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AUXLANG  November 2007, Week 1

AUXLANG November 2007, Week 1

Subject:

Re: Worldlangs

From:

Antony Alexander <[log in to unmask]>

Reply-To:

International Auxiliary Languages <[log in to unmask]>

Date:

Thu, 1 Nov 2007 19:16:27 -0400

Content-Type:

text/plain

Parts/Attachments:

Parts/Attachments

text/plain (354 lines)

Sorry about the long delayed replies. I've been abroad, and then otherwise occupied.

Antonielly Garcia Rodrigues wrote, Thu, 18 Oct 2007 22:22:52 +0100

> Alright. But my point is that the distinction "acrolect" X "mesolect"
> X "basilect" has nothing to do with grammar complexity. An acrolect is
> not necessarily more complex than a basilect. In fact, for some
> language communities it can be the opposite.

> I believe I can give you an example. In standard Brazilian Portuguese,
> all adverbs are invariable with respect to grammatical gender and
> number. However, in a "basilect" spoken in some regions, the adverb
> "menos" ("less") varies according to gender: "menOs carros", but
> "menAs casas". Of course, the distinguishing "basilect" features have
> not been incorporated to the standard; in fact, it is more serious
> than that: they are stigmatized.

I'd tend to call that irregularity rather than complexity. If there is a localised desire to 
emphasise sex differences that is a non-standard quirk or irregularity, is it not? Many 
dialects do this sort of thing - perhaps to distinguish themselves from the standard language. 
For instance, in Yorkshire dialect someone might say “Stood ‘ere!” rather than “Stand here!”. 
“Complexity” is probably the wrong word anyway: perhaps “sophistication” would be better. 
The point is that for discussion involving different references (time, space, conditionality 
etc.) within the same sentence a sophisticated grammar hostile to irregularity is more 
economical. 

> 'There is no reason to believe the talk of the "masses" has a simpler
> syntax than the talk of the "intellectual elite".'

Hmm, that’s certainly a current orthodoxy - the notion that all languages and dialects are of 
equal value. You get full marks for political correctness anyway!


Jens Wilkinson wrote, Thu, 18 Oct 2007 22:41:18 -0700

> I appreciate the distinction you're making, but it's
> still different from what I would say. I think
> Antonielly is basically making the same point, which
> can be summarized fairly neatly (in his words) as
> 'There is no reason to believe the talk of the
> "masses" has a simpler syntax than the talk of the
> "intellectual elite".'

> In the paragraph above, I think you are still arguing
> that the grammar of an acrolect is more complex than
> that of a basilect, and I am suspicious of that claim.
> Restating my views, I mentioned that some languages of
> "primitive" tribes are quite complex grammatically. 

It’s you calling these tribes “primitive”, not me! Yes indeed, the grammars of some 
threatened minority indigenous languages are highly sophisticated - which is why efforts 
have been made to transcribe and record them.

But that’s a separate issue, isn't it? Perhaps we have a different understanding of the term 
“masses”. I was using it in the cultural sense, not in the economic sense (in which case I 
would have referred to “the poor”). 

> Why would an acrolect have more phonemes? That's the
> question I have, which relates to the one about
> grammar as well.

It depends which language one is talking about, doesn't it? Surely an acrolect has more 
phonemes and a bigger range of grammar by definition. That’s looking at it objectively: as I 
explained before, it doesn’t necessarily mean that someone using a basilect is speaking or 
writing worse than someone aspiring to use the acrolect. The latter may use the full range of 
phonemes, but in a thin and rather affected way, whereas the basilect speaker might bring 
out all the allophones, though within a technically narrower range of speech sounds.

For example, compare standard British English - which has 20 vowels - with Standard 
American which has 19, though most Americans use less than that. Is it a coincidence that 
the standard Hollywood baddie is an upper-class Englishman saying “fox”? Apart from that, 
many (most?) Americans say “caught” as "cot" and don’t distinguish the central close 
unrounded vowel from the schwa (roses/Rosa’s). This isn’t to say that Americans speak 
worse than the British: in my experience they speak better, on average. I have wondered 
whether this is due to the US school system teaching public speaking and trying to make 
pupils feel good about themselves.

