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AUXLANG  March 2008, Week 4

AUXLANG March 2008, Week 4

Subject:

Re: A free Auxlang blog?

From:

Antony Alexander <[log in to unmask]>

Reply-To:

International Auxiliary Languages <[log in to unmask]>

Date:

Wed, 26 Mar 2008 14:17:41 -0400

Content-Type:

text/plain

Parts/Attachments:

Parts/Attachments

text/plain (277 lines)

On Tue, 25 Mar 2008 19:12:11 -0400, Larry Sulky <[log in to unmask]> wrote:

>On Tue, Mar 25, 2008 at 6:17 PM, Antony Alexander
><[log in to unmask]> wrote:
>---SNIP---
>>
>>  Are we then to have an IAL with six consonants and two
>>  or three vowels so as to please everyone?
>>
>>  It's a very safe bet that very few would be pleased by such
>>  a phonology. Moreover, I think the great majority would
>>  consider even twelve to fifteen consonants way too few.
>>
>>  I have noticed that phonology comes a distant second to
>>  grammar when it comes to complaints about IALs. In the
>>  case of Esperanto people complain about the capped letters
>>  much more than about the speech sounds they represent.
>
>Golly, my impression/experience has been quite the opposite. Grammar
>is something that one can apply analysis to and, with practice,
>master. (Idiomatic usage maybe not so much: Why does an American say
>"Dad is in the hospital" while a Canadian says "Dad is in hospital"?)
>This is an easier task for adults than children, and adults are the
>initial target audience. It's also something that can be worked on
>through written materials if necessary.
>
>Phonology, on the other hand, involves a physical ability that
>diminishes markedly by the time children are 10 or 12 years old. After
>that, learning to pronounce -- and even distinguish -- foreign sounds
>and sound combinations becomes a very difficult chore. A speaker who
>learns a language as a young adult or later in life will forever have
>an accent, and if the speaker has little opportunity to speak and
>listen (as opposed to read), that accent will likely remain very
>strong.
>
>Also think about most of the complaints of any kind that you hear
>about Esperanto. Do most of them come from Europeans, or even more
>specifically English-speakers, who already natively possess a
>phonology that is similar to that of Esperanto? Thus rendering its
>phonology a non-issue for the group that (I'm postulating) you hear
>from the most?
>
>>
>>  The fact is that 25 phonemes is nothing unusual when it
>>  comes to international languages - and is actually below
>>  average (I am referring to existing lingua francas rather
>>  than aspiring ones of the conauxlang variety).
>>
>>  I read an article about creoles a few months ago. A number
>>  of them were featured. The average phonology was 5 vowels
>>  and about 22 consonants. I have no reason to believe this
>>  approximate average isn't typical of all existing
>>  pidgins/creoles. Perhaps someone could confirm this.
>>
>>  Why should creoles have a bigger phonology than a great
>>  many natlangs? My guess is that it's because phonology
>>  isn't such a big deal compared with learning new grammar.
>>
>
>But I would also guess that the most difficult sounds in the
>contributing languages are the ones that are dropped. I don't believe
>Tok Pisin features [T] or [D], for example.
>
>>  The average person has extensive phonological capacity
>>  within themselves, which can usually be brought out,
>>  especially when they are children. It's really just a case
>>  of imitating sounds - even talking birds can do this!
>>
>
>I am very good at this myself; I'm a natural mimic. Most of my
>classmates in the various language courses I've taken through the
>years have not been so, and they have struggled mightily to attain
>something even approaching a reasonable pronunciation. Their task was
>made all the harder because frequently they honestly could not hear
>the huge difference between the instructor's pronunciation and their
>own.
>
>>  On the other hand, unfamiliar grammar can be very
>>  difficult, since it represent new modes of thought and
>>  ways of looking at the world. For instance, Japanese and
>>  other Asians tend to have great difficulty with articles.
>
>Articles are used highly idiomatically. Nevertheless, it's a valid point.
>
>>  They are an alien concept. However, new speech sounds
>>  are not inherently strange. Modern technology - not least
>>  in music - can produce some very strange sounds, can't it?
>>
>>  It's true of course that certain nationalities tend to have
>>  difficulties - Chinese and Japanese differentiating /l/ and
>>  /r/, Indians /v/ from /w/, Spaniards "ship" from "sheep",
>>  and so on - but it's remarkable how easily such sounds can
>>  be mastered with a little application.
>>
>
>Have you ever tried to teach a Japanese person to pronounce /l/? I
>have, in university. It took hours to get her close, kind of... and
>the next day she had completely lost it. We tried again the day after
>that. And she lost it again. It was hopeless. She spoke broken
>English, by the way.
>
>>  Those who want to learn an IAL will normally be prepared to
>>  make this effort, I think, so long as unfamiliar grammar is
>>  kept to a minimum.
>
>Interesting. When I think about tackling a language I look first at
>the phonology... and a phonology that features tones, or 4-way
>voicing/aspiration distinction, or quadruple-consonant clusters, makes
>me think about giving up. And I'm _good_ at sound mimicry.
>
>I think simple phonology and simple grammar are about equally
>important. 12 to 15 consonants and 5 vowels sounds like plenty. But I
>think you and I are both speaking from our own perspectives and
>experiences. It would be interesting to see data on the phonologies of
>pidgins and creoles around the world within the context of their
>contributing languages, to determine if there is an innate skew to the
>data you mentioned above.
>
>--larry


