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CONLANG  August 2008, Week 2

CONLANG August 2008, Week 2

Subject:

Re: Linguistic term for ease of changing word-class (was: 'out-' affix in conlangs?)

From:

Benct Philip Jonsson <[log in to unmask]>

Reply-To:

Constructed Languages List <[log in to unmask]>

Date:

Mon, 11 Aug 2008 14:04:29 +0200

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Plura commentaria in uno voluta!

Från: Alex Fink <[log in to unmask]>

 >
 > On Fri, 8 Aug 2008 20:14:05 +0200, M. Czapp
 > <[log in to unmask]> wrote:
 >
 >>>*HIJACK: Is there a better linguistic term for
 >>>the ease with which you can change whether a
 >>>word is a noun, adjective or a verb? The best
 >>>example for weak typing (easy/implicite
 >>>changes) might be Esperanto, German is of the
 >>>languages I know the one with the most
 >>>problematic 'typecasts.
 >
 > Talk of casting tends to make me leery, for the
 > way it seems to make the background assumption
 > that given any two data types there should be
 > exactly one function between them of such
 > paramouncy that it makes sense to elevate it
 > above all others and crown it the Cast between
 > those two types. For some type-pairs I buy this
 > (smaller to larger floating point types, say);
 > mostly not.

Talk of too strict disambiguity in language, at
least naturalistic (qua natural human language-
like) language as opposed to computer language or
the most ivory-towered loglang, makes me leery.
Ambiguity, fuzziness and under-specification are
as much a feature of natural language as is
redundancy! The reason of course is that any
ambiguity at some level (lexical, morphological or
syntactic) will be resolved by context at another
level, or as the last resort by the recipient's
knowledge of the world. Moreover the canonical
communicative situation is not reading a book but
a conversation (be it face-to-face or by email)
and in a conversation the interlocutors can always
ask/clarify if they don't or seem not to get the
intended meaning.

This said vague casting in an interlingua (be it
an auxlang or a translation interlingua) which may
be primarily used for non-conversational written
communication is probably a bad thing.

 > This seems as much to be true of lexical
 > categories as computerish data types. So in
 > Esperanto the "casts" to adjectives are in fact
 > ambiguous between roughly "pertaining to X" and
 > "having lots of X" or perhaps other things yet:
 > _suna_ 'solar' or 'sunny'; _denta_ 'dental' or
 > 'toothy'. Not to mention the whole _broso_ vs.
 > _kombo, kombilo_ thing ('brush'; 'act of
 > combing', 'comb'). Basically, you simply need to
 > specify more for a derivational operation than
 > e.g. "converts nouns to verbs".

The best thing is to do as natlangs do: allow the
sender to be either vague or precise as they see
fit. The problem with natlangs is of course that
the "types" for which they offer precision are
often randomly 'selected' and not nearly
'exhaustive' (note the scare-quotes!) Also it
should be noted that natlangs not *always* offer
vagueness, such as the possibility not to choose
between "dental" and "toothy", unless it be the
genitive "of teeth". In the days when I was
actually reading and writing Esperanto (some 20
years ago now) i often felt that adjectivization
('casting to adjective') and the _de_ genitive
often overlapped semantically. My hunch is that
this is less the case in natlangs, i.e. natlang
adjectives are usually stronger 'typed', as
exemplified by "dental" and "toothy" as opposed to
"of teeth" in English (apart from the fact that
"of teeth" also can mean 'made of teeth', but that
is because "of" has two meanings or, as some would
put it, there are two different "of"s.

 > Anyway, to get back to your original question, I
 > don't know of any such terminology pertaining to
 > changing word class in particular. One could
 > just talk of the general propensity for
 > derivation -- some langs might be rich in
 > productive derivational morphology, others poor.

Why should there be a single (presumably Graeco-
Latinate) term for 'word class changing' any more
than there is for 'valency changing'? -- although
there is "applicative" for 'focus changing'!

 > At the extreme, I suppose, you might have a
 > language where one of these categories (e.g.
 > verbs, or adjectives, I think I've read of cases
 > of both) is a _closed class_, i.e. you can
 > simply never make any more of them, whether by
 > derivation or borrowing or some other means.