> What's sort of interesting is that I do agree with you
> about the need for a jargon-pidgin-creole progression,
> but for somewhat different reasons. I think it's a
> question of language contact. 

> Just as an aside, I've encountered very intellectual
> men who were incapable of mastering another language,
> and I've encountered young people, completely soaked
> in the youth culture that you seem to be so revolted
> by, who seem to acquire foreign languages quite
> readily. So the assumption that intellectuals have
> greater language ability seems questionable.
> Certainly, they have a better grasp of the
> prescriptive grammar, and as you say, are most likely
> thinking about deeper philosophical ideas. But the
> connection between this and grammatical or phonetic
> complexity seems fairly tenuous to me.

Well, I wouldn’t count linguistic ability among the necessary attributes of an intellectual. As 
you may have noticed, I consider monolingualism to be the ideal state, and an IAL the best 
means of returning to global monolingualism in the distant future.

I never mentioned “youth culture”, and if I was revolted I wouldn’t be concerned with 
attempts to formulate an initial IAL for the global mass-market.

We probably agree that the chance of promoting a Level 2 Esperanto-type language is pretty 
slim. I doubt such a tongue could even be taught as a "foreign" language worldwide in 
schools. Let's just consider: WHO are the celebrities in modern TV and tabloid-moderated 
mass culture? WHAT sort of IAL might they go for? (If this isn’t just a conlang forum 
discussing theoretical linguistic niceties the question of promotion has to be paramount, 
doesn't it?)


James Chandler wrote, Fri, 19 Oct 2007 03:08:23 -0700

> Ah, I think I see what the problem is here.  It seems
> that Antony(?) is talking about the basilect and
> acrolect in the case of a creole continuum, in which
> case the claim may well be valid.  Jens(?) is talking
> about the more general case of a normal language, such
> as Basilect=Cockney and Acrolect=RP.  In this case the
> claim is almost certainly not true in general.

> It is like the two neighbors debating over the garden
> fence: they will never agree because they are arguing
> from different premises.. (sorry)

Not sure one can separate the two. Yes, acrolect ~ mesolect ~ basilect was Bickerton’s 
continuum between standard language and creolised speech but any hierarchy of sociolects 
also runs into telluric influence at the lower end, if not other languages too. I like to hear 
genuine Cockney, as spoken by someone born within earshot of Bow Bells, but don’t agree 
that it’s potentially equivalent to RP: /th/ and /dh/ tend to become /f/ or /v/ in Cockney, and 
similarly with other British dialects. One evidence of this is that, whereas most actors can do 
a range of dialects within the English-speaking world, there are very few that can do RP 
convincingly. 


Antonielly Garcia Rodrigues wrote, Fri, 19 Oct 2007 12:02:10 +0100

> Even here the claim is not necessarily true for the general case. A
> given region may raise a creole to the status of acrolect and discard
> the use of the former acrolect with complex grammar.

What you mean by “a given region” is presumably “the new rulers of that region”. Yes, this 
has happened in former British colonies where, even though English has remained the official 
language, the "independence movement" has striven for an idea of "cultural liberation" by 
promoting its indigenous language. However, language pertains to the human spirit, so 
political implementation of this kind doesn’t always work - indeed, it can backfire: the Irish 
govt. has spent a fortune for 85 years trying to resurrect Irish, but with very limited 
success. But in any case I think it’s normally a non-acrolect/basilect issue, since what is 
usually involved is distinct languages rather than a continuum.

> Even if there is a strong (though not universal) correlation between
> simpler grammar and less prestige in scenarios where the creole
> continuum is present, we have to be aware that correlation does not
> imply causation. We cannot assume that adding some phonemes and making
> the grammar more complex will set the path for establishing an
> acrolect.

One theory is that an ideal language exists, with associated “linguistic universals” as they 
pertain to the peripherals. Thus, the rising generation forming a “creole” from a pidgin does 
not “add phonemes” or “make the grammar more complex” - it has to happen organically. In 
other words, a language can only be produced when what is said is voluntarily imitated and 
replicated, rather than formed wholly from without. 

Considering the historical formation of pidgins, there seems to have been external input at 
the initial stage, though little if any after that. Moreover, the words forming the pidgin seem 
to have been rarely or ever invented: they seem always to have been long proven in 
common usage, though perhaps somewhat simplified in some cases. 

