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AUXLANG  February 2007, Week 3

AUXLANG February 2007, Week 3

Subject:

Recenzo/Review: "En la serc^ado de la mondolingvo"

From:

"Donald J. HARLOW" <[log in to unmask]>

Reply-To:

International Auxiliary Languages <[log in to unmask]>

Date:

Sun, 18 Feb 2007 20:56:47 -0800

Content-Type:

text/plain

Parts/Attachments:

Parts/Attachments

text/plain (209 lines)

English translation follows.

Aleksandr Dmitrijevic^ Dulic^enko, c^e la Universitato de Tartu en 
Estonio, estas konata kiel specialisto pri slavaj lingvoj, kaj aparte 
pri slavaj literaturaj mikrolingvoj. Sed li ankau^ estas konata kiel 
fakulo pri la historio de planlingvoj. C^i tiu libro (kiu originale 
skribig^is, sed ankorau^ ne aperis, en la rusa lingvo) aperas c^i tie 
en sia tria publika masko (antau^e aperis estona kaj litova tradukoj).

La libro komencig^as per c^apitro kiu diskutas la aktualan lingvan 
staton de mondo; tion rekte sekvas diskuto pri la kapablo de homoj 
lerni lingvojn, pli ol unu. La temo de la tria c^apitro, "Pri socia 
reguligo de la lingvo", estas sufic^e grava ec^ por la simpla ekzisto 
de planlingvoj; sed Dulic^enko en tiu c^apitro diskutas ankau^ la 
pig^inojn (malgrau^ koncentrado je Tok Pisin kaj la Afrikansa lingvo, 
li ankau^ mencias Russenorsk).

"En la serc^ado de la racia lingvo" traktas la plej fruajn provojn 
krei artefaritan komunikilon. Dulic^enko mencias la "Lingua Ignota" 
(Nekonatan Lingvon) de Hildegard de Bingen/Rupertsburg, sed dedic^as 
iom pli da spaco al simila lingvo ellaborita iom poste sub alia 
religia reg^imo: t.e. la "Balaibalan" de s^ejko Mohyieddin. Mi 
antau^e au^dis la nomon de tiu lingvo, sed ne antau^e vidis ekzemplon 
de g^i, kiun donas Dulic^enko.

Post c^apitro pri la serc^adeo de filozofia lingvo en la periodo de 
la 17a-18a jarcentoj (en kiu Dulic^enko mencias ankau^ Sir Isaac 
Newton -- mi neniam antau^e au^dis, ke Newton havis intereson pri la 
afero kiel havis lia  c^efa konkuranto Leibniz, sed evidente oni 
eltrovis manuskripton de Newton pri filozofia lingvo jam en 1936), 
Dulic^enko dedic^as c^apitron al unu homo: la kroato Juraj 
Kriz^anic', kiu en la mezo de la 17a jarcento inventis tutan 
aposterioran tutslavan lingvon, kiu lau^ Dulic^enko estis la unua 
aposteriora lingvo.

Post provizora flankenturno al la mondo de "bildaj lingvoj" 
(pazigrafioj), en kiu Dulic^enko diskutas ne nur la artefaritajn 
bildlingvojn kiel Safo kaj Effel -- teksto en Safo ornamas la 
kovrilon de la libro -- sed ankau^ la uzadon, kaj en la "reala mondo" 
kaj en la mondo de planlingvoj, de la c^inaj ideogramoj, ni trafas 
c^apitron pri Solresol. Nu, tion almenau^ proklamas la titolo, sed 
fakte post kvar pag^oj pri Solresol la ceteron de la c^apitro la 
verkinto dedic^is al diversaj provoj -- c^efe ankorau^ filozofiaj -- 
de la mezo de la 19a jarcento.

Pli konatan terenon ni eniras en c^apitro 9, kiu estas dedic^ita al 
la strukturo kaj historio de Volapuko. I.a. Dulic^enko klarigas, kial 
reformoj estis necesaj in tiu lingvo, sed ne tus^as la demandon, c^u 
Volapuko estus postvivinta sen la skismo, kiu evoluis c^irkau^ la 
reforma demando (kvankam li iom akceptas tiun ideon pere de la sola 
frazo "La skismo en la Volapuka movado kondukis al malrapida velko de 
la 'mondolingvo'." [p. 93]).