Basque comes to mind as a language where finite
verbs are a closed class. I guess one could
analyse Esperanto so that there is only one noun
_o_ and one adjective _a_ which compound with
different verb roots to form the syntactic
equivalent of nouns and adjectives in most
natlangs, or rather such a usage would be possible
under the minimalistic codified grammar of
Esperanto, but does not agree with actual usage,
which is much more influenced by (European)
natlangs, so that in practice some roots are
nominal or adjectival rather than verbal.

Från: Jim Henry <[log in to unmask]>

 > On Fri, Aug 8, 2008 at 5:23 PM, Alex Fink
 > <[log in to unmask]> wrote:
 >
 >>> On Fri, 8 Aug 2008 20:14:05 +0200, M. Czapp
 >>> <[log in to unmask]> wrote:
 >
 >>>>>*HIJACK: Is there a better linguistic term
 >>>>>for the ease with which you can change
 >>>>>whether a word is a noun, adjective or a
 >>>>>verb? The best example for weak typing
 >>>>>(easy/implicite changes) might be Esperanto,
 >>>>>German is of the languages I know the one
 >>>>>with the most problematic 'typecasts.
 >
 >>> This seems as much to be true of lexical
 >>> categories as computerish data types. So in
 >>> Esperanto the "casts" to adjectives are in
 >>> fact ambiguous between roughly "pertaining to
 >>> X" and "having lots of X" or perhaps other
 >>> things yet: _suna_ 'solar' or 'sunny'; _denta_
 >>> 'dental' or 'toothy'.
 >
 > Or "made of X" or "resembling, savoring of
 > X" (though there's also the more specific
 > "-eca" for that), or "for the benefit of X"
 > or "suitable for X" or "originating from
 > X"... Issues like these were why I came up
 > with the set of adjective-deriving suffixes
 > I did for gzb.

Would you mind to give a list of those suffixes?

 > Though in practice E-o adjectives derived from
 > substantial roots are not often ambiguous in
 > context, I think. Still, for practical use I
 > prefer a language where the derivations are a
 > little too vague and occasionally ambiguous to
 > one where you can't derive words easily and you
 > have to memorize apparently unrelated words for
 > closely related concepts.

Yes. If I were to design an interlingua I'd
definitely provide for both loose and strict
'typecasts' to be used at the writer's/speaker's
discretion.

 > I think the derivations in the other direction,
 > from adjective to noun or verb to noun, are much
 > less problematic (at least w.r.t. Esperanto);
 > you can be pretty confident that the basic
 > meaning of such a nominalization will be
 > "quality X in the abstract, x-ness" or "an
 > instance/act of doing X" -- though in some cases
 > 120 years of unregulated usage have given some
 > such nominalizations additional conventional
 > meanings.

Yes, that's my feeling to. Cf. what I said above
about adjectivization and genitive overlapping
semantically in Esperanto.


 >>> Not to mention the whole _broso_ vs. _kombo,
 >>> kombilo_ thing ('brush'; 'act of combing',
 >>> 'comb'). Basically, you simply need to specify
 >>> more for a derivational operation than e.g.
 >>> "converts nouns to verbs".
 >
 > Indeed it helps reduce ambiguity to do so,
 > though given how well Esperanto (and even Toki
 > Pona) work in practice, I'd hesitate to say you
 > *need* to do so. I would strongly recommend
 > doing so in an auxlang or engelang; in an alien
 > lang or more or less naturalistic artlang, do
 > whatever you like.

You don't *need*, but you probably should
provide the possibility, which both Esperanto
and most natlangs provide only in a random
fashion. Ido does this much more extensively but
still randomly.

