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AUXLANG  March 2008, Week 1

AUXLANG March 2008, Week 1

Subject:

Fwd: [collateralista] Gode - Le integritate de interlingua

From:

Antonielly Garcia Rodrigues <[log in to unmask]>

Reply-To:

International Auxiliary Languages <[log in to unmask]>

Date:

Sat, 1 Mar 2008 08:57:39 +0000

Content-Type:

text/plain

Parts/Attachments:

Parts/Attachments

text/plain (504 lines)

For those who want to know a bit more the theory behind Interlingua
and Gode's thoughts upon the subject of auxiliary languages, this is
an interesting document of the early history of the Interlingua
movement.

Antonielly Garcia Rodrigues


---------- Forwarded message ----------
From: Stanley Mulaik <[log in to unmask]>
Date: Sat, Mar 1, 2008 at 2:18 AM
Subject: [collateralista] Gode - Le integritate de interlingua
To: [log in to unmask]


Klaus Mohrhoff ha copiate e inviate lo a me iste articulo de Dr. Gode
scribite in 1955. Illo es un excellente introduction al historia e
philosophia del disveloppamento de interlingua que insimul con le
Manifesto de Interlingua de 1959 per Dr. Gode esserea bon lectura pro
alcuno qui vole comprender melior lo que es interlingua:

========================

LE INTEGRITATE DE INTERLINGUA
per Alexander Gode -- Nove York 1955


  Quando verso le fin del medie etate le Sancte Imperio Roman de
Nationalitate German comenciava su lente transformation in un
imperio simplee restringitemente german, le secretarios del
cancelleria imperial a Praga in Bohemia se videva de plus in plus
frequentemente confrontate con situationes in que le redaction de
documentos official in le lingua latin de ancian e venerabile
europeitate pareva non solmente innecessari sed functionalmente
absurde. De plus in plus frequentemente il deveniva inevitabile
servir se del lingua popular in rediger documentos adressate a
simple burgeses, burgomaestros, e principes regional.

  Un documento adressate al burgese de Munich se redigeva in
bavaro; pro un documento adressate al burgomaestro de Bremen on se
serviva del basse saxone; documentos adressate al duce de Suabia
requireva le suabo. Sed il etiam occurreva que un sol documento
debeva esser comprendite simultaneemente per le burgeses de Munich,
le burgomaestro de Bremen, e le duce de Suabia. Evidentemente, in
tal casos on debeva servir se del lingua alte german que in
contrastro con le dialectos local pertine a omne partes de Germania.

  Le secretarios imperial a Praga certemente non haberea hesitate
de usar le alte germano--le germano general--si ... si illo habeva
existite. Infelicemente illo non existeva. Illo nondum existeva.
Ergo le secretarios imperial non poteva servir se de un lingua
pan-german, sed illes experientiava le desirabilitate e vero le
indispensibilitate de un tal, e lor maniera de attaccar le estranie
problema linguistic presentate a lles per le diversitate del idiomas
regional deveniva in le curso del tempore le plus importante factor
in le lente constitution del germano general que esseva usate per
Luther, plus tarde per Goethe, e que es cognoscite in nostre dies a
omne germano del sud o del nord, del west o del est, sin reguardo a
si o non ille cognosce etiam un o plures del numerose dialectos
regional.

  On comprende que io vole insinuar que le germano litterari que
es hodie cognoscite a nos es in su origine un interlingua
pan-german, exactemente como le interlingua de nostre presente
discussiones es un interlingua pan-occidental.

  Sed non solo le facto, etiam le processo per que le constitution
del interlingua pan-german esseva complite possede pro nos un
extremissime interesse.

  Nos debe supponer que le meliores inter le secretarios imperial
a Praga esseva ben familiar con le idiosyncrasias de un grande
varietate de dialectos regional intra le imperio german. In lor
documentos de adressage multiregional illes evitava omne
idiosyncrasias monodialectal e usava exclusivemente le parolas,
expressiones, e constructiones que esseva commun al Germania
integre.

