"i"
> N
> Z plu.
> 
> (The first would have to be slightly more complicated, but this
> will serve.)
> 
> If you have some word that fits into one of these forms, then,
> you can analogize to the other.  The extent to which it will "work"
> is the extent to which you and your interlocutors will accept it.
> So, for example, a joke that "Mordecai" is what you call more
> than one "Mordecus" will only work if that "a" doesn't bother
> you (might work better spoken).

Exactly. So in a natlang, there are often (apparently) contradictory
rules, but that poses no problem, because from the contexts in which
you've heard them you know which nouns follow which rules. And again,
going back to your example about children saying "mans" instead of
"men": they have simply learned the context for the -s rule, but not yet
for the ablaut rule. (For "rule" read "template" if you're thinking in
my terminology. :-))


> Anyway, you can extend this idea quite easily to syntax:
> 
> X Y A
> NP(non-3sg.) V NP
> Z
> 
> <->
> 
> X Ys A
> NP(3sg.) V NP
> Z
> 
> The machinery would have to be modified a bit, but if instead
> of single words you work with phrases, clauses, entire series of
> discourse (think about the canonical form of a toast, for example),

Or, for that matter, "Abort, Retry, Ignore?":

	http://www.shades-of-night.com/aviary/poegram.html

:-)


> you can build up how a child gets from one or two sentences to a whole
> series of sentences they haven't heard before, and how we can
> understand a sentence like "It's frog-time!" with absolutely no
> context.  It's a vague understanding, but we know that whatever time
> it is, it's going to have something to do with one or more frogs, and
> that these frogs will be important in some way.

I wouldn't say this has absolutely no context. It has no *explicit*
context, to be sure, but past experiences with similar contexts (in the
usage I defined, at least) already give you sufficient data to infer
what's going on. IOW, you've already seen phrases like "bed-time",
"dinner time", etc., and so when confronted with "frog-time", you infer
that it must have something to do with frogs, just as "bed-time" has a
bed playing its central role, and "dinner time" has dinner as its
centerpiece.


> Regarding your specific idea about the prototype, I'd say that just
> about any sentence could be a prototype--that is, a basis for analogy.
> It's not immediately clear to me how (or if) this could be
> constrained, which is why it'd probably be rather frightening to
> linguists.

I'd say the constraints are the prototypes themselves, or at least, the
set of accumulated prototypes that a speaker has come to be acquianted
with.  Given a sufficiently large set of prototypes, many prototypes
will be overridden by others in various contexts, and so will no longer
be as general. For example, before a child learns the ablaut in "man",
she simply analogizes the -s pattern in plural formation; but after she
learns words with ablauts, this new pattern becomes a restriction to the
applicability of the -s rule. This is what I was driving at in the "it's
time to go to dinner" example: one learns that a new rule is preferable
over the previously-known rule in this particular case, and so this rule
has constrained the domain of the previous rule.

Also, given an increasingly larger set of prototypes to draw from, one
is increasingly likely to find an already existing pattern that suffices
to express what one wishes to say, and so there is less tendency to
innovate and create new patterns, by analogy or otherwise. So the set of
prototypes eventually reaches an asymptote, and any new utterances can
already be explained by an existing prototype.

OTOH, if something can already be expressed by an existing pattern,
there is some resistance to accepting a new way of saying it. If the
majority of the speakers feel that pattern P1 already suffices to
express idea I1, and somebody comes along and expresses I1 using a new
pattern P2, then P2 sounds unfamiliar and "ungrammatical", and the
reaction would be, "P1 is how you'd say this". Eventually, when enough
momentum has built behind P1, P2 falls out of use and drops out of the
language.


[...]
> Some other comments:
> 
> Teoh:
> <<
> One idea I have is that instead of setting down word order rules,
> syntactical rules, NP structure, etc., from the start, begin instead
> with a set of prototypical situations (let's call these *contexts*),
> such as greetings, farewells, telling time, asking questions, etc.,
> and coin their prototypical phrases (the *prototypes*).  Then,
> generalize these phrases into *templates*, and produce new phrases
> from them. As you go along, maybe you will think of a new situation
> where an existing template won't quite work; then you create a new
> context and a new prototype (phrase), which gives rise to a new
> template that overrides the previous in that context (and possibly
> other contexts as well).
> >>
> 
> This would be good, but so hard and time-consuming!  ;)  In truth,
> there are a lot of things I know I *should* do when conlanging, but,
> well, I only have so much time and patience.  Ahh...laziness...