Thanks for your interesting reply. I remember that 
your IAL Konya had an unusually low number of 
consonants - and here you explain why.

I’ve found the article re Creoles I referred to (thanks 
to Jens who originally put me on to it). It’s a pdf - no 
longer downloadable from the web - but I’ll send it to 
anyone who anyone who wants a copy (my email: 
aita [at] langx.org). Here’s a short excerpt:

Ndyuka  19   Kituba  20   Tok Pisin  21    
Berbice, Juba Arabic, Tayo  22   Palenquero  23   
Bislama   24   Baba Malay  25    Mauritian, Nubi, Sri Lankan  26    
Negerhollands, Unserdeutsch, Kristang,  Zamboangueńo  27   
Papiamentu  30   Săo Tomense  31   Haitian, Saramaccan 32   
St Lucian  33   Sango  35   Angolar  37    

"...evidence that Creoles display a narrow range in 
the size of their phonemic inventories. The smallest
 inventory has 19 phonemes, whereas the largest 
one has 37. Recall that the range for non-Creole 
languages is much wider, from 11 to 141. The vast 
majority of Creole languages exhibits the typical 
non-Creole inventory size of 20 to 37 phonemes,  
following Maddieson’s measure. Only one simple 
inventory is found; 96% (22 of 23) of  Creoles 
show the typical size, whereas no Creole inventories 
are complex by Maddieson’s measure. Given these 
figures, the frequency of typical inventory sizes in 
Creole versus non-Creole languages may be calculated 
statistically. Given that the numbers at issue are quite  
small, the Fisher’s exact probability test (Langsrud 2004, 
Lowry 2000) or the chi-square  test with Yates' correction 
for continuity (Preacher 2003) may be used to calculate 
statistical (non-) significance. The Fisher’s exact test 
shows that the frequency of Creole languages with the 
typical inventory size is significantly higher than in the 
UPSID languages (p < 0.007; two-tailed). This result is 
duplicated using Yates’ chi-square (5.86; p < 0.02).  
This means that significantly more Creole languages have 
phoneme inventories of typical size than non-Creole 
languages. In other words, Creole phoneme inventories are 
quantitatively more middle-of-the-road than the UPSID 
inventories. The inventory sizes of Creoles are also very 
evenly distributed within their range. The mean number 
of segments in a Creole phoneme inventory is just under 
27, whereas the median is 26 segments. The small 
differential in mean versus median points up the even  
distribution. Maddieson reports that the mean number of 
phonemes per language in the UPSID database is a little 
over 31; the median falls between 28 and 29. These numbers 
are an outcome of the greater range in diversity in the size 
of non-Creole inventories. The model number of consonants 
in an UPSID inventory is 21 (Maddieson 1984: 12), whereas 
a system of 5 vowel qualities is most frequent (see also below). 
Interestingly, the mean and  the median in the Creole languages 
correspond very closely to the sum of the most frequent  
number of vowel qualities (i.e., 5) and the number of the most 
frequently occurring individual consonant segment types in the 
UPSID database (i.e., 21).  The numerical results presented in 
this section may be discussed in light of the predictions of the 
competing hypotheses concerning simplicity versus middle 
ground in Creole grammars. Notwithstanding potential 
interaction with markedness, the Creole simplicity hypothesis 
predicts a substantial number of Creoles with small inventories 
of fewer than 20 phonemes. The present investigation shows 
that such simple inventories are very scarce. The rarity of such 
inventories is unexpected and surprising under the simplicity 
hypothesis. Given the present measure, it emerges that Creoles 
do not have the simplest inventories, but the most typical ones. 
Nearly all Creoles fall within the range typical of non-Creole  
languages clustering around an inventory size of 27. This 
distribution is expected under the Creole typicality hypothesis. 
The fact that no Creoles show inventory sizes that are complex 
under the current measure supports the idea that Creole sound 
systems may be the world’s most typical sound systems. 
The predictions of the typicality hypothesis are also met by the 
findings of the investigation of the number of distinctive 
vowel qualities. 