Dulic^enko lokigas Volapukon kiel "miksitan lingvon" -- t.e. duone 
inter la aprioraj kaj la aposterioraj lingvoj, grandparte pro la 
verba gramatiko, kiu estis tre kompleksa kaj apriora, kaj parte 
ankau^ pro la nerekonebleco de vortoj, grandparte prenitaj el 
nacilingvoj sed preskau^ c^iam mallongigitaj por akordi kun la 
fonologio de Volapuko. En c^apitro 10 li diskutas la historion de la 
lingvo, kiu efektive komencis la epokon de la aposterioraj lingvoj 
(kvankam aperis kelkaj antau^e, kiel tiu de Kriz^anic'), nome 
Esperanto. En c^apitro 11 li diskutas la diversajn posteulojn de 
Esperanto, de Ido g^is la IALA Interlingua. C^apitro 12, 
"Interlingvistika statistiko de la antikva epoko g^is la nuna tempo", 
estas kvazau^ resumo de la historio de planlingvoj, kun mencio de 
ankau^ kelkaj aliaj lingvoj (ekz-e Novial). En c^apitro 13 Dulic^enko 
diskutas la rolon de la grandaj etnaj "internaciaj lingvoj", c^efe de 
la angla, en la moderna mondo, kaj ankau^ parolas pri la 
"faciligitaj" naciaj lingvoj, ekz-e Basic English. Fine, Dulic^enko 
diskutas la metodon, per kiu fine aperos la komuna lingvo.

Mi trovis tri kritikindaj^ojn en la libro:

1) Parolante pri la Esperanta participo, Dulic^enko skribis: "Sed 
participo ne rolas kiel epiteto, g^i c^iam estas uzata kun helpa 
verbo: *la libro estas legita*." [p. 101] Sed fakte Esperantaj 
participoj ofte rolas epitete, kaj en Esperanto ne ekzistas la 
koncepto "helpa verbo" -- nur "esti" plus adjektivo.

2) En sia resuma c^apitro, Dulic^enko skribis: "Ne c^esas ser^ado de 
optimuma varianto de apriora lingvo: tiaj estas ... *Unitario* (1989) 
de Mario Pleyer (pseu^donimo de germano Rolf Riehm) ... *Latino 
Moderne* (1996) de David Theodore Stark". [p. 124] Sed lau^ mia 
memoro, "Unitario" estis provo akordigi la du aposteriorajn lingvojn 
Esperanto kaj (IALA) Interlingua, kaj "Latino Moderne" estis variaj^o 
de Interlingua kun iom s^ang^ita gramatiko.

3) En sia diskuto pri vojoj al internacia lingvo, Dulic^enko 
priskribas "la duan vojon" kiel "tutmonda kunfluig^o de etnaj 
lingvoj, kiu devos okazi post la venko de komunismo en la mondo ..." 
[p. 140], kio sugestas al mi, ke li originale verkis la libron antau^ 
almenau^ 20 jaroj, iom aktualigis g^in por nuna eldono, sed forgesis 
forstreki c^iujn indikojn, ke ne plu temas pri mondo, en kiu 
Sovetunio estas unu el du egalaj superpotencoj.

Sed, se paroli g^enerale, la libro estas plena de informoj por tiuj, 
kiuj havas intereson pri la planlingva afero.

---

Aleksandr Dmitrijevitch Dulichenko, at the University of Tartu in 
Estonia, is known as a specialist about the Slavic languages, and 
especially about Slavic literary microlanguages. But he is also known 
as a specialist in the history of artificial languages. This book 
(which was originally written, but has not yet appeared, in Russian) 
appears here in its third public guise (Estonian and Lithuanian 
translations have appeared previously).

The book begins with a chapter which talkes about the current 
linguistic state of the world; this is directly followed by a 
discussion about people's ability to learn languages, more than one. 
The subject of the third Chapter, "On Social Regulation of Language", 
is quite important even for the existence itself of artificial 
languages; but in this chapter Dulichenko also talks about the 
pidgins (despite concentration on Tok Pisin and Afrikaans, he also 
mentions Russenorsk).