With the formation of a “global pidgin” IAL on the LangX model I’d forsee something similar, 
though on a bigger scale of course. Thus an “International Language Committee” would form 
the IAL but only release it in stages, beginning with a core vocabulary, all the time making 
constant modifications via scientific observation of usage “on the ground”.

> In the typical creole continuum, the acrolect is not the acrolect
> because it has a more complex grammar, but because it is the language
> of the colonizer and administrative power. The acrolect is the
> language/dialect/variant valued by those who have the greatest social
> status in a given region.

> Prestige is related to extralinguistic (social, historical, political)
> factors, not to linguistic factors (such as phoneme inventory and
> grammar properties of a given language).

> Prestige has no proven relationship with grammar complexity. Neither
> with grammar simplicity.

"Colonizer" isn't quite the word, since the relationship always went both ways. But yes, I’d 
agree that it’s far more than a linguistic question, and that the relative prestige of the 
associated culture is all-important. 

However, at the same time the linguistic element is part and parcel of the prestige issue, 
and cannot be separated from it.

> Moreover, I doubt that adding complexity to the grammar of a
> conauxlang will improve its prestige. The path to improve the prestige
> is to play the extralinguistic game (Marketing, Politics, production
> of literature, music and movies, formation of teachers, ...), not the
> intralinguistic one (make grammar more complex, etc.). Once someone is
> aware of that, he will see that even the human language with the
> simplest or most complex grammar can become the WAL; all it needs is
> prestige, high status. No other requirement must be fulfilled.

Yes, I’d go along with that, up to a point. Prestige is where it’s at. However, we have to 
remember that prestige exists in itself: it is difficult for an external agency to create it. 
Attempts to impose it by force are inherently counter-productive and even the stupidest 
people eventually work out that they are being manipulated. All types of marketing and 
promotion will work so long as they are pandering to the zeitgeist and not attempting to 
create it. 

> A language does not *need* to be easy to learn, neutral, etc. to
> become the WAL. Any workable language can become the WAL. The
> declaration that "the WAL should be easy to learn and neutral" is an
> entirely different thing. The former sentence expresses the objective
> possibility; the latter expresses the political desire of some people.

In practical terms you are now talking about power rather than prestige. Yes, “any workable 
language can become the WAL”, but only if you are prepared to spend enough money. It 
would be cheaper to grow bananas on the moon. You would have to bribe people - effectively 
manufacturing prestige artificially rather than going with the flow - and also have to deal 
with all the dissidents, which would probably be even more expensive.

> So, the question changes to: how do I take my preferred language X and
> make it more prestigious than English around the world *through
> extralinguistic work*? It is not an easy task, but it is the right
> question.

> Of course, we can explore the grammar properties of the language for
> Marketing purposes. However, we have to be aware this is not
> conauxlang design, but Marketing. Marketing use the available tools to
> perform its job, and grammar properties are just one tool of many they
> can explore.

> Anyway, since nowadays prestige largely follows money, put enough
> money in my hands and I make your preferred language X become the WAL
> in few years. The only problem is that "enough money" is more money
> than any of you can ever have.

Not exactly. You as an individual can’t make your language more prestigious than English, 
but what you can do is attempt to target the zeitgeist - the fount of prestige or “where-its-
atness” - more exactly than English does. That's a worthwhile effort, though necessarily a 
collective one.


Risto Kupsala wrote, Fri, 19 Oct 2007 13:30:27 -0300

> Thanks, Jens. We are on the same wave length.

> The goal in designing Pandunia's grammar was to make it as accessible as
> possible. The best way to get people committed to an IAL is to get them to
> communicate in that IAL. That's how it is supposed to work in Pandunia.
> Even if you know just a few basic words you can speak Pandunia correctly
> without having to study any grammar. Nobody is going to condemn you for
> not conjugating the verbs correctly or for not using the right word order
> (not to mention other numerous complexities in other languages). There are
> no such things in Pandunia. So feel free to express yourself actively and
> build your competence through communication!

As all the evidence from the successful “pidgin/creole” precedent seems to show, that’s 
exactly how to start an IAL off. The same thing even happens in our own lives - we start off 
by babbling words rather than speaking grammatically!