“Nearly all Creoles fall within the range typical of non-Creole  
languages clustering around an inventory size of 27.” 
There you have it.

I agree with you about the difficulty for older children or 
adults learning new speech sounds, but can think of four 
mitigating factors:

[1] The IAL will be largely spread through being the 
second language taught in schools worldwide, and 
we agree that young children will have no problem 
mastering the phonology. (However, teaching the IAL 
in schools will not be enough in itself - there will 
have to be social and cultural reinforcement in the 
wider society via politics, the media, internationalist
movements and organisations etc.)

[2] Obviously, the consonants chosen for the IAL 
should be the most popular worldwide, especially in 
existing international languages. The speech sounds 
that emerge first in infant language development are 
a correlating factor. Naturally, consonant clusters 
should be avoided as much as possible in an initial IAL.

[3] The culture of the IAL should be liberal re the 
“correct” pronunciation of phonemes. In other words, 
the IAL phoneme segments should be quite wide. 
Exact pronunciation shouldn’t matter anyway: the 
important thing is that the word is understood. 
There is a lot of redundancy built into language and 
context normally does the rest. As Zamenhof realised 
with his “homaranismo” there has be an ethic 
accompanying the IAL, and this should be part of it IMHO.

[4] We have to realise that, even though every child 
will come to learn the IAL at school, it won’t be for 
everyone. Only a minority at the present time are 
particularly internationally minded. Indeed, there are 
many whose consciousness is regional (their local 
town/city and locality) rather than even national. I think 
you’d probably find that your Japanese student who 
continually pronounced /l/ as /r/ wasn’t really that 
internationally-minded anyway. The same with a 
Chinese who did the reverse. Not everyone has to find 
employment on the international stage. I remember the 
same thing from my school days: a boy who simply 
couldn’t pronounce the French word “je” - the teacher 
had a real go at him in class but he could only manage 
/dzh/ as in “jug”. But then again he probably wasn’t 
aspiring to be the French Ambassador anyway. 

I do realise that my post of yesterday was a bit OTT 
(I was reflecting afterwards that parrots aren’t that hot 
at phonetics) but I was hoping to get the sort of response 
you provided. I don’t think this subject has been discussed 
enough (at least not here, unless I’ve missed a lot). It’s 
all very well to have an ideal IAL grammar, but that 
depends upon a global core vocabulary, which in turn 
depends upon an agreed phonology - so phonology is
the basis of everything (for an auxlang in the real world).