 >>> Anyway, to get back to your original question,
 >>> I don't know of any such terminology
 >>> pertaining to changing word class in
 >>> particular. One could just talk of the general
 >>> propensity for derivation -- some langs might
 >>> be rich in productive derivational morphology,
 >>> others poor.
 >
 > And of those that have productive derivational
 > morphology, some tend strongly toward zero-
 > derivation (English and Toki Pona, for
 > instance), some mark the derivations vaguely
 > (most of the derivational affixes being
 > semantically broad; Volapuk is more extreme
 > about this than Esperanto, and my understanding
 > is that Ido's derivation system is supposedly
 > one of the areas where it improves on Esperanto,
 > but it's still vaguer than an ideal engelang)
 > and some do so with rather more semantic
 > precision (Ithkuil; my gzb, I hope).

Ido at least does the right thing in that it
allows the choice between vagueness and precision,
while engelangs tend to offer only precision. This
may not be a very big problem if you are composing
an original text, but what if you're translating
from a natlang where the original expression is
vague? You'd have to choose a precise expression
which may not be 100 per cent justified by the
context in the original, but the greatest
objection is that vagueness is often stylistically
and pragmatically desirable in human comunication
just as much as precision is.

Från: Eldin Raigmore <[log in to unmask]>


 > Linguistically I think of those as "castes" or
 > as "types", not as "casts". I refer to the
 > affixes (or other operations) which change part-of-
 > speech as "typecasting" affixes or operations;
 > in programming I refer to a function whose
 > purpose is to change data-type as a
 > "typecasting" function.

How does "caste" differ from "cast" and "type" and
"word class" in your terminology? Instinctively
I'd say that "caste" may differ from "word class"
in that the former is semantically defined while
the latter is morphologically defined, but that's
just my mind trying to make sense of what to me is
an alien terminology.

 >>>This seems as much to be true of lexical
 >>>categories as computerish data types. So in
 >>>Esperanto the "casts" to adjectives are in fact
 >>>ambiguous between roughly "pertaining to X" and
 >>>"having lots of X" or perhaps other things yet:
 >>>_suna_ 'solar' or 'sunny'; _denta_ 'dental' or
 >>>'toothy'. Not to mention the whole _broso_ vs.
 >>>_kombo, kombilo_ thing ('brush'; 'act of
 >>>combing', 'comb'). Basically, you simply need
 >>>to specify more for a derivational operation
 >>>than e.g. "converts nouns to verbs".
 >
 > Yes. In strongly-typed computer languages there
 > is frequently an operation with no other
 > function than to change the data-type. In
 > natlangs, though, there are usually several
 > nouns pertaining to each verb, so several ways
 > of nominalizing it (action nominalization, agent
 > nominalization, patient nominalization, location
 > nominalization, time nominalization). There are
 > frequently also more than one ways to
 > adjectivize it (passive participle, active
 > participle, maybe realis vs irrealis participle,
 > maybe past vs future vs present participle,
 > etc.) And there may be several verbs associated
 > with a given noun, too; to use an N on, to
 > change into an N, to treat as if it were an N,
 > to give an N to, to take an N from, ....
 > Similarly, probably, for most productive
 > operations that can change one part- of-speech
 > into another. (The resulting word-class is
 > always an open one, and usually a large one; the
 > starting word-class is also usually a large,
 > open class. Other than that the only limit seems
 > to be there is frequently only one way to change
 > an adjective into an adverb (if the language has
 > both as large open word-classes and they are
 > different parts-of-speech) and may be no way to
 > change an adverb into some one or another of the
 > other word-classes.) All such operations are
 > likelier to be "derivations" than "inflections",
 > because one of the differences between
 > "derivation" and "inflection" is that
 > "inflection" usually leaves the word in the same
 > class while "derivation" frequently does not.

Has someone made a list of such types, whether
actually distinguished in natlangs or semantically
distinguishable or logically possible?


 > I know there are languages with no class of
 > adverbs distinct from their class of adjectives;

In German and the Scandinavian languages the
adverbal derivation coincides with the neuter
nominative singular of the adjective (which
happens to be a zero morpheme in German but not in
Scandinavian). What about Dutch. English is
actually quite strange in having made the Old
English adverbial ending _-lice_ (actually the
dative of the adjectival ending _-lic_! :-) not
only very productive but practically required.