Well, the thing is, you don't *have* to sit down and dream up 1001
situations and 101 phrases to go with each one (and repeat this a couple
o' million of times for each native speaker's particular experience of
childhood).  All you need is to come up with a set of situations and
phrases that cover 90% of what you'd say in everyday life, and that's
good enough. The rest can be added at a much slower pace once you have
the core phrases down.


> Teoh:
> <<
> Furthermore, by *describing* a conlang's grammar in terms of contexts,
> prototypes, and their induced templates, it's much easier for someone
> else to learn the language (since it parallels how one acquires an
> L1), AND pick up the conculture at the same time (by seeing which
> phrases are used in which contexts).
> >>
> 
> Not for me.  : \  I still like the all the rules.  I can't stand the
> TY approach.  There are others like me.  Not everyone, of course, but
> a large minority who would really prefer to see tables and charts.
> And you know what?  We probably won't learn the language that
> effectively.  So be it!

There's nothing wrong with summarizing a set of prototypes using a
table. For example, there's nothing wrong with a table that lists -s as
the plural suffix in English, even if there's a set of exceptions to the
rule. One just has to be aware that the table is incomplete. :-)


> Really, though, I think this may be because there's a difference
> between learning your first language and learning any other language.
> When learning your L1, you have very little to analogize from.  When
> you're learning an L2, you have an entire language to fall back on.
> It's really, really hard to tune all that knowledge out and try to
> relearn a totally new way of thinking about language.

That's true. But then again, I've only really thought about my approach
from the POV of an L1 learner. I haven't given that much thought to an
L2 learner yet, although I do have some ideas (see later).


> And humans love to try to formalize rules about language.  This is why
> we have sentences that are infinitely long, and authors like William
> Faulkner.  If you think about language in terms of speakers, then an
> infinitely long sentence could never be produced, and is, therefore,
> not a part of the grammar of any language.  This will not, however,
> stop people from imagining them, and coming up with sentences like
> "Buffalo buffalo buffalo buffalo buffalo..." (I for the life of me
> can't figure out how this sentence works, but involves the verb
> "buffalo", the noun "buffalo" and the place-name "Buffalo").  It's the
> difference between participating in the language and thinking about
> the language; imagining the logic of the language, as if it were a
> foreign entity.

True.


> With respect to L2 instruction, though, I have heard (was it on-
> list?) that Chinese is taught in a similar way.  Instead of learning
> vocabulary, you learn a particular sentence form, use it, replace
> words here and there, and then go onto a new sentence form.  Can
> anyone confirm/deny this?  (And I'm sure there are tons of ways of
> teaching Chinese; this was just one I heard.)

Certainly not the way I learned it! :-) But then again, being a native
speaker (or an almost native---depends if you consider learning in later
childhood native or not), my POV is hopelessly biased.


> Teoh:
> <<
> One could also use this approach in creating a descendent language:
> start with a traditional rules-and-exceptions conlang grammar, come up
> with a list of contexts, and see what a mother would teach her child
> in those contexts. Then let the child infer her own rules (not
> necessarily the same as the rules the mother use) about the language
> based on what the mother says. The transfer of knowledge is
> necessarily imperfect, which will lead to templates that don't quite
> fit the original rules, but commonplace amongst the 2nd generation.
> This then leads to (hopefully realistic?) grammatical shifts over
> time.
> >>
> 
> This is another one of those things that came up on-list awhile back:
> the idea that language change is driven by child error.

I wouldn't say child error. Child error, to me, is when a child says
something that contradicts a rule (prototype) that he hasn't learned
yet. The kind of shifts I'm talking about is more to do with having
different preferences of prototypes: preferring one way of saying
something over another, differently from how parents would choose to say
it, while both are valid. Over time, the parents' preferred pattern may
fall into disuse, and so the language has begun to shift away from that
particular paradigm. This could be due to various reasons: the parents'
childhood may have been under slightly different circumstances, and
therefore they hear a slightly different set of utterances; their child,
having learned a slightly different of utterances, would make some
decisions differently.