  In parlar per exemplo de un puera, illes non diceva Tschöutu
(que es cognoscite solo in un certe section del pais alte bernese
in Switza) e Deern (que es cognoscite solo in Basse Saxonia) sed
Mädchen que es un specie de standard inter le synonymo Meitschi de
Tschöutu e le synonymo Mäken de Deern. Similemente in parlar de un
puero le secretarios non diceva Bübli o Bengel sed Knabe. E si
illes reportava lo que le puero dice al puera, le formula pro 'Io
te ama' esseva ni I bi dir guot ni Ik mach die liedn sed Ich hab
dich gern. *)

  In summa, le germano general se constitueva lentemente per le
elimination de lo que esseva non-general.

  Io regretta que mi thema, "Le Integritate de Interlingua", non
me permitte explorar un pauco plus le characteristicas del lingua
german in tanto que illos se explica per su origines, sed si o non
mi thema suffere per iste digression, io debe signalar que le
altere linguas litterari de Europa --con le possibile sed non
indubitabile exception del italiano--debe lor existentia al
hegemonia de un sol dialecto regional super omne su rivales. In un
certe senso le francese, le anglese, etiam le espaniol, e multe
altere linguas de Europa debe lor standard litterari al fortia de
un sol dialecto que usurpava le victoria in le concurrentia de un
gruppo de candidatos que habeva originalmente essite equales. Solo
le germano--e iste remarca va esser tolerate per vos con amical
indulgentia e le conscietate que io es germano per nascentia e
americano per election e amor--solo le germano debe su existentia a
un processo non dictatorial, sed plus tosto democratic. Post qual
assertion io hasta a explicar que iste typo de decision democratic
il nunquam se tracta del voluntate del majoritate--(le majoritate
pote esser idiota)--sed del consenso del gruppo integre,
exactemente como le quakers arriva a lor decisiones non per un
processo de votage o contation de nasos sed per un patiente
attender usque le presentation de diverse e divergente opiniones ha
demonstrate in qual aspectos illos omnes coincide.

  Sed io debe retornar al thema central de mi discurso. Il es
clar--o al minus io spera que per mi presentation il ha devenite
abundantemente clar in qual senso on pote parallelisar le origines
del lingua litterari german con le principios theoric de
interlingua.

  Durante le elaboration del methodologia interlingual, i.e.
durante le labores laboratorial de IALA ille parallela non esseva
initialmente comprendite. On nunquam debe oblidar que IALA habeva
essite organisate per idealistas del movimento interlinguistic in
le senso traditional e que le prime objectivo del organisation
esseva promover le approximamento mutual del existente systemas de
lingua auxiliar. Il esseva supponite que le ideologia e le
idealismo fundamental de omne protagonistas de un lingua
international es necessarimente identic. Secundo iste satis naive
conception, omne participantes e omne theoreticos del linguas
auxiliar visa a un sol identic ideal. E super le base de iste
miscomprension il esseva natural que on acceptava etiam le
misconclusion que in le interesse del ideal commun cata adherente
de un systema specific de lingua auxiliar esserea
enthusiasticamente preste a sacrificar un parte de su dogma pro
poter supportar un synthetic compromisso universal.

  IALA comenciava su labores non pro disveloppar interlingua sed
pro establir un base scientific pro le justo-mentionate genere de
compromisso. Toto logicamente le prime annos in le carriera de IALA
esseva ergo dedicate al investigation comparative de esperanto, ido,
latino sine flexiones, occidental, esperanto II, e novial. Iste
effortios involveva secundarimente etiam un investigation
comparative del plus importante linguas ethnic ab que le linguas
auxiliar sub investigation habeva obtenite lor materiales
fundamental.

  In le curso de iste recerca--semper in le interesse del famose
supra-mentionate compromisso--senior Clark E. Stillman, in su
capacitate de assistente del director de recercas philologic de
IALA a Liverpool, concipeva le constructivissime idea que le
assertion del parte de omne lingua auxiliar que illos depende in
lor vocabularion del linguas ethnic representava le plus importante
factor unificante inter illos sed que iste mesme factor non poterea
unquam devenir le base del desirate compromisso si le methodos del
selection del vocabulario remaneva arbitrari.