"In Search of the Rational Language" discusses the earliest attempts 
to create an artificial tool of communication. Dulichenko mentions 
Hildegard of Bingen/Rupertsburg's "Lingua Ignota" (Unknown Language), 
but dedicates somewhat more space to a similar language worked out 
somewhat later under a different religious regime: i.e. Sheikh 
Mohyieddin's "Balibalan". I've heard the name of this language 
before, but have not previously seen an example of it such as that 
given by Dulichenko.

After a chapter on the search for a philosophical language in the 
period of the 17th-18th centuries (in which Dulich^enko also mentions 
Sir Isaac Newton -- I had never heard before the Newton had an 
interest in the matter, unlike his main competitor Leibniz, but 
evidently a manuscript by Newton on the philosophical language was 
discovered as early as 1936), Dulichenko dedicates a chapter to one 
man: the Croatian Juraj Krizhanich, who in the mid 17th century 
invented a complete a posteriori pan-Slavic language, which 
Dulichenko claims to be the first a posteriori language.

After a tentative side trip to the world of "picture languages" 
(pasigraphies), in which Dulic^enko discusses not only the artifical 
picture languages such as Safo and Effel -- a text in Safo adorns the 
cover of the book -- but also the usage, both in the "real world" and 
in the world of artificial languages, of the Chinese ideograms, we 
run into a chapter about Solresol. Well, at least that's what's 
proclaimed by the titled, but in fact after four pages on Solresol 
the rest of the chapter is dedicated by the author to various 
attempts -- mainly still philosophical -- from the middle of the 19th century.

We enter more familiar territory in chapter 9, which is dedicated to 
the structure and history of Volapuk. Among other things, Dulichenko 
explains why reforms were necessary in that language, but does not 
touch the question of wheter Volapuk would have survived without the 
schism that evolved around the reform question (although he somewhat 
accepts that ideo via the single sentence "The schism in the Volapuk 
movement led to rapid withering of the 'world language'." [p. 93]).

Dulichenko places Volapuk as a "mixed language" -- i.e. halfway 
between the a priori and the a posteriori languages, largely because 
of its verb grammar, which was very complex and a pirori, and partly 
also because of the unrecognizability of words, largely taken from 
national languages but almost always abbreviated to agree with 
Volapuk's phonology. In chapter 10 he discusses the history of the 
language which really started the era of the a posteriori languages 
(although several had appeared previously, such as that of 
Krizhanich), namely Esperanto. In Chapter 11 he discusses the various 
successors of Esperanto, from Ido through IALA's Interlingua. Chapter 
12, "Interlinguist Statistics from the Ancient Era to the Presdent 
Day", is a quasi-summary of the history of artificial languages, with 
mention of several additional languages (e.g. Novial). In chapter 13 
Dulichenko discusses the role of the large ethnic "international 
languages", mainly of English, in the modern world, and also talks 
about the "simplified" national languages, e.g. Basic English. 
Finally, Dulichenko discusses the method by which the common language 
will finally appear.

I found three things deserving of criticism in the book:

1) Speaking about the Esperanto participle, Dulichenko wrote: "But a 
participle does not play the role of an epithet, it is always used 
with a helping verb: *la libro estas legita*." [p. 101] But in fact 
Esperanto participles often play the roles of epithets, and in 
Esperanto the concept "helping verb" doesn't exist -- just "esti" 
plus adjective.

2) In his summary chapter, Dulichenko wrote: "The search for an 
optiumu variant of an a priori language does not end: such are ... 
*Unitario* (1989) by Mario Pleyer (pseudonym of the German Rolf 
Riehm) ... *Latino Moderne* (1996) by David Theodore Stark". [p. 124] 
But according to my memory, "Unitario" was an attempt to combine the 
two a posteriori languages Esperanto and (IALA) Interlingua, and 
"Latino Moderne" was a variant of Interlingua with a somewhat changed grammar.