> It's certainly true: children do infer what rules they can, and
> sometimes they're right, sometimes they're wrong.  Over time, though,
> the rules get refined, so that they pretty much look like everyone
> else's.

But their society isn't exactly the same as their parents', and
therefore the common protocol would be slightly different.


> There are hold-outs, so that, for example, I pronounce "both" with an
> /l/, and "-ing" like [in], but if they really got in the way of
> comprehension, they'd probably disappear.

Right. But if everybody else among your peers speak that way, then it
becomes the norm for that peer group, and you'd just code-switch when
speaking to your parents' peer group.


> I think this idea comes from the Chomskyan notion that children arrive
> at their grammar at like age 5, and after that, it doesn't change,
> save with some vocabulary, learning a few new idioms, etc.  This is
> nonsense.  One's language changes significantly over the course of
> one's entire life, the pronunciation, vocabulary, morphology, syntax,
> pragmatics--the whole bit.  The pronunciation, at least, is coming to
> light, thanks to that study of the Queen's English (incidentally,
> anyone have a link to this?).  But even things like one's
> understanding of structures one has been using for years can change,
> if a speaker encounters a new way of thinking about them.  With new
> words come new constructions, and different ways of thinking about old
> constructions.  Why should grammar be immutable?

Yep. I'd say that the core grammar---those rules/patterns/prototypes
most commonly employed, naturally resist change because you want to
maintain (and maximize) mutual comprehension. But that doesn't mean it
*can't* change---it just takes longer for a new pattern to take root in
the speaking community.


> Teoh:
> <<
> Finally, to conclude, I'd like to state the caveat that all of the
> above are just my ivory-tower ponderings...
> >>
> 
> Ditto.  No tomatoes, please!
[...]

What about oranges? ;-)


T

-- 
Without outlines, life would be pointless.