Antonielly Garcia Rodrigues wrote, Fri, 19 Oct 2007 19:42:02 +0100

> * World Auxiliary Language
> * World Currency
> * World Government

> To which extent do you think those three ideas are related?
> Are they incompatible?
> Are they desirable?

> Share your opinions about this interesting subject! :)

To answer your last question first: my view is that these three ideas are being gradually 
implemented anyway, whether we like it or not. Political and economic reasons might be 
cited. And yes, they are related, and wholly compatible if done in the right way.

As for my opinions, I’d have to write an essay! 

Anyway, if anyone doesn’t mind a religious take on the subject, here’s a weighty essay 
published 22 years ago which addresses these three ideas (among many others):

http://bahai-library.com/file.php5?file=uhj_promise_world_peace&language=All


James Chandler wrote, Mon, 22 Oct 2007 05:25:33 -0700

> I find this an interesting statement, so much so that
> I went to the Wikipedia article on Hawaiian Pidgin. 
> As usual with these sorts of claims about a "world
> pidgin/creole" being in the process of emerging, I
> have to ask the question: where is this happening?

> If you see the future of English worldwide as being
> like Hawaii, then where is the incipient
> jargon/pidgin/creole starting to emerge?  When were
> you last in an airport lounge, or an international
> rail hub, or an international conference, and heard
> phrases like "You like one knife?" or "You no can do
> dat!" and thought "ah, that's World Pidgin English
> they're talking!" (ok, it's more likely to be "You
> like one latte?", but even that I have not heard
> anywhere).

> It's not impossible, but it needs evidence.  It is
> what philosphers call a contingent statement.  I can
> imagine a possible world in which a global pidgin form
> of English was emerging, but it just doesn't seem to
> be happening.  It is verifiable, but as far as anyone
> can know or report, it is not happening.

> The linguistic situation in Hawaii is interesting, nonetheless..


I agree with you on one point here, James. There’s a wide range of acceptable grammatical 
styles or registers within the English language canon, not excepting various types of “bad 
English” and “ungrammatical English”. And there’s also a tabloid style not entirely unrelated 
to pidgin - but pidgin it ain’t. 

Ten years ago Robert Craig and I wrote a book on this very subject:

http://bahai-library.com/books/lango/lang12.html#b

 "The present account attempts to promote our belief that a reformed version of the English 
language, prepared according to democratic procedures, would now be the best starting-
point for a planned international auxiliary language.

 In theory there are two strands of thought here: the concept of an international auxiliary 
language, and the idea of English spelling reform. Hitherto, these causes have usually been 
treated separately - an artificial auxiliary language on one hand, and proposals to improve 
English for use within the English-speaking world on the other - but in practice they are 
already inseparably combined in the form of the pre-eminent multinational status of the 
English language.

 The following 21 chapters build upon this realisation by advocating the orthographic reform 
of an offspring of English to an international standard, the substitution of words from other 
languages, and the possible incorporation of certain rationalised grammatical forms 
pioneered by the creoles. The intention is to initiate an empirical process of reform towards 
a revised version of English, not only for everyday usage, but also for the attention of the 
globally representative committee of linguists that will eventually be appointed to choose the 
international auxiliary language."

I’ve long recanted from that opinion. Firstly, I realised that the power of nationalism, of race, 
class, religious and political/cultural history within language was more powerful than I had 
previously supposed - and such that an IAL would prefer to start from a more balanced 
position, if there were a choice in the matter; and secondly that living viable languages don’t 
really go backwards - changing into a more primitive version of themselves - as a true 
“pidgin English” would be.

So an IAL on the jargon > pidgin > vernacular model shouldn't have an overt relationship 
with English or any other language (apart from some concession to history, continuity etc.).