3) In his discussion about ways to an international language, 
Dulichenko describes "the second way" as "a global confluence of 
ethnic languages, which will have to occur after Communism's victory 
in the world ..." [p. 140), which suggests to me that he originally 
wrote the book at least 20 years ago, brought it somewhat up to date 
for a current edition, but forget to strike out all indications that 
we are no longer living in a world in which the USSR is one of two 
equal superpowers.

But, speaking generally, the book is full of information for those 
who are interested in the matter of artificial languages.


-- Don HARLOW
http://www.webcom.com/~donh/don/don.html
Opinions (in English): http://www.harlows.org/don/opinions/
Esperanto (in English): http://www.harlows.org/don/esperanto/
Literaturo (Esperante): http://donh.best.vwh.net/Esperanto/Literaturo

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February 2008, Week 5
February 2008, Week 4
February 2008, Week 3
February 2008, Week 2
February 2008, Week 1
January 2008, Week 5
January 2008, Week 4
January 2008, Week 3
January 2008, Week 2
January 2008, Week 1
December 2007, Week 5
December 2007, Week 4
December 2007, Week 3
December 2007, Week 2
December 2007, Week 1
November 2007, Week 5
November 2007, Week 4
November 2007, Week 3
November 2007, Week 2
November 2007, Week 1
October 2007, Week 5
October 2007, Week 4
October 2007, Week 3
October 2007, Week 2
October 2007, Week 1
September 2007, Week 5
September 2007, Week 4
September 2007, Week 3
September 2007, Week 2
September 2007, Week 1
August 2007, Week 5
August 2007, Week 4
August 2007, Week 3
August 2007, Week 2
August 2007, Week 1
July 2007, Week 5
July 2007, Week 4
July 2007, Week 3
July 2007, Week 2
July 2007, Week 1
June 2007, Week 5
June 2007, Week 4
June 2007, Week 3
June 2007, Week 2
June 2007, Week 1
May 2007, Week 5
May 2007, Week 4
May 2007, Week 3
May 2007, Week 2
May 2007, Week 1
April 2007, Week 5
April 2007, Week 4
April 2007, Week 3
April 2007, Week 2
April 2007, Week 1
March 2007, Week 5
March 2007, Week 4
March 2007, Week 3
March 2007, Week 2
March 2007, Week 1
February 2007, Week 4
February 2007, Week 3
February 2007, Week 2
February 2007, Week 1
January 2007, Week 5
January 2007, Week 4
January 2007, Week 3
January 2007, Week 2
January 2007, Week 1
December 2006, Week 5
December 2006, Week 4
December 2006, Week 3
December 2006, Week 2
December 2006, Week 1
November 2006, Week 5
November 2006, Week 4
November 2006, Week 3
November 2006, Week 2
November 2006, Week 1
October 2006, Week 5
October 2006, Week 4
October 2006, Week 3
October 2006, Week 2
October 2006, Week 1
September 2006, Week 5
September 2006, Week 4
September 2006, Week 3
September 2006, Week 2
September 2006, Week 1
August 2006, Week 5
August 2006, Week 4
August 2006, Week 3
August 2006, Week 2
August 2006, Week 1
July 2006, Week 5
July 2006, Week 4
July 2006, Week 3
July 2006, Week 2
July 2006, Week 1
June 2006, Week 5
June 2006, Week 4
June 2006, Week 3
June 2006, Week 2
June 2006, Week 1
May 2006, Week 5
May 2006, Week 4
May 2006, Week 3
May 2006, Week 2
May 2006, Week 1
April 2006, Week 5
April 2006, Week 4
April 2006, Week 3
April 2006, Week 2
April 2006, Week 1
March 2006, Week 5
March 2006, Week 4
March 2006, Week 3
March 2006, Week 2
March 2006, Week 1
February 2006, Week 4
February 2006, Week 3
February 2006, Week 2
February 2006, Week 1
January 2006, Week 5
January 2006, Week 4
January 2006, Week 3
January 2006, Week 2
January 2006, Week 1
December 2005, Week 5
December 2005, Week 4
December 2005, Week 3
December 2005, Week 2