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November 2013, Week 3
November 2013, Week 2
November 2013, Week 1
October 2013, Week 5
October 2013, Week 4
October 2013, Week 3
October 2013, Week 2
October 2013, Week 1
September 2013, Week 5
September 2013, Week 4
September 2013, Week 3
September 2013, Week 2
September 2013, Week 1
August 2013, Week 5
August 2013, Week 4
August 2013, Week 3
August 2013, Week 2
August 2013, Week 1
July 2013, Week 5
July 2013, Week 4
July 2013, Week 3
July 2013, Week 2
July 2013, Week 1
June 2013, Week 5
June 2013, Week 4
June 2013, Week 3
June 2013, Week 2
June 2013, Week 1
May 2013, Week 5
May 2013, Week 4
May 2013, Week 3
May 2013, Week 2
May 2013, Week 1
April 2013, Week 5
April 2013, Week 4
April 2013, Week 3
April 2013, Week 2
April 2013, Week 1
March 2013, Week 5
March 2013, Week 4
March 2013, Week 3
March 2013, Week 2
March 2013, Week 1
February 2013, Week 4
February 2013, Week 3
February 2013, Week 2
February 2013, Week 1
January 2013, Week 5
January 2013, Week 4
January 2013, Week 3
January 2013, Week 2
January 2013, Week 1
December 2012, Week 5
December 2012, Week 4
December 2012, Week 3
December 2012, Week 2
December 2012, Week 1
November 2012, Week 5
November 2012, Week 4
November 2012, Week 3
November 2012, Week 2
November 2012, Week 1
October 2012, Week 5
October 2012, Week 4
October 2012, Week 3
October 2012, Week 2
October 2012, Week 1
September 2012, Week 5
September 2012, Week 4
September 2012, Week 3
September 2012, Week 2
September 2012, Week 1
August 2012, Week 5
August 2012, Week 4
August 2012, Week 3
August 2012, Week 2
August 2012, Week 1
July 2012, Week 5
July 2012, Week 4
July 2012, Week 3
July 2012, Week 2
July 2012, Week 1
June 2012, Week 5
June 2012, Week 4
June 2012, Week 3
June 2012, Week 2
June 2012, Week 1
May 2012, Week 5
May 2012, Week 4
May 2012, Week 3
May 2012, Week 2
May 2012, Week 1
April 2012, Week 5
April 2012, Week 4
April 2012, Week 3
April 2012, Week 2
April 2012, Week 1
March 2012, Week 5
March 2012, Week 4
March 2012, Week 3
March 2012, Week 2
March 2012, Week 1
February 2012, Week 5
February 2012, Week 4
February 2012, Week 3
February 2012, Week 2
February 2012, Week 1
January 2012, Week 5
January 2012, Week 4
January 2012, Week 3
January 2012, Week 2
January 2012, Week 1
December 2011, Week 5
December 2011, Week 4
December 2011, Week 3
December 2011, Week 2
December 2011, Week 1
November 2011, Week 5
November 2011, Week 4
November 2011, Week 3
November 2011, Week 2
November 2011, Week 1
October 2011, Week 5
October 2011, Week 4
October 2011, Week 3
October 2011, Week 2
October 2011, Week 1
September 2011, Week 5
September 2011, Week 4
September 2011, Week 3
September 2011, Week 2
September 2011, Week 1
August 2011, Week 5
August 2011, Week 4
August 2011, Week 3
August 2011, Week 2
August 2011, Week 1
July 2011, Week 5
July 2011, Week 4
July 2011, Week 3
July 2011, Week 2
July 2011, Week 1
June 2011, Week 5
June 2011, Week 4
June 2011, Week 3
June 2011, Week 2
June 2011, Week 1
May 2011, Week 5
May 2011, Week 4
May 2011, Week 3
May 2011, Week 2
May 2011, Week 1
April 2011, Week 5
April 2011, Week 4
April 2011, Week 3
April 2011, Week 2
April 2011, Week 1
March 2011, Week 5
March 2011, Week 4
March 2011, Week 3
March 2011, Week 2
March 2011, Week 1
February 2011, Week 4
February 2011, Week 3
February 2011, Week 2
February 2011, Week 1
January 2011, Week 5
January 2011, Week 4
January 2011, Week 3
January 2011, Week 2
January 2011, Week 1
December 2010, Week 5
December 2010, Week 4
December 2010, Week 3
December 2010, Week 2
December 2010, Week 1
November 2010, Week 5
November 2010, Week 4
November 2010, Week 3