Antony Alexander    http://langx.org

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July 2010, Week 2
July 2010, Week 1
June 2010, Week 5
June 2010, Week 4
June 2010, Week 3
June 2010, Week 2
June 2010, Week 1
May 2010, Week 5
May 2010, Week 4
May 2010, Week 3
May 2010, Week 2
May 2010, Week 1
April 2010, Week 5
April 2010, Week 4
April 2010, Week 3
April 2010, Week 2
April 2010, Week 1
March 2010, Week 5
March 2010, Week 4
March 2010, Week 3
March 2010, Week 2
March 2010, Week 1
February 2010, Week 4
February 2010, Week 3
February 2010, Week 2
February 2010, Week 1
January 2010, Week 5
January 2010, Week 4
January 2010, Week 3
January 2010, Week 2
January 2010, Week 1
December 2009, Week 5
December 2009, Week 4
December 2009, Week 3
December 2009, Week 2
December 2009, Week 1
November 2009, Week 5
November 2009, Week 4
November 2009, Week 3
November 2009, Week 2
November 2009, Week 1
October 2009, Week 5
October 2009, Week 4
October 2009, Week 3
October 2009, Week 2
October 2009, Week 1
September 2009, Week 5
September 2009, Week 4
September 2009, Week 3
September 2009, Week 2
September 2009, Week 1
August 2009, Week 5
August 2009, Week 4
August 2009, Week 3
August 2009, Week 2
August 2009, Week 1
July 2009, Week 5
July 2009, Week 4
July 2009, Week 3
July 2009, Week 2
July 2009, Week 1
June 2009, Week 5
June 2009, Week 4
June 2009, Week 3
June 2009, Week 2
June 2009, Week 1
May 2009, Week 5
May 2009, Week 4
May 2009, Week 3
May 2009, Week 2
May 2009, Week 1
April 2009, Week 5
April 2009, Week 4
April 2009, Week 3
April 2009, Week 2
April 2009, Week 1
March 2009, Week 5
March 2009, Week 4
March 2009, Week 3
March 2009, Week 2
March 2009, Week 1
February 2009, Week 4
February 2009, Week 3
February 2009, Week 2
February 2009, Week 1
January 2009, Week 5
January 2009, Week 4
January 2009, Week 3
January 2009, Week 2
January 2009, Week 1
December 2008, Week 5
December 2008, Week 4
December 2008, Week 3
December 2008, Week 2
December 2008, Week 1
November 2008, Week 5
November 2008, Week 4
November 2008, Week 3
November 2008, Week 2
November 2008, Week 1
October 2008, Week 5
October 2008, Week 4
October 2008, Week 3
October 2008, Week 2
October 2008, Week 1
September 2008, Week 5
September 2008, Week 4
September 2008, Week 3
September 2008, Week 2
September 2008, Week 1
August 2008, Week 5
August 2008, Week 4
August 2008, Week 3
August 2008, Week 2
August 2008, Week 1
July 2008, Week 5
July 2008, Week 4
July 2008, Week 3
July 2008, Week 2
July 2008, Week 1
June 2008, Week 5
June 2008, Week 4
June 2008, Week 3
June 2008, Week 2
June 2008, Week 1
May 2008, Week 5
May 2008, Week 4
May 2008, Week 3
May 2008, Week 2
May 2008, Week 1
April 2008, Week 5
April 2008, Week 4
April 2008, Week 3
April 2008, Week 2
April 2008, Week 1
March 2008, Week 5
March 2008, Week 4
March 2008, Week 3
March 2008, Week 2
March 2008, Week 1
February 2008, Week 5
February 2008, Week 4
February 2008, Week 3
February 2008, Week 2
February 2008, Week 1
January 2008, Week 5
January 2008, Week 4
January 2008, Week 3
January 2008, Week 2
January 2008, Week 1
December 2007, Week 5
December 2007, Week 4
December 2007, Week 3
December 2007, Week 2
December 2007, Week 1
November 2007, Week 5
November 2007, Week 4
November 2007, Week 3
November 2007, Week 2
November 2007, Week 1
October 2007, Week 5
October 2007, Week 4
October 2007, Week 3
October 2007, Week 2
October 2007, Week 1
September 2007, Week 5
September 2007, Week 4
September 2007, Week 3
September 2007, Week 2
September 2007, Week 1
August 2007, Week 5
August 2007, Week 4
August 2007, Week 3
August 2007, Week 2
August 2007, Week 1
July 2007, Week 5
July 2007, Week 4
July 2007, Week 3
July 2007, Week 2
July 2007, Week 1
June 2007, Week 5
June 2007, Week 4
June 2007, Week 3
