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AUXLANG  March 2008, Week 1

AUXLANG March 2008, Week 1

Subject:

Re: What the average newspaper reader in the UK....

From:

Antonielly Garcia Rodrigues <[log in to unmask]>

Reply-To:

International Auxiliary Languages <[log in to unmask]>

Date:

Thu, 6 Mar 2008 10:25:49 +0000

Content-Type:

text/plain

Parts/Attachments:

Parts/Attachments

text/plain (142 lines)

On Thu, Mar 6, 2008 at 6:13 AM, steve rice <[log in to unmask]> wrote:
>
> But modern evolutionists no longer talk about
> "progress," just "change." And you'll be hard put to
> find a linguist who says that some language is
> "primitive" or "advanced." They're just different. So
> languages can't "progress"; they just "change."
>
> (They can gain or lose features, including regularity,
> but even that isn't "progress" from a descriptive
> standpoint, just from an engineering perspective.
>

I agree that the technical meaning of "evolution" in Linguistics is
"temporal change", which does not necessarily mean "quality
improvement". So, when we say a given language has evolved a lot in
the last couple of decades, this would mean that it has changed a lot.
Nothing is said about whether those changes are "good" or "bad" for
the language.

The problem is that "evolution" means both "change along time" and
"change for better", and this is responsible for a lot of lost time in
discussions, where people mix both concepts in the same context and,
without realizing it, create a false discourse based on the Fallacy of
Equivocation [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Equivocation] (*).

A point where I disagree with many linguists is that I think languages
can progress as well as regress along time. Temporal changes are not
inocuous; they may bring advantages or disadvantages with it. A given
change might bring both advantages and disadvantages, but it is often
the case that they do not cancel out neatly (i.e. a given change often
does not have a zero sum of advantages and disadvantages).

Now, what is good or bad depends on the assessment method you use and
on how you define "language health". My personal definition of
"language health" considers both intralinguistic and extralinguistic
factors (sometimes, the distinction is blurred and we are not able to
easily tell whether something is "intralinguistic" or
"extralinguistic", for instance the size of the vocabulary used
nowadays in a language). Of course, you can consider for instance only
"intralinguistic" aspects to measure "language health", and the
aspects you choose to consider and to discard may be different from
mine, so your milage may vary.

For instance, I would consider the gain of new special terminology for
recent fields of study as both a "change along time" and a "good
change in quality" for the language, since it shows the language has
the potential of being used right now in new registers and in new
contexts. Since you can use English right away to write about
Architectural Assessment in Software Product Line Engineering without
having to coin new technical terms and without having to extend the
meaning of old terms (or having to perform those acts relatively
rarely, even if you are a researcher), English would be much healthier
than, say, Guaraní in this single aspect.

Of course there are specific contexts in which Guaraní is healthier
than English: for describing specific tools, practices and cultural
traditions of the Guaraní speaking community, Guaraní has a complete
terminology whereas English would have to gain with new terminology
(unless you are willing to accept long circumlocutions and paraphrases
all the time) to explain the same things. For most contexts in modern,
technologically advanced life, English is overall much healthier than
Guaraní. So English wins in the global assessment (although it loses
to Guaraní in some very restricted contexts).

English also loses quality in some specific contexts. Vocabulary that
becomes extinct (that is, it is no longer used in the real world
despite its existence in dictionaries) contributes to reduce the
quality of a language, since it becomes less expressive (**). (It is a
natural phenomenon, but "natural" does not necessarily means "good".)
But we can see that, in English, the gain of vocabulary for many new
(and old) fields largely surpasses the loss of vocabulary, so the
overall quality of English has been improving along time. I would say
to "purists" and "defensors of the English language" that such a small
loss of vocabulary is not something to worry about, because "their
lovely language" is winning, is getting stronger and stronger.

But it is not just "size and application of vocabulary" that matters
to language health. Another metric I like to use to assess "language
health" concerns the increase of both L1 and L2 speakers. If more
people who will become native speakers of a given language are being
born, it means that such language will be more used in interpersonal
and intrapersonal communication, so the language becomes healthier
according to that single metric -- after all, it is a bit further away
from endangerment and extinction. If many people abroad want to learn
a certain language as a L2, then it means the language is desired as
an object of prestige, so it is healthier in that regard.

If a language becomes the lingua franca in a certain register, trade
occupation or field of study, this also adds to the score of language
health. In this respect, you can see that French has become a bit less
healthy along time (because it has lost some ground in diplomacy and
international scientific publications), although it is still one of
the healthiest languages of the world, will remain so for a long time,
and there is always the possibility that a change in the international
affairs will make French much healthier.

Thus, you can see that the "quality maturity" of a language is
directly related to its prestige (both regionally and internationally)
and, in a lesser but also important degree, to the size of its
population of speakers (both L1 and L2). It is a measure strongly
related to extralinguistical factors.

You can see I adopt the philosophical stance that a language does not
exist without its speakers, and it is only a reflex of the existence
of its speakers (***). A lot of excellent philosophers and excellent
linguists would not agree with my philosophical stance, but I believe
there would be many who would agree with me.

(*) As a sidenote, that is why I *strongly* recommend that a
conauxlang designer adopts a word for "evolution" that means only
"change along time", and another word for "evolution" that means only
"change for better". The first one would be an important technical
term for translations in Biology, Linguistics, History, Diachronical
Sociology, Diachronical Anthropology and Evolutionary Psychology,
among other fields that are strongly focused on the concept of
"temporal changes", while the second one would be used when discussing
Quality Assessment. I believe the packing of "change along time" and
"change for better" in a single word is even responsible for certain
abusive declarations in published scientific materials, as it often
happens in Linguistics. Moreover, many, if not most, of the
laypersons' misconceptions about Darwinian Evolution are also based on
that unfortunate packing of related but very different concepts.

(**)  Realize that "vocabulary loss" is an evolution in the sense of
"change along time", but it is not evolution in the sense of "change
for better"; it is involution.

(***) Latin is currently healthier than Tucano even if it has less
native speakers nowadays than Tucano, since its former speakers left a
lot of communication available to generations and generations to come,
thanks to writing. So, my philosophical stance considers communication
in general, both the one performed now by current speakers, and the
one performed now by a current speaker with a dead speaker (a one-way
communication through published material, which can be through
writing, audio and video). In this sense, as long as the published
material exists and is available, the dead speaker is still "alive" to
the language, although he will not produce communicational contents
anymore for obvious reasons.

Antonielly Garcia Rodrigues

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