 > but aren't many "semantic cases" (that is, cases
 > other than "syntactic cases", that show
 > something other than the "grammatical relations"
 > of Subject, Object, or Indirect Object) also
 > "adverbial cases"? Isn't a noun in a case other
 > than Nominative, Accusative, Dative, or
 > Genitive, essentially an adverb? So, the
 > "changing of a noun into an adverb" is likely to
 > be fairly "easy" -- highly productive -- in most
 > languages with a robust case system, right? And
 > Genitive, in those languages that have one, is
 > essentially a way of changing a noun into an
 > adjective, isn't it?


You are definitely on to something here -- cf.
what I said about semantic overlap between
adjectivization and genitive in Esperanto.

At least in inflecting languages the difference
would seem to be that an adjective is a derivation
(possibly zero-derived from a root) and as such
may be inflected (for case, number, gender...)
while a genitive is an inflection and as such not
further modifiable.

Från: Eldin Raigmore <[log in to unmask]>

Datum: Sun, 10 Aug
 > 2008 13:55:51 -0400 Till:
 > [log in to unmask]
 >
 > BTW I once read a scholarly book by a true
 > professional linguist on the ease of forming new
 > words of one class from words of another class.
 > I forget the title of the book and the name of
 > the book's author (though I still have it --
 > somewhere -- ...)
 >
 > However, I remember it said (among other things)
 > that in most languages (though I recall only the
 > English examples) it was particularly easy to
 > make a verb from another word-class, especially
 > from a noun. (example: "to pipe someone aboard".
 > "Pipe" was a noun; it can however be used as a
 > verb, whether transitive or intransitive, with
 > no morphology having been done on it at all -- a
 > kind of "zero-derivation".)
 >
 > I can quote two other writers on the subject,
 > however; "Verbing weirds language." (Calvin &
 > Hobbes).

Actually only Calvin. This was one of the
instances when Hobbes was just a bemused
spectator.

 >
 > Note that the noun "verb" becomes (via "zero-
 > derivation") the verb "verb" which is
 > morphologically altered to the action-nominal
 > "verbing". Note that the adjective "weird" is
 > zero-derived into the verb "weird".
 >
 > Also note that originally -- back in the mists
 > of English etymology -- "weird" was a noun. But
 > in more modern English it has become an
 > adjective.

What really bemuses me is that Calvin didn't
analyse "weird" as the past participle of a verb
"weir", illiterate as he presumably is...


Från: ROGER MILLS <[log in to unmask]>

 > Eldin Raigmore wrote:
 >>
 >> BTW I once read a scholarly book by a true
 >> professional linguist on the ease of forming
 >> new words of one class from words of another
 >> class. I forget the title of the book and the
 >> name of the book's author (though I still have
 >> it -- somewhere -- ...)
 >
 > Even after almost 20 years in this house, I
 > still have boxes of books in storage. Aargh.

I know the feeling. Nine years after my son
started to tear books out of the shelves and tear
them apart so that we had to move them out of
harm's way everything is still in a mess. Not to
mention all the library loans that I never made
proper notes off/from!

 >> However, I remember it said (among other
 >> things) that in most languages...
 >
 > I'd question that "most"!!

Me too. Even AFMOC only two out of an odd dozen
practice zero derivation.

 >> ...(though I recall only the English examples)
 >> it was particularly easy to make a verb from
 >> another word-class, especially from a noun.
 >> (example: "to pipe someone aboard". "Pipe" was
 >> a noun; it can however be used as a verb,
 >> whether transitive or intransitive, with no
 >> morphology having been done on it at all -- a
 >> kind of "zero-derivation".)
 >
 > This seems to be a peculiar ability of English,

Agreed. A function of the fact that English nouns,
adjectives and verbs have so little morphology.

 > and I think it can be a pretty random process.

How so. Purist notwithstanding pretty much any
word in English can be zero-derived into another
word-class, especially verbed.