  Assi senior Stillman tornava su attention verso le elaboration
de objective principios pro le selection de parolas admissibile al
lingua auxiliar universal. Ille organisava un programma de recerca
con iste specific objectivo e comenciava le execution de illo con
le adjuta de un gruppo de collaboratores international reunite sub
su direction al Universitate Liverpool. Le declaration del secunde
Guerra Mundial interrupeva le labores a Liverpool. Senior Stillman
se trovava a ille tempore accidentalmente in le Statos Unite pro
visitar su parentes e consultar con le directorato central de IALA.
Le guerra rendeva impossibile su reotrno a Liverpool, e seniora
Morris, le grande inspiratrice de IALA, poneva a su disposition
nove bureaus e un nove personal a New York.

  Assi Stillman deveniva director-in-chef del recercas de IALA.
Assi io deveniva primo un membro de su personal e plus tarde su
assistente e amico e post le intermezzo del directorato de doctoro
Martinet su successor.

  Stillman avantiava le recercas de IALA usque al puncto ubi il
esseva clar que un lingua auxiliar debe extraher le bases de su
vocabulario ab le fundo commun incontrate in un serie de linguas
satis significative pro poter funger como representante del
internationalismo terminologic de nostre tempore. Le contribution
distinctemente nove in iste conception esseva que Stillman voleva
disveloppar un strictemente objective methodologia de extraction.
Le decision de si o non un parola merita esser includite in le
vocabulario international non debeva depender del judicamento e
prejudicio subjective del constructor de un lingua auxiliar. Iste
decision debeva facer se secundo fixe regulas applicabile per non
importa qual individuo con le garantia de identic resultatos.

  Le processo technic empleate in le extraction del vocabulario
international esseva appellate per Stillman un processo de
standardisation. Iste termino suggereva metaphoricamente que il se
tractava de un processo technic. Illo etiam reflecteva le facto que
Stillman insimul con alteres habeva jam comprendite que le enorme
extension del moderne vocabulario international es debite al enorme
propagation del technica e del scienttias, lo que permitte le
conclusion que un lingua international del typo hic considerate
esserea clarmente impossibile in nostre dies sin le importantissime
effectos terminologic resultante del avantiamentos de nostre
civilisation in le campos del scientias natural e de lor
exploitation industrial.

  Le productos practic emergente del assi orientate labores esseva
tanto convincente in lor coherentia organic que nos recognosceva de
plus in plus clarmente que nos esseva cccupate a compilar un
complete vocabulario e non del toto a simplemente experimentar con
regulas de extraction que poterea interessar le autoritates del
varie existente systemas de lingua auxiliar e contribuerea assi al
lor approximamento mutual in un compromisso universal.

  Le coherentia organic del vocabulario international emergente de
nostre labores suggereva que il se tractava illac del codification
de un lingua que jam existeva potentialmente. Le idea del
compromisso inter esperanto, ido, latino sine flexione, occidental,
esperanto II, e novial esseva oblidate. Nos habeva abandonate le
principio del construction de un lingua auxiliar e nos dedicava
nos concentratemente al registration del lingua pan-europee e
pan-scientific que obteneva plus tarde le designation de
interlingua.

  Le integre revolutionaritate de iste nove attitude non esseva
immed-diatemente clar a nos mesme. Sed vaguemente nos sentiva lo
que nos faceva, e in le curso del tempore le comprension del
signification de nostre re-orientation deveniva de plus in plus ric
in implicationes.

  On me permitte a ist puncto alicun remarcas personal. Mi prime
contactos con IALA habeva essite motivate exclusivemente per mi
interesses technicamente philologic. Al primissime initio io non
mesmo sapeva que IALA laborava in le campo del construite lingua
auxiliar. On poterea dicer que le processos del standardisation de
terminos international me haberea frappate como ridicule chimeras si
io habeva essite fortiate a interpretar los como purmente destinate
a servir un futur approximation de esperanto, occidental, e le
altere existente systemas de lingua auxiliar. Le facto que ille
processos non me enoiava, sed que illos me preoccupava con le plus
intense fascination, iste facto reflecte que io habeva succedite a
interpretar nostre labores como tendente al clarification del
homogeneitate linguistico-cultural del civilisation
scientifico-pan-europee. Io comenciava interpretar le
standardistation terminologic como un co-visualisation de multiple
variantes in un typo central. In cata exemplo individual le
variantes verbal deveniva pro me symbolos del variantes cultural
intra le sphera del Occidente, e le final termino international
esseva un symbolo del homogenitate del mundo latin o--si on
prefere--del mundo romano-teutonic.

