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CONLANG  November 2007, Week 3

CONLANG November 2007, Week 3

Subject:

building from primitives (was Re: Langauge Constets)

From:

Pope Salmon the Lesser Mungojelly <[log in to unmask]>

Reply-To:

Constructed Languages List <[log in to unmask]>

Date:

Wed, 21 Nov 2007 15:50:01 -0800

Content-Type:

text/plain

Parts/Attachments:

Parts/Attachments

text/plain (62 lines)

Quoting Jim Henry <[log in to unmask]>:

> It seems you could make a good start, at least -- I'm not sure
> about deriving the whole of mathematics -- with one number, 1,
> and two operations, addition and subtraction.  0 is 1 minus 1.


I don't know much about mathematics, but I can tell you that it is  
possible to build a Turing machine (and therefore all of computation)  
from a single instruction.  Several have been discovered, but the best  
known is probably "subtract and branch if negative."  See:  
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/OISC

I'm not sure that human language has that same property of being  
easily reconstructed from various equivalent fundamentals.  I'm  
finding it very educational to struggle with this idea of a very small  
language, and to see exactly what the difficulty consists of.

I am coming to the conclusion that the difficulty of creating  
something which feels anywhere near as powerful as a natural language  
with a small set of symbols lies not in the combinative power of the  
set-- which is naturally infinite in all cases-- but rather in the  
**implicit knowledge** embodied in full languages.

Imagining that natural languages were merely very large categorization  
schemes, it would be possible to indicate one of the concepts pointed  
to by a 160,000 word language with just four words of a 20 word  
language-- twenty to the fourth power being 160,000.  If you had  
160,000 words for the numbers between 1 and 160,000, for instance,  
it's easy to see how twenty symbols could replace them.

But in fact, the words of natural language do not just pick out a  
category from a natural set of categories available.  Each word  
carries a frame of implication which embodies irreducible information  
about the nature of the world.  You cannot either use or understand  
the word "dog" without a shared frame containing numerous facts about  
Canis lupus familiaris.

It's these shared frames of reference which allow the expressive power  
of language.  Having a lot of symbols is a convenient way to quickly  
trigger the appropriate frames in each other, but it's the number of  
underlying semantic spaces that most strongly determines the possible  
expressivity.

Thus I have to conclude that in order to create a language which is  
fully expressive within a very small set of symbols, it would be  
necessary only to create an entire architecture of implication around  
those symbols, so that they could be used to access a large number of  
concepts.  Combinations of symbols would have to be understood as  
conventional gateways to preestablished meanings, as the English  
phrase "make good."

If that is cheating, then every attempt so far has been cheating-- as  
symbols such as "opposite of" rely very heavily upon our existing  
frames of linguistic reference-- and furthermore I believe that the  
exercise would then be impossible.  I'm increasingly convinced that  
the expressiveness of language does not reduce to primitive  
constituent parts in any useful way.

<3,
mungojelly

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