 > There are of course cases like (vb.)
 > projéct, (n.) próject, and genuine cases of
 > zero-derivation like love (n or vb.). Your
 > pipe example, of course, refers to the little
 > whistle-thingy used in the Navy (I think
 > Brits can use it for bagpiping too) so is a
 > highly specific case.
 >
 > But yes, English can do this easily. Note also
 > "welcome" as interjection, noun, verb or
 > adjective.
 >
 > William Safire, in his NYT column, likes to
 > point out horrors like "surveillance : to
 > surveille" or "liaison : to liase", not quite in
 > the same category but close. Also, purists
 > dislike "fínance" replacing the old distinction
 > finánce : fínance (not sure which is the
 > verb/noun, though it was drilled into me once
 > upon a time :-(( ).

I loathe such purist dislike. Backformation and
zero-derivation are signs that English has made a
word its own, detached from its Latin, Greek,
Romance or whatever origin. Unsophisticated
speakers do it all the time, while the sophists
stand there as the guardians of words' allegiance
to foreign, often dead languages. I feel much the
same WRT borrowing of English verbs into Swedish
FWIW. There was a time when purists demanded that
Latin words borrowed into German, Icelandic or
Swedish (then still a case language) should be
inflected with Latin endings (e.g. "Meinen Jesum
lasse ich nicht"). What Mr Safire and others are
doing is the same thing applied to derivation.

 > Indonesian can have zero-derivation in
 > colloquial speech-- surat can mean 'to write'
 > or 'a letter', cinta 'love' can be noun or
 > verb; but correctly, when used as verbs there
 > ought to be a verbal prefix... I really suspect
 > not many languages can do this as readily as
 > English does. (German/Dutch and Romance lgs.
 > come to mind).

Swedish certainly can't. In order to use a word as
a verb you have to put a verbal ending on it, and
only the closed class of strong verbs have any
zero endings within their paradigm.

 > Sort of OT, but relevant to the question about
 > Basque verbs-- IIRC the verbs that have their
 > own synthetic conjugation (i.e. without the
 > usual person+tense aux.) are a small and closed
 > class, I think mostly intransitive. There's
 > another productive (I think) class formed from
 > NOUN + 'to do/make' (egin?); one that has stuck
 > in my mind is 'to sneeze' (sneeze + egin? +
 > aux). (My Basque grammar is one of the books in
 > storage.......)

The Semitic component of Yiddish vocabulary works
similarly IIRC, using a Semitic verbal noun + a
Germanic verb like 'be, have, do' rather than
tacking Germanic endings to Semitic verbs.

/BP 8^)>
--
Benct Philip Jonsson -- melroch atte melroch dotte se
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
  "C'est en vain que nos Josués littéraires crient
  à la langue de s'arrêter; les langues ni le soleil
  ne s'arrêtent plus. Le jour où elles se *fixent*,
  c'est qu'elles meurent." (Victor Hugo)

