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AUXLANG  March 2008, Week 4

AUXLANG March 2008, Week 4

Subject:

Re: What the average newspaper reader in the UK....

From:

Antony Alexander <[log in to unmask]>

Reply-To:

International Auxiliary Languages <[log in to unmask]>

Date:

Sat, 22 Mar 2008 13:46:18 -0400

Content-Type:

text/plain

Parts/Attachments:

Parts/Attachments

text/plain (118 lines)

steve rice <[log in to unmask]> wrote, Wed, 19 Mar 2008 22:02:15 -0700

> What I'd like to know is where the multi-source
> pidgins are. As a rule, pidgins arise from contact
> between two languages. There may be other influences,
> but they are minor, such as the dozen or so
> French-derived words in Bislama.

This seems to be a moot point, and I haven’t come 
across a definitive answer one way or the other. 
It’s difficult to judge because pidgins have long been 
a historic phenomenon. Today the political and 
commercial elites in all corners of the world launch 
their offspring straight into a major language - 
probably English. In twenty years it might be Putonghua.

However, I incline to the opinion expressed by 
Keith Whinnon and others that pidgins usually 
required at least three languages to form. Pidgins 
formed between two languages tended to be makeshift 
and unstable, with little reason for keeping them going. 
Anyway, it’s notable that such pidgins - as between 
British and Chinese in the Treaty Ports - normally 
failed to endure. They were probably little more 
than jargons anyway.

The great advantage of two or more substrate 
languages being involved was that when the 
merchant adventurers temporarily departed 
there was some reason for keeping the pidgin 
going in the meantime. For instance, when the 
Portuguese traded down the coast of West Africa 
they encountered different tribes with non-cognate 
languages. These tribes therefore found in the 
pidgin the beginning of an IAL between themselves.
Another consideration is that a pidgin between 
three or more languages was inherently more 
difficult. More effort had to be put into it, with 
more restructuring probably required, so the 
result was more durable. 


> Suppose we start with Anglo-Mandarin. Only after we
> have a stable pidgin can we even consider another
> combination, perhaps with Arabic or Hindi. I'm not
> sure how long all this would take or how many
> combinations would be needed to satisfy everyone, but
> it's the obvious way to produce a global pidgin.

You’ve brought this idea up before. Sorry but I 
don’t rate it any more than I did previously. What 
you are talking about is a multitude of bilateral “pidgins”. 
Do we go directly to a global pidgin from there - or via 
“pidgins between pidgins”? 

No, I can’t see it happening that way. Globalisation is a 
fact already. The ether is constantly buzzing with electronic 
communications zipping to every corner of the world 
via satellite or landline. Much of this is business related: 
knowledge and capital flashing to wherever it can make 
the greatest return. Yesterday it was in Angola and Sierra Leone, 
today it is in Vietnam and Colombia, tomorrow it may 
be in Myanmar, North Korea and Cuba. Similarly the 
advertising and propaganda industries are now truly 
worldwide. Apart from anything else, who has now got 
time to learn more than one IAL?  

 
>> >                           - and all the more so if
>> a
>> > pidgin origin for English and other languages is
>> accepted.
>> 
>> Again, irrelevant.  (And there are disputes about
>> whether Middle
>> English was really a pidgin, as some people seem to
>> think.)

> I knew a professor who made that claim in the 80s, and
> I never found it convincing. There is a relatively
> unbroken textual line for English, and it simply
> doesn't show signs of pidginization. Middle English
> would've looked very different otherwise.

Whatever it was, something quite radical evidently 
happened in a relatively short time period. By the 
11th Century the inflections -a, -e, -u, -an, and -en 
in unstressed syllables, had been reduced to -e in 
most dialects, with corresponding emphasis on a 
fixed word order. Eventually this final -e was dropped 
too. Among other changes, four cases became two 
(nominative and genitive) and three genders became 
one. The argument for Viking influence seems to be 
that the loss of inflections started in the North East 
and then gradually spread to other parts of the country. 
Others have suggested intermarriage between Norman 
soldiers and Saxon women as a cause. Perhaps all such 
influences counted.

http://www.chass.utoronto.ca/~cpercy/courses/6361ryan.htm

Maybe pidginisation is the wrong word, and what 
actually happened was the development of a stripped-down 
vernacular from basilect speech. So long as “Englisc” 
was regarded as lower-class, and the ruling classes 
spoke Latin and/or French, that could probably happen. 
However, the Simplified Spelling Society had no chance 
by the time English had become the language of the 
upper classes (the “shibboleth effect”) and a great empire.

If a great world language could start from a stripped-down
basilect once - maybe it could happen again? A global
core vocabulary of mundane (though not crude) words
within a limited phonology might be a start....


Antony Alexander    http://langx.org

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