November 2010, Week 2
November 2010, Week 1
October 2010, Week 5
October 2010, Week 4
October 2010, Week 3
October 2010, Week 2
October 2010, Week 1
September 2010, Week 5
September 2010, Week 4
September 2010, Week 3
September 2010, Week 2
September 2010, Week 1
August 2010, Week 5
August 2010, Week 4
August 2010, Week 3
August 2010, Week 2
August 2010, Week 1
July 2010, Week 5
July 2010, Week 4
July 2010, Week 3
July 2010, Week 2
July 2010, Week 1
June 2010, Week 5
June 2010, Week 4
June 2010, Week 3
June 2010, Week 2
June 2010, Week 1
May 2010, Week 5
May 2010, Week 4
May 2010, Week 3
May 2010, Week 2
May 2010, Week 1
April 2010, Week 5
April 2010, Week 4
April 2010, Week 3
April 2010, Week 2
April 2010, Week 1
March 2010, Week 5
March 2010, Week 4
March 2010, Week 3
March 2010, Week 2
March 2010, Week 1
February 2010, Week 4
February 2010, Week 3
February 2010, Week 2
February 2010, Week 1
January 2010, Week 5
January 2010, Week 4
January 2010, Week 3
January 2010, Week 2
January 2010, Week 1
December 2009, Week 5
December 2009, Week 4
December 2009, Week 3
December 2009, Week 2
December 2009, Week 1
November 2009, Week 5
November 2009, Week 4
November 2009, Week 3
November 2009, Week 2
November 2009, Week 1
October 2009, Week 5
October 2009, Week 4
October 2009, Week 3
October 2009, Week 2
October 2009, Week 1
September 2009, Week 5
September 2009, Week 4
September 2009, Week 3
September 2009, Week 2
September 2009, Week 1
August 2009, Week 5
August 2009, Week 4
August 2009, Week 3
August 2009, Week 2
August 2009, Week 1
July 2009, Week 5
July 2009, Week 4
July 2009, Week 3
July 2009, Week 2
July 2009, Week 1
June 2009, Week 5
June 2009, Week 4
June 2009, Week 3
June 2009, Week 2
June 2009, Week 1
May 2009, Week 5
May 2009, Week 4
May 2009, Week 3
May 2009, Week 2
May 2009, Week 1
April 2009, Week 5
April 2009, Week 4
April 2009, Week 3
April 2009, Week 2
April 2009, Week 1
March 2009, Week 5
March 2009, Week 4
March 2009, Week 3
March 2009, Week 2
March 2009, Week 1
February 2009, Week 4
February 2009, Week 3
February 2009, Week 2
February 2009, Week 1
January 2009, Week 5
January 2009, Week 4
January 2009, Week 3
January 2009, Week 2
January 2009, Week 1
December 2008, Week 5
December 2008, Week 4
December 2008, Week 3
December 2008, Week 2
December 2008, Week 1
November 2008, Week 5
November 2008, Week 4
November 2008, Week 3
November 2008, Week 2
November 2008, Week 1
October 2008, Week 5
October 2008, Week 4
October 2008, Week 3
October 2008, Week 2
October 2008, Week 1
September 2008, Week 5
September 2008, Week 4
September 2008, Week 3
September 2008, Week 2
September 2008, Week 1
August 2008, Week 5
August 2008, Week 4
August 2008, Week 3
August 2008, Week 2
August 2008, Week 1
July 2008, Week 5
July 2008, Week 4
July 2008, Week 3
July 2008, Week 2
July 2008, Week 1
June 2008, Week 5
June 2008, Week 4
June 2008, Week 3
June 2008, Week 2
June 2008, Week 1
May 2008, Week 5
May 2008, Week 4
May 2008, Week 3
May 2008, Week 2
May 2008, Week 1
April 2008, Week 5
April 2008, Week 4
April 2008, Week 3
April 2008, Week 2
April 2008, Week 1
March 2008, Week 5
March 2008, Week 4
March 2008, Week 3
March 2008, Week 2
March 2008, Week 1
February 2008, Week 5
February 2008, Week 4
February 2008, Week 3
February 2008, Week 2
February 2008, Week 1
January 2008, Week 5
January 2008, Week 4
January 2008, Week 3
January 2008, Week 2
January 2008, Week 1
December 2007, Week 5
December 2007, Week 4
December 2007, Week 3
December 2007, Week 2
December 2007, Week 1
November 2007, Week 5
November 2007, Week 4
November 2007, Week 3
November 2007, Week 2
November 2007, Week 1
October 2007, Week 5