  Le processos de standardisation terminologic non me interessava
como expedientes technic destinate a facilitar le fabrication in
massa de un certe desirate producto. Illos esseva pro me methodos
intellectual que facilitava le comprension de realitates jam
existente. Io me rememorava le methodos intellectual per le quales
Goethe habeva succedite a comprender e a vider que il existe in le
multiplicitate del plantas e de gruppos de plantas o de animales e
gruppos de animales un identitate commun. On sape que Goethe se
faceva maestro intellectual de iste logicamente irreducibile facto
observate per postular le ultime principio del "identitate in
varietate" e per designar le visualisate standard in omne gruppo de
variantes per medio del prefixo german Ur- que in compositos
goethean exprime primaritate e universalitate sin implication de
primitivitate o precedentia temporal. Assi un termino como
Urpflanze poterea esser traducite como "planta per se", i.e. le
"nunc existente prototypo ab que omne plantas individual es
variantes", i.e. le "prototypo que es nunc existente proque illo
existe in cata un de su variantes".

  Le termino "prototypo" que esseva extensemente usate in le
discussiones theoric de interlingua e del antecedente recercas
laboratorial de IALA esseva inspirate per Goethe. Illo designava e
designa ancora le producto del standardisation de variantes
linguistic, e su function special esseva (e es ancora) sublinear le
facto que iste standardisation non es simplemente un processo
mechanic pro le elimination de un pragmaticamente indesirabile
diversitate sed que il se tracta de determniar lo que es vermente
le quintessentia del formas divergente.

  In le curso del tempore io ha cercate in multe directiones e in
multe campos pro similes o methaphoras que me servirea a exprimer
iste conceptos que distingue interlingua de omne previe systemas de
lingua auxiliar--non solmente de esperanto e ido sed etiam, io
crede, de occidental ex que le genio de su creator ha facite un
cosa plus o minus compatibile [comparabile] con nostre resultatos.

  Il me pare que le supra-describite origine del lingua litterari
german offere plus que un simile o un metaphora pro le description
de nostre vista del derivation de interlingua. Il se tracta plus
tosto e plus simplemente de un parallela historic.

  Nos vive in un era in que il deveni de plus in plus
frequentemente desirabile--super toto in le campo del
scientias--adressar un sol documento a personas habitutate a
exprimer se in diverse linguas. Nos poterera supponer, per exemplo
que le secretario del societate international de cardiologia debe
rediger un reporto simultaneemente adressate a professor Löwenherz
in Berlin, professor Coeur de Lion a Paris e professor Corazón de
León a Bogotá. Evidentemente, le melior medio pro corresponder con
professor Löwenherz esserea le germano, e pro le duo altere
seniores---prendite individualmente--on seligerea le francese e le
espaniol Non minus evidentemente, le melior lingua pro adressar le
tres seniores per un sol texto esserea un lingua pan-occidental, un
specie de lingua pan-cardiologic o plus generalmente pan-scientific.

  Nostre secretario hypothetic non sape que il existe un idioma
que pote funger pro su objectivos como un specie de lingua
pan-cardiologic. Sed lo que ille face pro esser comprendite per su
lectores international es multo simile al lo que esseva facite per
le secretarios del cancelleria imperial a Praga. Ille non pote
evitar, il es ver, le uso de un lingua regional, sed ille pote
elevar su texto in le direction de un comprensibilitate universal
perliminar omne idiosyncrasias local. Si ille scribe anglese, in
loco de red bood corpuscles ille pote usar le synomymo erythrocytes
o in scriber germano ille pote reimplaciar rote Blutkörperchen per
Erythrozyten. Ille evita idiosyncrasias e favori universalismos,
ille approxima su lingua national a interlingua.

  Le character de interlingua--in general e in omne detalio--es
describibile super le base del postulato que interlingua es le
lingua ideal del secretario de un organisation scientific
international qui vole esser comprendite per su collegas in omne
partes del mundo, i.e. non per personas qui ha studiate interlingua
sed simplemente per personas qui cognosce--super un nivello de
education technic--le francese, le espaniol, le italiano, le
anglese, o le latino (si non como lingua complete, al minus in
tanto que un certe familiaritate con illo es inevitabile pro omnes
qui ha studiate un terminologia scientific).