You are probably right that it’s 50:50 with phonology 
and grammar as regards difficulty, but the JPVP 
hypothesis tells us to put phonology first. In other 
words, if there is going to be difficulty learning the IAL 
let it be focused on mastering the phonology to begin 
with, since the JPVP says that the grammar can wait. 
Sometimes it’s best to learn one thing before another 
rather than both at the same time.

Antony Alexander       http://langx.org



        

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September 2007, Week 3
September 2007, Week 2
September 2007, Week 1
August 2007, Week 5
August 2007, Week 4
August 2007, Week 3
August 2007, Week 2
August 2007, Week 1
July 2007, Week 5
July 2007, Week 4
July 2007, Week 3
July 2007, Week 2
July 2007, Week 1
June 2007, Week 5
June 2007, Week 4
June 2007, Week 3
June 2007, Week 2
June 2007, Week 1
May 2007, Week 5
May 2007, Week 4
May 2007, Week 3
May 2007, Week 2
May 2007, Week 1
April 2007, Week 5
April 2007, Week 4
April 2007, Week 3
April 2007, Week 2
April 2007, Week 1
March 2007, Week 5
March 2007, Week 4
March 2007, Week 3
March 2007, Week 2
March 2007, Week 1
February 2007, Week 4
February 2007, Week 3
February 2007, Week 2
February 2007, Week 1
January 2007, Week 5
January 2007, Week 4
January 2007, Week 3
January 2007, Week 2
January 2007, Week 1
December 2006, Week 5
December 2006, Week 4
December 2006, Week 3
December 2006, Week 2
December 2006, Week 1
November 2006, Week 5
November 2006, Week 4
November 2006, Week 3
November 2006, Week 2
November 2006, Week 1
October 2006, Week 5
October 2006, Week 4
October 2006, Week 3
October 2006, Week 2
October 2006, Week 1
September 2006, Week 5
September 2006, Week 4
September 2006, Week 3
September 2006, Week 2
September 2006, Week 1
August 2006, Week 5
August 2006, Week 4
August 2006, Week 3
August 2006, Week 2
August 2006, Week 1
July 2006, Week 5
July 2006, Week 4
July 2006, Week 3
July 2006, Week 2
July 2006, Week 1
June 2006, Week 5
June 2006, Week 4
June 2006, Week 3
June 2006, Week 2
June 2006, Week 1
May 2006, Week 5
May 2006, Week 4
May 2006, Week 3
May 2006, Week 2
May 2006, Week 1
April 2006, Week 5
April 2006, Week 4
April 2006, Week 3
April 2006, Week 2
April 2006, Week 1
March 2006, Week 5
March 2006, Week 4
March 2006, Week 3
March 2006, Week 2
March 2006, Week 1
February 2006, Week 4
February 2006, Week 3
February 2006, Week 2
February 2006, Week 1
January 2006, Week 5
January 2006, Week 4
January 2006, Week 3
January 2006, Week 2
January 2006, Week 1
December 2005, Week 5
December 2005, Week 4
December 2005, Week 3
December 2005, Week 2
December 2005, Week 1
November 2005, Week 5
November 2005, Week 4
November 2005, Week 3
November 2005, Week 2
November 2005, Week 1
October 2005, Week 5
October 2005, Week 4
October 2005, Week 3
October 2005, Week 2
October 2005, Week 1
September 2005, Week 5
September 2005, Week 4
September 2005, Week 3
September 2005, Week 2
September 2005, Week 1
August 2005, Week 5
August 2005, Week 4
August 2005, Week 3
August 2005, Week 2
August 2005, Week 1
July 2005, Week 5
July 2005, Week 4
July 2005, Week 3
July 2005, Week 2
July 2005, Week 1
June 2005, Week 5
June 2005, Week 4
June 2005, Week 3
June 2005, Week 2
June 2005, Week 1
May 2005, Week 5
May 2005, Week 4