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August 2015, Week 3
August 2015, Week 2
August 2015, Week 1
July 2015, Week 5
July 2015, Week 4
July 2015, Week 3
July 2015, Week 2
July 2015, Week 1
June 2015, Week 5
June 2015, Week 4
June 2015, Week 3
June 2015, Week 2
June 2015, Week 1
May 2015, Week 5
May 2015, Week 4
May 2015, Week 3
May 2015, Week 2
May 2015, Week 1
April 2015, Week 5
April 2015, Week 4
April 2015, Week 3
April 2015, Week 2
April 2015, Week 1
March 2015, Week 5
March 2015, Week 4
March 2015, Week 3
March 2015, Week 2
March 2015, Week 1
February 2015, Week 4
February 2015, Week 3
February 2015, Week 2
February 2015, Week 1
January 2015, Week 5
January 2015, Week 4
January 2015, Week 3
January 2015, Week 2
January 2015, Week 1
December 2014, Week 5
December 2014, Week 4
December 2014, Week 3
December 2014, Week 2
December 2014, Week 1
November 2014, Week 5
November 2014, Week 4
November 2014, Week 3
November 2014, Week 2
November 2014, Week 1
October 2014, Week 5
October 2014, Week 4
October 2014, Week 3
October 2014, Week 2
October 2014, Week 1
September 2014, Week 5
September 2014, Week 4
September 2014, Week 3
September 2014, Week 2
September 2014, Week 1
August 2014, Week 5
August 2014, Week 4
August 2014, Week 3
August 2014, Week 2
August 2014, Week 1
July 2014, Week 5
July 2014, Week 4
July 2014, Week 3
July 2014, Week 2
July 2014, Week 1
June 2014, Week 5
June 2014, Week 4
June 2014, Week 3
June 2014, Week 2
June 2014, Week 1
May 2014, Week 5
May 2014, Week 4
May 2014, Week 3
May 2014, Week 2
May 2014, Week 1
April 2014, Week 5
April 2014, Week 4
April 2014, Week 3
April 2014, Week 2
April 2014, Week 1
March 2014, Week 5
March 2014, Week 4
March 2014, Week 3
March 2014, Week 2
March 2014, Week 1
February 2014, Week 4
February 2014, Week 3
February 2014, Week 2
February 2014, Week 1
January 2014, Week 5
January 2014, Week 4
January 2014, Week 3
January 2014, Week 2
January 2014, Week 1
December 2013, Week 5
December 2013, Week 4
December 2013, Week 3
December 2013, Week 2
December 2013, Week 1
November 2013, Week 5
November 2013, Week 4
November 2013, Week 3
November 2013, Week 2
November 2013, Week 1
October 2013, Week 5
October 2013, Week 4
October 2013, Week 3
October 2013, Week 2
October 2013, Week 1
September 2013, Week 5
September 2013, Week 4
September 2013, Week 3
September 2013, Week 2
September 2013, Week 1
August 2013, Week 5
August 2013, Week 4
August 2013, Week 3
August 2013, Week 2
August 2013, Week 1
July 2013, Week 5
July 2013, Week 4
July 2013, Week 3
July 2013, Week 2
July 2013, Week 1
June 2013, Week 5
June 2013, Week 4
June 2013, Week 3
June 2013, Week 2
June 2013, Week 1
May 2013, Week 5
May 2013, Week 4
May 2013, Week 3
May 2013, Week 2
May 2013, Week 1
April 2013, Week 5
April 2013, Week 4
April 2013, Week 3
April 2013, Week 2
April 2013, Week 1
March 2013, Week 5
March 2013, Week 4
March 2013, Week 3
March 2013, Week 2
March 2013, Week 1
February 2013, Week 4
February 2013, Week 3
February 2013, Week 2
February 2013, Week 1
January 2013, Week 5
January 2013, Week 4
January 2013, Week 3
January 2013, Week 2
January 2013, Week 1
December 2012, Week 5
December 2012, Week 4
December 2012, Week 3
December 2012, Week 2
December 2012, Week 1
November 2012, Week 5
November 2012, Week 4
November 2012, Week 3
November 2012, Week 2
November 2012, Week 1
October 2012, Week 5
October 2012, Week 4
October 2012, Week 3
October 2012, Week 2
October 2012, Week 1
September 2012, Week 5
September 2012, Week 4
September 2012, Week 3
September 2012, Week 2
September 2012, Week 1
August 2012, Week 5
August 2012, Week 4
August 2012, Week 3
August 2012, Week 2
August 2012, Week 1
July 2012, Week 5
July 2012, Week 4
July 2012, Week 3
July 2012, Week 2
July 2012, Week 1