~ ~ ~ ~

  Le objectivo del presente discurso es constatar emphaticamente
que interlingua es le registration de un realitate historic
percipite per un processo de visualisation intellectual.
Interlingua non es un construction. **)

  Iste simple formulation establi le integritate de interlingua.
Illo explica tanto le elasticitate como etiam le rigiditate de
interlingua.

  Il es possibile arguer que le vision del registrantes de
interlingua esseva pauco clar quando illes traciava iste o ille
linea individual in le configuration total. Il non es possibile
proponer al registrantes que illes adde a lor systema un elemento
que non se trova in le realitate historic copiate per illes.

  Assi, per exemplo, il es possibile attaccar le registrantes de
interlingua in relation a lo que illes credeva vider in le systema
conjugational de interlingua. Habente percipite que in contrasto
con le latino, le prototypo moderne require le uso de pronomines
personal con omne formas verbal quando nulle subjecto nominal se
exprimite, le registrantes de interlingua concludeva que isto debe
significar que le protoypo moderne del formas verbal possede nulle
terminationes personal. On pote arguer que iste conclusion esseva
erronee e que le ver interlingua deber haber terminationes personal.

  Del altere latere, il non es possibile, per exemplo, proponer al
registrantes de interlingua que illes aboli in lor systema le varie
terminationes vocalic del substantivos, Illes poterea abolir ille
terminationes vocalic solmente si interlingua esseva vermente "lor
systema", i.e. un systema construite per illes. Sed isto non es le
caso, e le responsa del registrantes debe esser le simple
constatation que illles non pote vider prototypos substantival sin
varie terminationes vocalic. Si--pro illustrar iste facto--on pensa
per exemplo a proponer un "simplificate" o "modernisate" forma
"lune" in loco del standard "luna", on propone de facto un
deviation ab le prototypo e hinc un forma que non es interlingua.
"Lune" es certo tanto comprensibilie como "luna", sed si nos lo
presenta a germanos, angleses, e multe alteres illes lo comprende
como francese e non como europee. De facto, "lune" es un variante
regional de "luna", durante que nemo pote mantenrer que le
contrario es ver. i.e. que "luna" es un variante regional de "lune".

  Le dogma rigide [de] interlingua se deriva del facto que iste
lingua es un realitate historic. Le elasticitate practic de
interlingua se deriva del facto que il es ben possibile que le
prime registrantes de ille realitate historic ha mal vidite e mal
copiate certe detalios del original.

  Sed le problema ha ancora un altere aspecto. Si o non le
registrantes de interlingua ha misintrepretate certe tractos de lor
vision, lor concepto general non es erronee. Iste es demonstrate per
le extense uso practic que lor forma de interlingua ha jam
experientiate. Si le majoritate del "clientes" de interlingua
esseva interessatos del movimento de lingua auxiliar, le jam
attingite successos de interlingua haberea pauc fortia in le
presente argumento. Sed le facto es que le vaste majoritate del
individuos qui profita del uso de interlingua in le litteratura
medical e alterubi es personas sin ulle interesse in le question
del lingua auxiliar per se. Illes profita de interlingua
professionalmente e isto identifica le limites de lor interesse in
nostre lingua. Assi io crede que le successos de interlingua es
vermente un justification practic de nostre theoria. Le
consequentia es que interlingua con omne su errores--possede un
satis forte majoritate de tractos correcte pro haber establite un
tradition.

  Isto significa que interlingua--in precisemente le forma
practicate per le division de interlingua de Science Service--ha
hodie un quasi incambiabile integritate. Pro justificar un
proponimento a cambiar iste o ille detalio del structura de
interlingua, on debe convincer se que le cambiamento es un
meliorate copia de interlingua del correspondente tracto del
historic lingua pan-occidenal. Sed con iste conviction on ha
solmente demonstrate su derecto de usar privatemente ille
cambiamento. Pro attinger in ultra le uso general del formas o
constructiones camabiate on debe vincer in le arena del usage
practic.

  Tres o mesmo duo annos retro il haberea essite possibile
meliorar interlingua in aspectos de detalio per convincer Blair e/o
Gode que le proponite reforma esseva in le spirito del conception
fundamental de un lingua naturalmente pan-occidental. Intertanto
iste seniores ha perdite omne lor autoiritate a cambiar
interlingua, mesmo a eliminar errores pro le quales illes esseva
personalmente responsabile. Hodie le sol autoritate que pote
influentiar le disveloppamento futur de interlingua es le
tradition del usage practic.