June 2007, Week 2
June 2007, Week 1
May 2007, Week 5
May 2007, Week 4
May 2007, Week 3
May 2007, Week 2
May 2007, Week 1
April 2007, Week 5
April 2007, Week 4
April 2007, Week 3
April 2007, Week 2
April 2007, Week 1
March 2007, Week 5
March 2007, Week 4
March 2007, Week 3
March 2007, Week 2
March 2007, Week 1
February 2007, Week 4
February 2007, Week 3
February 2007, Week 2
February 2007, Week 1
January 2007, Week 5
January 2007, Week 4
January 2007, Week 3
January 2007, Week 2
January 2007, Week 1
December 2006, Week 5
December 2006, Week 4
December 2006, Week 3
December 2006, Week 2
December 2006, Week 1
November 2006, Week 5
November 2006, Week 4
November 2006, Week 3
November 2006, Week 2
November 2006, Week 1
October 2006, Week 5
October 2006, Week 4
October 2006, Week 3
October 2006, Week 2
October 2006, Week 1
September 2006, Week 5
September 2006, Week 4
September 2006, Week 3
September 2006, Week 2
September 2006, Week 1
August 2006, Week 5
August 2006, Week 4
August 2006, Week 3
August 2006, Week 2
August 2006, Week 1
July 2006, Week 5
July 2006, Week 4
July 2006, Week 3
July 2006, Week 2
July 2006, Week 1
June 2006, Week 5
June 2006, Week 4
June 2006, Week 3
June 2006, Week 2
June 2006, Week 1
May 2006, Week 5
May 2006, Week 4
May 2006, Week 3
May 2006, Week 2
May 2006, Week 1
April 2006, Week 5
April 2006, Week 4
April 2006, Week 3
April 2006, Week 2
April 2006, Week 1
March 2006, Week 5
March 2006, Week 4
March 2006, Week 3
March 2006, Week 2
March 2006, Week 1
February 2006, Week 4
February 2006, Week 3
February 2006, Week 2
February 2006, Week 1
January 2006, Week 5
January 2006, Week 4
January 2006, Week 3
January 2006, Week 2
January 2006, Week 1
December 2005, Week 5
December 2005, Week 4
December 2005, Week 3
December 2005, Week 2
December 2005, Week 1
November 2005, Week 5
November 2005, Week 4
November 2005, Week 3
November 2005, Week 2
November 2005, Week 1
October 2005, Week 5
October 2005, Week 4
October 2005, Week 3
October 2005, Week 2
October 2005, Week 1
September 2005, Week 5
September 2005, Week 4
September 2005, Week 3
September 2005, Week 2
September 2005, Week 1
August 2005, Week 5
August 2005, Week 4
August 2005, Week 3
August 2005, Week 2
August 2005, Week 1
July 2005, Week 5
July 2005, Week 4
July 2005, Week 3
July 2005, Week 2
July 2005, Week 1
June 2005, Week 5
June 2005, Week 4
June 2005, Week 3
June 2005, Week 2
June 2005, Week 1
May 2005, Week 5
May 2005, Week 4
May 2005, Week 3
May 2005, Week 2
May 2005, Week 1
April 2005, Week 5
April 2005, Week 4
April 2005, Week 3
April 2005, Week 2
April 2005, Week 1
March 2005, Week 5
March 2005, Week 4
March 2005, Week 3
March 2005, Week 2
March 2005, Week 1
February 2005, Week 4
February 2005, Week 3
February 2005, Week 2
February 2005, Week 1
January 2005, Week 5
January 2005, Week 4
January 2005, Week 3
January 2005, Week 2
January 2005, Week 1
December 2004, Week 5
December 2004, Week 4
December 2004, Week 3
December 2004, Week 2
December 2004, Week 1
November 2004, Week 5
November 2004, Week 4
November 2004, Week 3
November 2004, Week 2
November 2004, Week 1
October 2004, Week 5
October 2004, Week 4
October 2004, Week 3
October 2004, Week 2
October 2004, Week 1
September 2004, Week 5
September 2004, Week 4
September 2004, Week 3
September 2004, Week 2
September 2004, Week 1
August 2004, Week 5
August 2004, Week 4
August 2004, Week 3
August 2004, Week 2
August 2004, Week 1
July 2004, Week 5
July 2004, Week 4
July 2004, Week 3
July 2004, Week 2
July 2004, Week 1
June 2004, Week 5
June 2004, Week 4
June 2004, Week 3
June 2004, Week 2
June 2004, Week 1
May 2004, Week 5
May 2004, Week 4
May 2004, Week 3
May 2004, Week 2
May 2004, Week 1
April 2004, Week 5
April 2004, Week 4
April 2004, Week 3
April 2004, Week 2
April 2004, Week 1