December 2005, Week 1
November 2005, Week 5
November 2005, Week 4
November 2005, Week 3
November 2005, Week 2
November 2005, Week 1
October 2005, Week 5
October 2005, Week 4
October 2005, Week 3
October 2005, Week 2
October 2005, Week 1
September 2005, Week 5
September 2005, Week 4
September 2005, Week 3
September 2005, Week 2
September 2005, Week 1
August 2005, Week 5
August 2005, Week 4
August 2005, Week 3
August 2005, Week 2
August 2005, Week 1
July 2005, Week 5
July 2005, Week 4
July 2005, Week 3
July 2005, Week 2
July 2005, Week 1
June 2005, Week 5
June 2005, Week 4
June 2005, Week 3
June 2005, Week 2
June 2005, Week 1
May 2005, Week 5
May 2005, Week 4
May 2005, Week 3
May 2005, Week 2
May 2005, Week 1
April 2005, Week 5
April 2005, Week 4
April 2005, Week 3
April 2005, Week 2
April 2005, Week 1
March 2005, Week 5
March 2005, Week 4
March 2005, Week 3
March 2005, Week 2
March 2005, Week 1
February 2005, Week 4
February 2005, Week 3
February 2005, Week 2
February 2005, Week 1
January 2005, Week 5
January 2005, Week 4
January 2005, Week 3
January 2005, Week 2
January 2005, Week 1
December 2004, Week 5
December 2004, Week 4
December 2004, Week 3
December 2004, Week 2
December 2004, Week 1
November 2004, Week 5
November 2004, Week 4
November 2004, Week 3
November 2004, Week 2
November 2004, Week 1
October 2004, Week 5
October 2004, Week 4
October 2004, Week 3
October 2004, Week 2
October 2004, Week 1
September 2004, Week 5
September 2004, Week 4
September 2004, Week 3
September 2004, Week 2
September 2004, Week 1
August 2004, Week 5
August 2004, Week 4
August 2004, Week 3
August 2004, Week 2
August 2004, Week 1
July 2004, Week 5
July 2004, Week 4
July 2004, Week 3
July 2004, Week 2
July 2004, Week 1
June 2004, Week 5
June 2004, Week 4
June 2004, Week 3
June 2004, Week 2
June 2004, Week 1
May 2004, Week 5
May 2004, Week 4
May 2004, Week 3
May 2004, Week 2
May 2004, Week 1
April 2004, Week 5
April 2004, Week 4
April 2004, Week 3
April 2004, Week 2
April 2004, Week 1
March 2004, Week 5
March 2004, Week 4
March 2004, Week 3
March 2004, Week 2
March 2004, Week 1
February 2004, Week 5
February 2004, Week 4
February 2004, Week 3
February 2004, Week 2
February 2004, Week 1
January 2004, Week 5
January 2004, Week 4
January 2004, Week 3
January 2004, Week 2
January 2004, Week 1
December 2003, Week 5
December 2003, Week 4
December 2003, Week 3
December 2003, Week 2
December 2003, Week 1
November 2003, Week 5
November 2003, Week 4
November 2003, Week 3
November 2003, Week 2
November 2003, Week 1
October 2003, Week 5
October 2003, Week 4
October 2003, Week 3
October 2003, Week 2
October 2003, Week 1
September 2003, Week 5
September 2003, Week 4
September 2003, Week 3
September 2003, Week 2
September 2003, Week 1
August 2003, Week 5
August 2003, Week 4
August 2003, Week 3
August 2003, Week 2
August 2003, Week 1
July 2003, Week 5
July 2003, Week 4
July 2003, Week 3
July 2003, Week 2
July 2003, Week 1
June 2003, Week 5
June 2003, Week 4
June 2003, Week 3
June 2003, Week 2
June 2003, Week 1
May 2003, Week 5
May 2003, Week 4
May 2003, Week 3
May 2003, Week 2
May 2003, Week 1
April 2003, Week 5
April 2003, Week 4
April 2003, Week 3
April 2003, Week 2
March 2003, Week 5
March 2003, Week 4
March 2003, Week 3
March 2003, Week 2
March 2003, Week 1
February 2003, Week 4
February 2003, Week 3
February 2003, Week 2
February 2003, Week 1
January 2003, Week 5
January 2003, Week 4
January 2003, Week 3
January 2003, Week 2
January 2003, Week 1
December 2002, Week 5
December 2002, Week 4
December 2002, Week 3
December 2002, Week 2
December 2002, Week 1
November 2002, Week 4