May 2005, Week 3
May 2005, Week 2
May 2005, Week 1
April 2005, Week 5
April 2005, Week 4
April 2005, Week 3
April 2005, Week 2
April 2005, Week 1
March 2005, Week 5
March 2005, Week 4
March 2005, Week 3
March 2005, Week 2
March 2005, Week 1
February 2005, Week 4
February 2005, Week 3
February 2005, Week 2
February 2005, Week 1
January 2005, Week 5
January 2005, Week 4
January 2005, Week 3
January 2005, Week 2
January 2005, Week 1
December 2004, Week 5
December 2004, Week 4
December 2004, Week 3
December 2004, Week 2
December 2004, Week 1
November 2004, Week 5
November 2004, Week 4
November 2004, Week 3
November 2004, Week 2
November 2004, Week 1
October 2004, Week 5
October 2004, Week 4
October 2004, Week 3
October 2004, Week 2
October 2004, Week 1
September 2004, Week 5
September 2004, Week 4
September 2004, Week 3
September 2004, Week 2
September 2004, Week 1
August 2004, Week 5
August 2004, Week 4
August 2004, Week 3
August 2004, Week 2
August 2004, Week 1
July 2004, Week 5
July 2004, Week 4
July 2004, Week 3
July 2004, Week 2
July 2004, Week 1
June 2004, Week 5
June 2004, Week 4
June 2004, Week 3
June 2004, Week 2
June 2004, Week 1
May 2004, Week 5
May 2004, Week 4
May 2004, Week 3
May 2004, Week 2
May 2004, Week 1
April 2004, Week 5
April 2004, Week 4
April 2004, Week 3
April 2004, Week 2
April 2004, Week 1
March 2004, Week 5
March 2004, Week 4
March 2004, Week 3
March 2004, Week 2
March 2004, Week 1
February 2004, Week 5
February 2004, Week 4
February 2004, Week 3
February 2004, Week 2
February 2004, Week 1
January 2004, Week 5
January 2004, Week 4
January 2004, Week 3
January 2004, Week 2
January 2004, Week 1
December 2003, Week 5
December 2003, Week 4
December 2003, Week 3
December 2003, Week 2
December 2003, Week 1
November 2003, Week 5
November 2003, Week 4
November 2003, Week 3
November 2003, Week 2
November 2003, Week 1
October 2003, Week 5
October 2003, Week 4
October 2003, Week 3
October 2003, Week 2
October 2003, Week 1
September 2003, Week 5
September 2003, Week 4
September 2003, Week 3
September 2003, Week 2
September 2003, Week 1
August 2003, Week 5
August 2003, Week 4
August 2003, Week 3
August 2003, Week 2
August 2003, Week 1
July 2003, Week 5
July 2003, Week 4
July 2003, Week 3
July 2003, Week 2
July 2003, Week 1
June 2003, Week 5
June 2003, Week 4
June 2003, Week 3
June 2003, Week 2
June 2003, Week 1
May 2003, Week 5
May 2003, Week 4
May 2003, Week 3
May 2003, Week 2
May 2003, Week 1
April 2003, Week 5
April 2003, Week 4
April 2003, Week 3
April 2003, Week 2
March 2003, Week 5
March 2003, Week 4
March 2003, Week 3
March 2003, Week 2
March 2003, Week 1
February 2003, Week 4
February 2003, Week 3
February 2003, Week 2
February 2003, Week 1
January 2003, Week 5
January 2003, Week 4
January 2003, Week 3
January 2003, Week 2
January 2003, Week 1
December 2002, Week 5
December 2002, Week 4
December 2002, Week 3
December 2002, Week 2
December 2002, Week 1
November 2002, Week 4
November 2002, Week 3
November 2002, Week 2
November 2002, Week 1
October 2002, Week 5
October 2002, Week 4
October 2002, Week 3
October 2002, Week 2
October 2002, Week 1
September 2002, Week 5
September 2002, Week 4
September 2002, Week 3
September 2002, Week 2
September 2002, Week 1
August 2002, Week 5
August 2002, Week 4
August 2002, Week 3