March 2004, Week 5
March 2004, Week 4
March 2004, Week 3
March 2004, Week 2
March 2004, Week 1
February 2004, Week 5
February 2004, Week 4
February 2004, Week 3
February 2004, Week 2
February 2004, Week 1
January 2004, Week 5
January 2004, Week 4
January 2004, Week 3
January 2004, Week 2
January 2004, Week 1
December 2003, Week 5
December 2003, Week 4
December 2003, Week 3
December 2003, Week 2
December 2003, Week 1
November 2003, Week 5
November 2003, Week 4
November 2003, Week 3
November 2003, Week 2
November 2003, Week 1
October 2003, Week 5
October 2003, Week 4
October 2003, Week 3
October 2003, Week 2
October 2003, Week 1
September 2003, Week 5
September 2003, Week 4
September 2003, Week 3
September 2003, Week 2
September 2003, Week 1
August 2003, Week 5
August 2003, Week 4
August 2003, Week 3
August 2003, Week 2
August 2003, Week 1
July 2003, Week 5
July 2003, Week 4
July 2003, Week 3
July 2003, Week 2
July 2003, Week 1
June 2003, Week 5
June 2003, Week 4
June 2003, Week 3
June 2003, Week 2
June 2003, Week 1
May 2003, Week 5
May 2003, Week 4
May 2003, Week 3
May 2003, Week 2
May 2003, Week 1
April 2003, Week 5
April 2003, Week 4
April 2003, Week 3
April 2003, Week 2
March 2003, Week 5
March 2003, Week 4
March 2003, Week 3
March 2003, Week 2
March 2003, Week 1
February 2003, Week 4
February 2003, Week 3
February 2003, Week 2
February 2003, Week 1
January 2003, Week 5
January 2003, Week 4
January 2003, Week 3
January 2003, Week 2
January 2003, Week 1
December 2002, Week 5
December 2002, Week 4
December 2002, Week 3
December 2002, Week 2
December 2002, Week 1
November 2002, Week 4
November 2002, Week 3
November 2002, Week 2
November 2002, Week 1
October 2002, Week 5
October 2002, Week 4
October 2002, Week 3
October 2002, Week 2
October 2002, Week 1
September 2002, Week 5
September 2002, Week 4
September 2002, Week 3
September 2002, Week 2
September 2002, Week 1
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August 2002, Week 3
August 2002, Week 2
August 2002, Week 1
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July 2002, Week 1
June 2002, Week 5
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June 2002, Week 2
June 2002, Week 1
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May 2002, Week 2
May 2002, Week 1
April 2002, Week 5
April 2002, Week 4
April 2002, Week 3
April 2002, Week 2
April 2002, Week 1
March 2002, Week 5
March 2002, Week 4
March 2002, Week 3
March 2002, Week 1
February 2002, Week 4
February 2002, Week 3
February 2002, Week 2
February 2002, Week 1
January 2002, Week 5
January 2002, Week 4
January 2002, Week 3
January 2002, Week 2
January 2002, Week 1
December 2001, Week 5
December 2001, Week 4
December 2001, Week 3
December 2001, Week 2
December 2001, Week 1
November 2001, Week 5
November 2001, Week 4
November 2001, Week 3
November 2001, Week 2
November 2001, Week 1
October 2001, Week 5
October 2001, Week 4
October 2001, Week 3
October 2001, Week 2
October 2001, Week 1
September 2001, Week 5
September 2001, Week 4
September 2001, Week 3
September 2001, Week 2
September 2001, Week 1
August 2001, Week 5
August 2001, Week 4
August 2001, Week 3
August 2001, Week 2
August 2001, Week 1
July 2001, Week 5
July 2001, Week 4
July 2001, Week 3
July 2001, Week 2
July 2001, Week 1
June 2001, Week 5
June 2001, Week 4
June 2001, Week 3
June 2001, Week 2
June 2001, Week 1
May 2001, Week 5
May 2001, Week 4
May 2001, Week 3
May 2001, Week 2
May 2001, Week 1
April 2001, Week 5
April 2001, Week 4
April 2001, Week 3
April 2001, Week 2
April 2001, Week 1
March 2001, Week 5
March 2001, Week 4
March 2001, Week 3
March 2001, Week 2
March 2001, Week 1
February 2001, Week 4
February 2001, Week 3
February 2001, Week 2
February 2001, Week 1
January 2001, Week 5
January 2001, Week 4