November 2002, Week 3
November 2002, Week 2
November 2002, Week 1
October 2002, Week 5
October 2002, Week 4
October 2002, Week 3
October 2002, Week 2
October 2002, Week 1
September 2002, Week 5
September 2002, Week 4
September 2002, Week 3
September 2002, Week 2
September 2002, Week 1
August 2002, Week 5
August 2002, Week 4
August 2002, Week 3
August 2002, Week 2
August 2002, Week 1
July 2002, Week 5
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July 2002, Week 3
July 2002, Week 2
July 2002, Week 1
June 2002, Week 5
June 2002, Week 4
June 2002, Week 3
June 2002, Week 2
June 2002, Week 1
May 2002, Week 5
May 2002, Week 4
May 2002, Week 3
May 2002, Week 2
May 2002, Week 1
April 2002, Week 5
April 2002, Week 4
April 2002, Week 3
April 2002, Week 2
April 2002, Week 1
March 2002, Week 5
March 2002, Week 4
March 2002, Week 3
March 2002, Week 1
February 2002, Week 4
February 2002, Week 3
February 2002, Week 2
February 2002, Week 1
January 2002, Week 5
January 2002, Week 4
January 2002, Week 3
January 2002, Week 2
January 2002, Week 1
December 2001, Week 5
December 2001, Week 4
December 2001, Week 3
December 2001, Week 2
December 2001, Week 1
November 2001, Week 5
November 2001, Week 4
November 2001, Week 3
November 2001, Week 2
November 2001, Week 1
October 2001, Week 5
October 2001, Week 4
October 2001, Week 3
October 2001, Week 2
October 2001, Week 1
September 2001, Week 5
September 2001, Week 4
September 2001, Week 3
September 2001, Week 2
September 2001, Week 1
August 2001, Week 5
August 2001, Week 4
August 2001, Week 3
August 2001, Week 2
August 2001, Week 1
July 2001, Week 5
July 2001, Week 4
July 2001, Week 3
July 2001, Week 2
July 2001, Week 1
June 2001, Week 5
June 2001, Week 4
June 2001, Week 3
June 2001, Week 2
June 2001, Week 1
May 2001, Week 5
May 2001, Week 4
May 2001, Week 3
May 2001, Week 2
May 2001, Week 1
April 2001, Week 5
April 2001, Week 4
April 2001, Week 3
April 2001, Week 2
April 2001, Week 1
March 2001, Week 5
March 2001, Week 4
March 2001, Week 3
March 2001, Week 2
March 2001, Week 1
February 2001, Week 4
February 2001, Week 3
February 2001, Week 2
February 2001, Week 1
January 2001, Week 5
January 2001, Week 4
January 2001, Week 3
January 2001, Week 2
January 2001, Week 1
December 2000, Week 5
December 2000, Week 4
December 2000, Week 3
December 2000, Week 2
December 2000, Week 1
November 2000, Week 5
November 2000, Week 4
November 2000, Week 3
November 2000, Week 2
November 2000, Week 1
October 2000, Week 5
October 2000, Week 4
October 2000, Week 3
October 2000, Week 2
October 2000, Week 1
September 2000, Week 5
September 2000, Week 4
September 2000, Week 3
September 2000, Week 2
September 2000, Week 1
August 2000, Week 5
August 2000, Week 4
August 2000, Week 3
August 2000, Week 2
August 2000, Week 1
July 2000, Week 5
July 2000, Week 4
July 2000, Week 3
July 2000, Week 2
July 2000, Week 1
June 2000, Week 5
June 2000, Week 4
June 2000, Week 3
June 2000, Week 2
June 2000, Week 1
May 2000, Week 5
May 2000, Week 4
May 2000, Week 3
May 2000, Week 2
May 2000, Week 1
April 2000, Week 5
April 2000, Week 4
April 2000, Week 3
April 2000, Week 2
April 2000, Week 1
March 2000, Week 5
March 2000, Week 4
March 2000, Week 3
March 2000, Week 2
March 2000, Week 1
February 2000, Week 5
February 2000, Week 4
February 2000, Week 3
February 2000, Week 2
February 2000, Week 1
January 2000, Week 5
January 2000, Week 4
January 2000, Week 3
January 2000, Week 2
January 2000, Week 1
December 1999, Week 5
December 1999, Week 4
December 1999, Week 3
December 1999, Week 2
December 1999, Week 1
November 1999, Week 5
November 1999, Week 4