August 2002, Week 2
August 2002, Week 1
July 2002, Week 5
July 2002, Week 4
July 2002, Week 3
July 2002, Week 2
July 2002, Week 1
June 2002, Week 5
June 2002, Week 4
June 2002, Week 3
June 2002, Week 2
June 2002, Week 1
May 2002, Week 5
May 2002, Week 4
May 2002, Week 3
May 2002, Week 2
May 2002, Week 1
April 2002, Week 5
April 2002, Week 4
April 2002, Week 3
April 2002, Week 2
April 2002, Week 1
March 2002, Week 5
March 2002, Week 4
March 2002, Week 3
March 2002, Week 1
February 2002, Week 4
February 2002, Week 3
February 2002, Week 2
February 2002, Week 1
January 2002, Week 5
January 2002, Week 4
January 2002, Week 3
January 2002, Week 2
January 2002, Week 1
December 2001, Week 5
December 2001, Week 4
December 2001, Week 3
December 2001, Week 2
December 2001, Week 1
November 2001, Week 5
November 2001, Week 4
November 2001, Week 3
November 2001, Week 2
November 2001, Week 1
October 2001, Week 5
October 2001, Week 4
October 2001, Week 3
October 2001, Week 2
October 2001, Week 1
September 2001, Week 5
September 2001, Week 4
September 2001, Week 3
September 2001, Week 2
September 2001, Week 1
August 2001, Week 5
August 2001, Week 4
August 2001, Week 3
August 2001, Week 2
August 2001, Week 1
July 2001, Week 5
July 2001, Week 4
July 2001, Week 3
July 2001, Week 2
July 2001, Week 1
June 2001, Week 5
June 2001, Week 4
June 2001, Week 3
June 2001, Week 2
June 2001, Week 1
May 2001, Week 5
May 2001, Week 4
May 2001, Week 3
May 2001, Week 2
May 2001, Week 1
April 2001, Week 5
April 2001, Week 4
April 2001, Week 3
April 2001, Week 2
April 2001, Week 1
March 2001, Week 5
March 2001, Week 4
March 2001, Week 3
March 2001, Week 2
March 2001, Week 1
February 2001, Week 4
February 2001, Week 3
February 2001, Week 2
February 2001, Week 1
January 2001, Week 5
January 2001, Week 4
January 2001, Week 3
January 2001, Week 2
January 2001, Week 1
December 2000, Week 5
December 2000, Week 4
December 2000, Week 3
December 2000, Week 2
December 2000, Week 1
November 2000, Week 5
November 2000, Week 4
November 2000, Week 3
November 2000, Week 2
November 2000, Week 1
October 2000, Week 5
October 2000, Week 4
October 2000, Week 3
October 2000, Week 2
October 2000, Week 1
September 2000, Week 5
September 2000, Week 4
September 2000, Week 3
September 2000, Week 2
September 2000, Week 1
August 2000, Week 5
August 2000, Week 4
August 2000, Week 3
August 2000, Week 2
August 2000, Week 1
July 2000, Week 5
July 2000, Week 4
July 2000, Week 3
July 2000, Week 2
July 2000, Week 1
June 2000, Week 5
June 2000, Week 4
June 2000, Week 3
June 2000, Week 2
June 2000, Week 1
May 2000, Week 5
May 2000, Week 4
May 2000, Week 3
May 2000, Week 2
May 2000, Week 1
April 2000, Week 5
April 2000, Week 4
April 2000, Week 3
April 2000, Week 2
April 2000, Week 1
March 2000, Week 5
March 2000, Week 4
March 2000, Week 3
March 2000, Week 2
March 2000, Week 1
February 2000, Week 5
February 2000, Week 4
February 2000, Week 3
February 2000, Week 2
February 2000, Week 1
January 2000, Week 5
January 2000, Week 4
January 2000, Week 3
January 2000, Week 2
January 2000, Week 1
December 1999, Week 5
December 1999, Week 4
December 1999, Week 3
December 1999, Week 2
December 1999, Week 1
November 1999, Week 5
November 1999, Week 4
November 1999, Week 3
November 1999, Week 2
November 1999, Week 1
