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AUXLANG  March 2008, Week 4

AUXLANG March 2008, Week 4

Subject:

Re: What the average newspaper reader in the UK....

From:

Antony Alexander <[log in to unmask]>

Reply-To:

International Auxiliary Languages <[log in to unmask]>

Date:

Sun, 23 Mar 2008 17:12:24 -0400

Content-Type:

text/plain

Parts/Attachments:

Parts/Attachments

text/plain (143 lines)

>> If one takes the phrase "constructed international
>> auxiliary languages" literally the pidgins were just
>> that.

On Sun, 23 Mar 2008 07:46:48 -0700, Jens Wilkinson <[log in to unmask]> replied:

>Here we seem to be running into a problem of human
>expression. In a sense, the division between
>"constructed language" and "natural language" is, let
>us say, "artificial". Though I have to hesitate to
>even use that word! Constructed means "man-made". So
>*almost* by definition (since conceivably, there could
>be a god-given language), all languages are man-made,
>thus constructed. It becomes very artificial at some
>point to distinguish between a natural language and a
>constructed one, though we all seem to recognize them
>to some extent.
>
>I think that pidgins are natural in the sense that
>English or Hindi are natural. They are natural in the
>sense that they were not designed for some specific
>purpose. They emerged from a chaotic process of human
>interaction, or something like that. I think that if
>we call pidgins constructed, then all languages become
>constructed and the word "constructed" becomes
>meaningless. I think we have to use the term
>"constructed" in the sense of "intelligent design",
>i.e., that somebody or some group deliberately
>designed the language.


Thanks for that, Jens. 

You’ve raised an important question for me: 
“Why does the IAL have to be “constructed” by 
an external authority? Why cannot it just “emerge” 
intuitively from the body of its speakers according 
to innate bioprograms or linguistic universals 
or whatever?”

Maybe some of us have been hung up on the word
“constructed”? I now realise that I have been. 
Why does the IAL have to be a new "constructed" 
language? No reason I can see. Indeed, there would 
be more possibilities if it were just a new language.

Thirty years ago, as I remember, “constructed” was 
still something of a buzz-word. Languages such as 
Esperanto had long been called “artificial” in certain 
quarters but their protagonists could say: “No, they’re 
constructed!” - meaning of course that they were 
largely constructed a posteriori from existing 
speech elements.

Wouldn’t it be even more “a posteriori” for populations 
of speakers to effectively choose most if not all of the 
words themselves? I would say so - and this is what 
has occurred with the pidgins on the micro scale, 
has it not?

You pose an interesting dilemma, but I think it is 
usually possible to distinguish between natural and 
constructed language. Let me offer some figures off 
the top of my head - necessarily gross generalisations, 
but hopefully not too wide of the mark. For instance:

[1] Philosophical or oligosynthetic languages. Largely if 
not totally a priori. Natural 1/10; Constructed 2/10; 
Artificial 7/10

[2] Esperanto, Ido etc. - a posteriori, but with heavy 
authorial input - some of it rather artificial and arbitrary 
(Esperanto’s word-class inflections, for instance). 
Natural 3/10; Constructed 5/10; Artificial 2/10

[3] Interlingua, Occidental etc. - a posteriori, and 
more naturalistic. Natural 5/10; Constructed 4/10; 
Artificial 1/10

[4] Pidgins. Natural 7/10; Constructed 3/10; Artificial 0/10

[5] Creoles. Natural 9/10; Constructed 1/10; Artificial 0/10

[6] Mature existing tongues - you mention English and 
Hindi. Natural 10/10; Constructed 0/10; Artificial 0/10

As you can see, I draw a distinction between the pidgins 
and the creoles, following Mufwene et al. Pidgins are 
therefore exclusively what used to be called “trading 
pidgins” by some, and “plantation/homestead pidgins” 
are more correctly termed creoles.

One major difference is that pidgins were (usually, to 
some extent) taught by agents of the commercial power. 
An evidence for this is the same pidgin words cropping 
up in different places. Pidgins also remained auxiliaries 
for quite some time, until they started to be vernacularised 
by a rising generation - and this is what makes them such 
a suitable model for a new global IAL. 

So what if many if not most of their words were chosen 
intuitively and by “natural selection” by the trading 
participants themselves from among the source languages 
(probably mainly from the superstrate, due to the unequal 
power relationship, and the goods on offer) rather than 
specifically introduced by an on-board linguist. I wouldn’t 
see this as a disadvantage at all - just the opposite, in fact. 
However, it seems to be an established fact that a 
proportion of pidgin words were taught, according to 
what had worked elsewhere.

Similarly, it would be better IMHO if the majority of 
words for a “global pidgin” were selected from among 
the most popular and representative international words 
for the same object or concept rather than foisted by 
"experts" from without, though the latter process might 
prove necessary to some extent for political reasons in 
order to effect a more equitable distribution I guess.

It would follow from this that an interim IAL committee 
might identify some of these popular international words 
without necessarily waiting for the green light from the 
global political establishment. 

As for creoles proper, they seem to have arisen in rather 
different circumstances, not least because the population 
itself had normally been transplanted. As I understand it, 
creoles started as mesolects of the superstrates (e.g. the 
European plantation languages) - mesolects which later 
became basilectised as they became infused by the 
substrate tongues. But the major difference seems to be 
that creoles became vernacularised mother tongues much 
more quickly than pidgins did - due to their speakers 
having been displaced from their indigenous cultures. Also, 
creoles seem to have been more “natural” and intuitive 
in their development, since there was no reason for them 
to be taught by outsiders. For such reasons they would 
seem to be inferior to the pidgins as a model for a global IAL.

Regards,

Antony Alexander       http://langx.org

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January 2001, Week 1
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February 2000, Week 1
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December 1999, Week 5
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December 1997, Week 5
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