November 1999, Week 3
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November 1999, Week 1
October 1999, Week 5
October 1999, Week 4
October 1999, Week 3
October 1999, Week 2
October 1999, Week 1
September 1999, Week 5
September 1999, Week 4
September 1999, Week 3
September 1999, Week 2
September 1999, Week 1
August 1999, Week 5
August 1999, Week 4
August 1999, Week 3
August 1999, Week 2
August 1999, Week 1
July 1999, Week 5
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July 1999, Week 3
July 1999, Week 2
July 1999, Week 1
June 1999, Week 5
June 1999, Week 4
June 1999, Week 3
June 1999, Week 2
June 1999, Week 1
May 1999, Week 5
May 1999, Week 4
May 1999, Week 3
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May 1999, Week 1
April 1999, Week 5
April 1999, Week 4
April 1999, Week 3
April 1999, Week 2
April 1999, Week 1
March 1999, Week 5
March 1999, Week 4
March 1999, Week 3
March 1999, Week 2
March 1999, Week 1
February 1999, Week 5
February 1999, Week 4
February 1999, Week 3
February 1999, Week 2
February 1999, Week 1
January 1999, Week 5
January 1999, Week 4
January 1999, Week 3
January 1999, Week 2
January 1999, Week 1
December 1998, Week 5
December 1998, Week 4
December 1998, Week 3
December 1998, Week 2
December 1998, Week 1
November 1998, Week 5
November 1998, Week 4
November 1998, Week 3
November 1998, Week 2
November 1998, Week 1
October 1998, Week 5
October 1998, Week 4
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October 1998, Week 1
September 1998, Week 5
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July 1998, Week 5
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July 1998, Week 2
July 1998, Week 1
June 1998, Week 5
June 1998, Week 4
June 1998, Week 3
June 1998, Week 2
June 1998, Week 1
May 1998, Week 5
May 1998, Week 4
May 1998, Week 3
May 1998, Week 2
May 1998, Week 1
April 1998, Week 5
April 1998, Week 4
April 1998, Week 3
April 1998, Week 2
April 1998, Week 1
March 1998, Week 5
March 1998, Week 4
March 1998, Week 3
March 1998, Week 2
March 1998, Week 1
February 1998, Week 5
February 1998, Week 4
February 1998, Week 3
February 1998, Week 2
February 1998, Week 1
January 1998, Week 5
January 1998, Week 4
January 1998, Week 3
January 1998, Week 2
January 1998, Week 1
December 1997, Week 5
December 1997, Week 4
December 1997, Week 3
December 1997, Week 2
December 1997, Week 1
November 1997, Week 5
November 1997, Week 4
November 1997, Week 3
November 1997, Week 2
November 1997, Week 1
October 1997, Week 5
October 1997, Week 4
October 1997, Week 3
October 1997, Week 2
October 1997, Week 1
September 1997, Week 5
September 1997, Week 4
September 1997, Week 3
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September 1997, Week 1
August 1997, Week 5
August 1997, Week 4
August 1997, Week 3
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July 1997, Week 5
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July 1997, Week 3
July 1997, Week 2
July 1997, Week 1
June 1997, Week 5
June 1997, Week 4
June 1997, Week 3
June 1997, Week 2
June 1997, Week 1
May 1997, Week 5
May 1997, Week 4
May 1997, Week 3
May 1997, Week 2
May 1997, Week 1
April 1997, Week 5
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April 1997, Week 3
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April 1997, Week 1
March 1997, Week 5
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March 1997, Week 3
March 1997, Week 2
March 1997, Week 1
February 1997, Week 5
February 1997, Week 4
February 1997, Week 3
February 1997, Week 2
February 1997, Week 1

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