October 1999, Week 5
October 1999, Week 4
October 1999, Week 3
October 1999, Week 2
October 1999, Week 1
September 1999, Week 5
September 1999, Week 4
September 1999, Week 3
September 1999, Week 2
September 1999, Week 1
August 1999, Week 5
August 1999, Week 4
August 1999, Week 3
August 1999, Week 2
August 1999, Week 1
July 1999, Week 5
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July 1999, Week 1
June 1999, Week 5
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June 1999, Week 1
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May 1999, Week 1
April 1999, Week 5
April 1999, Week 4
April 1999, Week 3
April 1999, Week 2
April 1999, Week 1
March 1999, Week 5
March 1999, Week 4
March 1999, Week 3
March 1999, Week 2
March 1999, Week 1
February 1999, Week 5
February 1999, Week 4
February 1999, Week 3
February 1999, Week 2
February 1999, Week 1
January 1999, Week 5
January 1999, Week 4
January 1999, Week 3
January 1999, Week 2
January 1999, Week 1
December 1998, Week 5
December 1998, Week 4
December 1998, Week 3
December 1998, Week 2
December 1998, Week 1
November 1998, Week 5
November 1998, Week 4
November 1998, Week 3
November 1998, Week 2
November 1998, Week 1
October 1998, Week 5
October 1998, Week 4
October 1998, Week 3
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October 1998, Week 1
September 1998, Week 5
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August 1998, Week 1
July 1998, Week 5
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July 1998, Week 3
July 1998, Week 2
July 1998, Week 1
June 1998, Week 5
June 1998, Week 4
June 1998, Week 3
June 1998, Week 2
June 1998, Week 1
May 1998, Week 5
May 1998, Week 4
May 1998, Week 3
May 1998, Week 2
May 1998, Week 1
April 1998, Week 5
April 1998, Week 4
April 1998, Week 3
April 1998, Week 2
April 1998, Week 1
March 1998, Week 5
March 1998, Week 4
March 1998, Week 3
March 1998, Week 2
March 1998, Week 1
February 1998, Week 5
February 1998, Week 4
February 1998, Week 3
February 1998, Week 2
February 1998, Week 1
January 1998, Week 5
January 1998, Week 4
January 1998, Week 3
January 1998, Week 2
January 1998, Week 1
December 1997, Week 5
December 1997, Week 4
December 1997, Week 3
December 1997, Week 2
December 1997, Week 1
November 1997, Week 5
November 1997, Week 4
November 1997, Week 3
November 1997, Week 2
November 1997, Week 1
October 1997, Week 5
October 1997, Week 4
October 1997, Week 3
October 1997, Week 2
October 1997, Week 1
September 1997, Week 5
September 1997, Week 4
September 1997, Week 3
September 1997, Week 2
September 1997, Week 1
August 1997, Week 5
August 1997, Week 4
August 1997, Week 3
August 1997, Week 2
August 1997, Week 1
July 1997, Week 5
July 1997, Week 4
July 1997, Week 3
July 1997, Week 2
July 1997, Week 1
June 1997, Week 5
June 1997, Week 4
June 1997, Week 3
June 1997, Week 2
June 1997, Week 1
May 1997, Week 5
May 1997, Week 4
May 1997, Week 3
May 1997, Week 2
May 1997, Week 1
April 1997, Week 5
April 1997, Week 4
April 1997, Week 3
April 1997, Week 2
April 1997, Week 1
March 1997, Week 5
March 1997, Week 4
March 1997, Week 3
March 1997, Week 2
March 1997, Week 1
February 1997, Week 5
February 1997, Week 4
February 1997, Week 3
February 1997, Week 2
February 1997, Week 1

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