October 2007, Week 4
October 2007, Week 3
October 2007, Week 2
October 2007, Week 1
September 2007, Week 5
September 2007, Week 4
September 2007, Week 3
September 2007, Week 2
September 2007, Week 1
August 2007, Week 5
August 2007, Week 4
August 2007, Week 3
August 2007, Week 2
August 2007, Week 1
July 2007, Week 5
July 2007, Week 4
July 2007, Week 3
July 2007, Week 2
July 2007, Week 1
June 2007, Week 5
June 2007, Week 4
June 2007, Week 3
June 2007, Week 2
June 2007, Week 1
May 2007, Week 5
May 2007, Week 4
May 2007, Week 3
May 2007, Week 2
May 2007, Week 1
April 2007, Week 5
April 2007, Week 4
April 2007, Week 3
April 2007, Week 2
April 2007, Week 1
March 2007, Week 5
March 2007, Week 4
March 2007, Week 3
March 2007, Week 2
March 2007, Week 1
February 2007, Week 4
February 2007, Week 3
February 2007, Week 2
February 2007, Week 1
January 2007, Week 5
January 2007, Week 4
January 2007, Week 3
January 2007, Week 2
January 2007, Week 1
December 2006, Week 5
December 2006, Week 4
December 2006, Week 3
December 2006, Week 2
December 2006, Week 1
November 2006, Week 5
November 2006, Week 4
November 2006, Week 3
November 2006, Week 2
November 2006, Week 1
October 2006, Week 5
October 2006, Week 4
October 2006, Week 3
October 2006, Week 2
October 2006, Week 1
September 2006, Week 5
September 2006, Week 4
September 2006, Week 3
September 2006, Week 2
September 2006, Week 1
August 2006, Week 5
August 2006, Week 4
August 2006, Week 3
August 2006, Week 2
August 2006, Week 1
July 2006, Week 5
July 2006, Week 4
July 2006, Week 3
July 2006, Week 2
July 2006, Week 1
June 2006, Week 5
June 2006, Week 4
June 2006, Week 3
June 2006, Week 2
June 2006, Week 1
May 2006, Week 5
May 2006, Week 4
May 2006, Week 3
May 2006, Week 2
May 2006, Week 1
April 2006, Week 5
April 2006, Week 4
April 2006, Week 3
April 2006, Week 2
April 2006, Week 1
March 2006, Week 5
March 2006, Week 4
March 2006, Week 3
March 2006, Week 2
March 2006, Week 1
February 2006, Week 4
February 2006, Week 3
February 2006, Week 2
February 2006, Week 1
January 2006, Week 5
January 2006, Week 4
January 2006, Week 3
January 2006, Week 2
January 2006, Week 1
December 2005, Week 5
December 2005, Week 4
December 2005, Week 3
December 2005, Week 2
December 2005, Week 1
November 2005, Week 5
November 2005, Week 4
November 2005, Week 3
November 2005, Week 2
November 2005, Week 1
October 2005, Week 5
October 2005, Week 4
October 2005, Week 3
October 2005, Week 2
October 2005, Week 1
September 2005, Week 5
September 2005, Week 4
September 2005, Week 3
September 2005, Week 2
September 2005, Week 1
August 2005, Week 5
August 2005, Week 4
August 2005, Week 3
August 2005, Week 2
August 2005, Week 1
July 2005, Week 5
July 2005, Week 4
July 2005, Week 3
July 2005, Week 2
July 2005, Week 1
June 2005, Week 5
June 2005, Week 4
June 2005, Week 3
June 2005, Week 2
June 2005, Week 1
May 2005, Week 5
May 2005, Week 4
May 2005, Week 3
May 2005, Week 2
May 2005, Week 1
April 2005, Week 5
April 2005, Week 4
April 2005, Week 3
April 2005, Week 2
April 2005, Week 1
March 2005, Week 5
March 2005, Week 4
March 2005, Week 3
March 2005, Week 2
March 2005, Week 1
February 2005, Week 4
February 2005, Week 3
February 2005, Week 2
February 2005, Week 1
January 2005, Week 5
January 2005, Week 4
January 2005, Week 3
January 2005, Week 2
January 2005, Week 1
December 2004, Week 5
December 2004, Week 4
December 2004, Week 3
December 2004, Week 2
December 2004, Week 1
November 2004, Week 5
November 2004, Week 4
November 2004, Week 3
November 2004, Week 2
November 2004, Week 1
October 2004, Week 5
October 2004, Week 4
October 2004, Week 3
October 2004, Week 2
October 2004, Week 1