January 2001, Week 3
January 2001, Week 2
January 2001, Week 1
December 2000, Week 5
December 2000, Week 4
December 2000, Week 3
December 2000, Week 2
December 2000, Week 1
November 2000, Week 5
November 2000, Week 4
November 2000, Week 3
November 2000, Week 2
November 2000, Week 1
October 2000, Week 5
October 2000, Week 4
October 2000, Week 3
October 2000, Week 2
October 2000, Week 1
September 2000, Week 5
September 2000, Week 4
September 2000, Week 3
September 2000, Week 2
September 2000, Week 1
August 2000, Week 5
August 2000, Week 4
August 2000, Week 3
August 2000, Week 2
August 2000, Week 1
July 2000, Week 5
July 2000, Week 4
July 2000, Week 3
July 2000, Week 2
July 2000, Week 1
June 2000, Week 5
June 2000, Week 4
June 2000, Week 3
June 2000, Week 2
June 2000, Week 1
May 2000, Week 5
May 2000, Week 4
May 2000, Week 3
May 2000, Week 2
May 2000, Week 1
April 2000, Week 5
April 2000, Week 4
April 2000, Week 3
April 2000, Week 2
April 2000, Week 1
March 2000, Week 5
March 2000, Week 4
March 2000, Week 3
March 2000, Week 2
March 2000, Week 1
February 2000, Week 5
February 2000, Week 4
February 2000, Week 3
February 2000, Week 2
February 2000, Week 1
January 2000, Week 5
January 2000, Week 4
January 2000, Week 3
January 2000, Week 2
January 2000, Week 1
December 1999, Week 5
December 1999, Week 4
December 1999, Week 3
December 1999, Week 2
December 1999, Week 1
November 1999, Week 5
November 1999, Week 4
November 1999, Week 3
November 1999, Week 2
November 1999, Week 1
October 1999, Week 5
October 1999, Week 4
October 1999, Week 3
October 1999, Week 2
October 1999, Week 1
September 1999, Week 5
September 1999, Week 4
September 1999, Week 3
September 1999, Week 2
September 1999, Week 1
August 1999, Week 5
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August 1999, Week 3
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August 1999, Week 1
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July 1999, Week 1
June 1999, Week 5
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June 1999, Week 1
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May 1999, Week 1
April 1999, Week 5
April 1999, Week 4
April 1999, Week 3
April 1999, Week 2
April 1999, Week 1
March 1999, Week 5
March 1999, Week 4
March 1999, Week 3
March 1999, Week 2
March 1999, Week 1
February 1999, Week 5
February 1999, Week 4
February 1999, Week 3
February 1999, Week 2
February 1999, Week 1
January 1999, Week 5
January 1999, Week 4
January 1999, Week 3
January 1999, Week 2
January 1999, Week 1
December 1998, Week 5
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December 1998, Week 3
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December 1998, Week 1
November 1998, Week 5
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June 1998, Week 1
May 1998, Week 5
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May 1998, Week 1
April 1998, Week 5
April 1998, Week 4
April 1998, Week 3
April 1998, Week 2
April 1998, Week 1
March 1998, Week 5
March 1998, Week 4
March 1998, Week 3
March 1998, Week 2
March 1998, Week 1
February 1998, Week 5
February 1998, Week 4
February 1998, Week 3
February 1998, Week 2
February 1998, Week 1
January 1998, Week 5
January 1998, Week 4
January 1998, Week 3
January 1998, Week 2
January 1998, Week 1
December 1997, Week 5
December 1997, Week 4
December 1997, Week 3
December 1997, Week 2
December 1997, Week 1
November 1997, Week 5
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November 1997, Week 3
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April 1997, Week 5
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March 1997, Week 1
February 1997, Week 5
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February 1997, Week 1

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