~ ~ ~ ~

  Le question del integritate de interlingua--i.e. le question
del genese del duple character de interlingua como entitate
rigidissime e elasticissime--es practicamente importante proque
illo determina nostre attitude verso le adherentes de altere
systemas de lingua auxiliar.

  Nos ha nihil in commun con le constructores de linguas auxiliar
o con le adherentes de systemas de construction artificial. Iste
systemas es historicamente interessante, e il me pare non
imposssibile que certe aspectos de illos pote devenir de
signification practic pro le disciplina del logica symbolic (que io
non comprende). Si il existe personas qui pote mantener lor fide in
le valor communicational de tal systemas, io non me considera como
qualificate a re-educar les. Si lor numero es satis grande, il
remane semper possibile que illes pote facer un certe contribution
al causa del libere fluxo de communicationes international. Le
puncto ubi on debe attaccar tal individuos es quando illes mantene
que le campo del communciation international pote tolerar non plus
que un sol idioma universal. Il pare que le majoritate del
esperantistas representa iste intolerabile puncto de vista.
Felicemente on pote demonstrar le intenibilitate de lor attidude
sin attaccar les personalmente e certo sin attaccar esperanto per
se.

  Io spera que on non miscomprende mi intention si io assere que
in le supra-presentate senso il ha "esperantistas" non solo inter
le adherentes de esperanto sed etiam inter le practicantes de ido e
del interlingue de de Wahl. De facto, io time que in le curso del
tempore mesmo nostre interlingua va attraher partisanos del mesme
mentalitate.

  Del altere latere il ha sin dubita multe Wahlistas e idistas qui
mantene que le attitudes fundamental reflectite in iste disussion
del integritate de interlingua ha semper essite le lores. Pro tal
personas il es evidentemente possibile demonstrar a lor complete
satisfaction que le systema a que illes adhere es un melior e plus
adequate registration del interlingua describite per me in le
presente discurso que le lingua in que ille discurso es presentate.

  Mesmo si io trova imposssibile acceptar le detaliate
rationamento al base de un tal attitude, io non pote differentiar
inter le "deviationismo" representate per illo e le altere typo de
"deviationismo" individual que io ha detaliatemente justificate
como effecto del elasticitate practic de interlingua. Si il ha
personas qui vole practicar interlingua con terminationes personal
del verbo, il es forsan possibile concluder que il pote etiam haber
personas qui vole practicar interlingua secundo le formas de ido o
del interlingue de de Wahl.
                      ~ ~ ~ ~
  Isto es le fin de mi discurso. Pro terminar lo con un sentimento
adequatemente elevate, io me rememora que sin dubita on va sublevar
le question del implicationes organisational de lo que io ha
dicite. A isto le responsa es simple. Interlingua ha jam establite
su tradition. Illo es jam un fortia. Consequentemente nulle
organisation ha le derecto o le possibilitate de arrogar se ulle
autoritate super le existentia de interlingua. Le 'si' e le 'como'
de iste existentia va esser decidite in le arena del uso practic.
Sed omne isto non significa que interlingua non pote profitar de
organisationes. Al contrario.

  Tamen le facto que nulle tal organisation pote disponer de
autoritate dictatorial significa que solo organisationes spontanee
remane possibile in nostre movimento. E le termino "organisation
spontanee" es a definir como un gruppo de individuos qui se reuni a
causa e in consequentia del compatibilitate de lor tendentias e
desiros, semper con le sancte garantia que le gruppo non pote
unquam dictar le conducta del individuo.


New York, junio 1955


*) Il va sin dicer que iste exemplos non es historic e
probabilemente non mesmo philologicamente exacte. Illos es libere
sed non impossibile inventiones que illustra un processo. Sed iste
processo es historic e mesmo philologicamente exacte.

**) Isto es le ideal. Omne deviation ab illo es un debilitate de
interlingua. Le elimination de tal debilitates se facera non per
modificationes systematic sed in le curso de annos e annos de usage
practic. Tal usage pote o acceptar e assi "naturalisar" le remanente
artificialitates o simplemente causa lor devenir desuete.

=======================================

Stan Mulaik

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