September 2004, Week 5
September 2004, Week 4
September 2004, Week 3
September 2004, Week 2
September 2004, Week 1
August 2004, Week 5
August 2004, Week 4
August 2004, Week 3
August 2004, Week 2
August 2004, Week 1
July 2004, Week 5
July 2004, Week 4
July 2004, Week 3
July 2004, Week 2
July 2004, Week 1
June 2004, Week 5
June 2004, Week 4
June 2004, Week 3
June 2004, Week 2
June 2004, Week 1
May 2004, Week 5
May 2004, Week 4
May 2004, Week 3
May 2004, Week 2
May 2004, Week 1
April 2004, Week 5
April 2004, Week 4
April 2004, Week 3
April 2004, Week 2
April 2004, Week 1
March 2004, Week 5
March 2004, Week 4
March 2004, Week 3
March 2004, Week 2
March 2004, Week 1
February 2004, Week 5
February 2004, Week 4
February 2004, Week 3
February 2004, Week 2
February 2004, Week 1
January 2004, Week 5
January 2004, Week 4
January 2004, Week 3
January 2004, Week 2
January 2004, Week 1
December 2003, Week 5
December 2003, Week 4
December 2003, Week 3
December 2003, Week 2
December 2003, Week 1
November 2003, Week 5
November 2003, Week 4
November 2003, Week 3
November 2003, Week 2
November 2003, Week 1
October 2003, Week 5
October 2003, Week 4
October 2003, Week 3
October 2003, Week 2
October 2003, Week 1
September 2003, Week 5
September 2003, Week 4
September 2003, Week 3
September 2003, Week 2
September 2003, Week 1
August 2003, Week 5
August 2003, Week 4
August 2003, Week 3
August 2003, Week 2
August 2003, Week 1
July 2003, Week 5
July 2003, Week 4
July 2003, Week 3
July 2003, Week 2
July 2003, Week 1
June 2003, Week 5
June 2003, Week 4
June 2003, Week 3
June 2003, Week 2
June 2003, Week 1
May 2003, Week 5
May 2003, Week 4
May 2003, Week 3
May 2003, Week 2
May 2003, Week 1
April 2003, Week 5
April 2003, Week 4
April 2003, Week 3
April 2003, Week 2
April 2003, Week 1
March 2003, Week 5
March 2003, Week 4
March 2003, Week 3
March 2003, Week 2
March 2003, Week 1
February 2003, Week 4
February 2003, Week 3
February 2003, Week 2
February 2003, Week 1
January 2003, Week 5
January 2003, Week 4
January 2003, Week 3
January 2003, Week 2
January 2003, Week 1
December 2002, Week 5
December 2002, Week 4
December 2002, Week 3
December 2002, Week 2
December 2002, Week 1
November 2002, Week 5
November 2002, Week 4
November 2002, Week 3
November 2002, Week 2
November 2002, Week 1
October 2002, Week 5
October 2002, Week 4
October 2002, Week 3
October 2002, Week 2
October 2002, Week 1
September 2002, Week 5
September 2002, Week 4
September 2002, Week 3
September 2002, Week 2
September 2002, Week 1
August 2002, Week 5
August 2002, Week 4
August 2002, Week 3
August 2002, Week 2
August 2002, Week 1
July 2002, Week 5
July 2002, Week 4
July 2002, Week 3
July 2002, Week 2
July 2002, Week 1
June 2002, Week 5
June 2002, Week 4
June 2002, Week 3
June 2002, Week 2
June 2002, Week 1
May 2002, Week 5
May 2002, Week 4
May 2002, Week 3
May 2002, Week 2
May 2002, Week 1
April 2002, Week 5
April 2002, Week 4
April 2002, Week 3
April 2002, Week 2
April 2002, Week 1
March 2002, Week 5
March 2002, Week 4
March 2002, Week 3
March 2002, Week 2
March 2002, Week 1
February 2002, Week 4
February 2002, Week 3
February 2002, Week 2
February 2002, Week 1
January 2002, Week 5
January 2002, Week 4
January 2002, Week 3
January 2002, Week 2
January 2002, Week 1
December 2001, Week 5
December 2001, Week 4
December 2001, Week 3
December 2001, Week 2
December 2001, Week 1
November 2001, Week 5
November 2001, Week 4
November 2001, Week 3
November 2001, Week 2
November 2001, Week 1
October 2001, Week 5
October 2001, Week 4
October 2001, Week 3
October 2001, Week 2
October 2001, Week 1
September 2001, Week 5
September 2001, Week 4
September 2001, Week 3
September 2001, Week 2
September 2001, Week 1
August 2001, Week 5
August 2001, Week 4
August 2001, Week 3
August 2001, Week 2
August 2001, Week 1
July 2001, Week 5
July 2001, Week 4
July 2001, Week 3
July 2001, Week 2
July 2001, Week 1
June 2001, Week 5
June 2001, Week 4
June 2001, Week 3
June 2001, Week 2
June 2001, Week 1
May 2001, Week 5
May 2001, Week 4
May 2001, Week 3
May 2001, Week 2
May 2001, Week 1
April 2001, Week 5
April 2001, Week 4
April 2001, Week 3
April 2001, Week 2
April 2001, Week 1
March 2001, Week 5
March 2001, Week 4
March 2001, Week 3
March 2001, Week 2
March 2001, Week 1
February 2001, Week 4
February 2001, Week 3
February 2001, Week 2
February 2001, Week 1
January 2001, Week 5
January 2001, Week 4
January 2001, Week 3
January 2001, Week 2
January 2001, Week 1
December 2000, Week 5
December 2000, Week 4
December 2000, Week 3
December 2000, Week 2
December 2000, Week 1
November 2000, Week 5
November 2000, Week 4
November 2000, Week 3
November 2000, Week 2
November 2000, Week 1
October 2000, Week 5
October 2000, Week 4
October 2000, Week 3
October 2000, Week 2
October 2000, Week 1
September 2000, Week 5
September 2000, Week 4
September 2000, Week 3
September 2000, Week 2
September 2000, Week 1
August 2000, Week 5
August 2000, Week 4
August 2000, Week 3
August 2000, Week 2
August 2000, Week 1
July 2000, Week 5
July 2000, Week 4
July 2000, Week 3
July 2000, Week 2
July 2000, Week 1
June 2000, Week 5
June 2000, Week 4
June 2000, Week 3
June 2000, Week 2
June 2000, Week 1
May 2000, Week 5
May 2000, Week 4
May 2000, Week 3
May 2000, Week 2
May 2000, Week 1
April 2000, Week 5
April 2000, Week 4
April 2000, Week 3
April 2000, Week 2
April 2000, Week 1
March 2000, Week 5
March 2000, Week 4
March 2000, Week 3
March 2000, Week 2
March 2000, Week 1
February 2000, Week 5
February 2000, Week 4
February 2000, Week 3
February 2000, Week 2
February 2000, Week 1
January 2000, Week 5
January 2000, Week 4
January 2000, Week 3
January 2000, Week 2
January 2000, Week 1
December 1999, Week 5
December 1999, Week 4
December 1999, Week 3
December 1999, Week 2
December 1999, Week 1
November 1999, Week 5
November 1999, Week 4
November 1999, Week 3
November 1999, Week 2
November 1999, Week 1
October 1999, Week 5
October 1999, Week 4
October 1999, Week 3
October 1999, Week 2
October 1999, Week 1
September 1999, Week 5
September 1999, Week 4
September 1999, Week 3
September 1999, Week 2
September 1999, Week 1
August 1999, Week 5
August 1999, Week 4
August 1999, Week 3
August 1999, Week 2
August 1999, Week 1
July 1999, Week 5
July 1999, Week 4
July 1999, Week 3
July 1999, Week 2
July 1999, Week 1
June 1999, Week 5
June 1999, Week 4
June 1999, Week 3
June 1999, Week 2
June 1999, Week 1
May 1999, Week 5
May 1999, Week 4
May 1999, Week 3
May 1999, Week 2
May 1999, Week 1
April 1999, Week 5
April 1999, Week 4
April 1999, Week 3
April 1999, Week 2
April 1999, Week 1
March 1999, Week 5
March 1999, Week 4
March 1999, Week 3
March 1999, Week 2
March 1999, Week 1
February 1999, Week 5
February 1999, Week 4
February 1999, Week 3
February 1999, Week 2
February 1999, Week 1
January 1999, Week 5
January 1999, Week 4
January 1999, Week 3
January 1999, Week 2
January 1999, Week 1
December 1998, Week 5
December 1998, Week 4
December 1998, Week 3
December 1998, Week 2
December 1998, Week 1
November 1998, Week 5
November 1998, Week 4
November 1998, Week 3
November 1998, Week 2
November 1998, Week 1
October 1998, Week 5
October 1998, Week 4
October 1998, Week 3
October 1998, Week 2
October 1998, Week 1
September 1998, Week 5
September 1998, Week 4
September 1998, Week 3

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