June 2012, Week 5
June 2012, Week 4
June 2012, Week 3
June 2012, Week 2
June 2012, Week 1
May 2012, Week 5
May 2012, Week 4
May 2012, Week 3
May 2012, Week 2
May 2012, Week 1
April 2012, Week 5
April 2012, Week 4
April 2012, Week 3
April 2012, Week 2
April 2012, Week 1
March 2012, Week 5
March 2012, Week 4
March 2012, Week 3
March 2012, Week 2
March 2012, Week 1
February 2012, Week 5
February 2012, Week 4
February 2012, Week 3
February 2012, Week 2
February 2012, Week 1
January 2012, Week 5
January 2012, Week 4
January 2012, Week 3
January 2012, Week 2
January 2012, Week 1
December 2011, Week 5
December 2011, Week 4
December 2011, Week 3
December 2011, Week 2
December 2011, Week 1
November 2011, Week 5
November 2011, Week 4
November 2011, Week 3
November 2011, Week 2
November 2011, Week 1
October 2011, Week 5
October 2011, Week 4
October 2011, Week 3
October 2011, Week 2
October 2011, Week 1
September 2011, Week 5
September 2011, Week 4
September 2011, Week 3
September 2011, Week 2
September 2011, Week 1
August 2011, Week 5
August 2011, Week 4
August 2011, Week 3
August 2011, Week 2
August 2011, Week 1
July 2011, Week 5
July 2011, Week 4
July 2011, Week 3
July 2011, Week 2
July 2011, Week 1
June 2011, Week 5
June 2011, Week 4
June 2011, Week 3
June 2011, Week 2
June 2011, Week 1
May 2011, Week 5
May 2011, Week 4
May 2011, Week 3
May 2011, Week 2
May 2011, Week 1
April 2011, Week 5
April 2011, Week 4
April 2011, Week 3
April 2011, Week 2
April 2011, Week 1
March 2011, Week 5
March 2011, Week 4
March 2011, Week 3
March 2011, Week 2
March 2011, Week 1
February 2011, Week 4
February 2011, Week 3
February 2011, Week 2
February 2011, Week 1
January 2011, Week 5
January 2011, Week 4
January 2011, Week 3
January 2011, Week 2
January 2011, Week 1
December 2010, Week 5
December 2010, Week 4
December 2010, Week 3
December 2010, Week 2
December 2010, Week 1
November 2010, Week 5
November 2010, Week 4
November 2010, Week 3
November 2010, Week 2
November 2010, Week 1
October 2010, Week 5
October 2010, Week 4
October 2010, Week 3
October 2010, Week 2
October 2010, Week 1
September 2010, Week 5
September 2010, Week 4
September 2010, Week 3
September 2010, Week 2
September 2010, Week 1
August 2010, Week 5
August 2010, Week 4
August 2010, Week 3
August 2010, Week 2
August 2010, Week 1
July 2010, Week 5
July 2010, Week 4
July 2010, Week 3
July 2010, Week 2
July 2010, Week 1
June 2010, Week 5
June 2010, Week 4
June 2010, Week 3
June 2010, Week 2
June 2010, Week 1
May 2010, Week 5
May 2010, Week 4
May 2010, Week 3
May 2010, Week 2
May 2010, Week 1
April 2010, Week 5
April 2010, Week 4
April 2010, Week 3
April 2010, Week 2
April 2010, Week 1
March 2010, Week 5
March 2010, Week 4
March 2010, Week 3
March 2010, Week 2
March 2010, Week 1
February 2010, Week 4
February 2010, Week 3
February 2010, Week 2
February 2010, Week 1
January 2010, Week 5
January 2010, Week 4
January 2010, Week 3
January 2010, Week 2
January 2010, Week 1
December 2009, Week 5
December 2009, Week 4
December 2009, Week 3
December 2009, Week 2
December 2009, Week 1
November 2009, Week 5
November 2009, Week 4
November 2009, Week 3
November 2009, Week 2
November 2009, Week 1
October 2009, Week 5
October 2009, Week 4
October 2009, Week 3
October 2009, Week 2
October 2009, Week 1
September 2009, Week 5
September 2009, Week 4
September 2009, Week 3
September 2009, Week 2
September 2009, Week 1
August 2009, Week 5
August 2009, Week 4
August 2009, Week 3
August 2009, Week 2
August 2009, Week 1
July 2009, Week 5
July 2009, Week 4
July 2009, Week 3
July 2009, Week 2
July 2009, Week 1
June 2009, Week 5
June 2009, Week 4
June 2009, Week 3
June 2009, Week 2
June 2009, Week 1
May 2009, Week 5
May 2009, Week 4
May 2009, Week 3
May 2009, Week 2
May 2009, Week 1
April 2009, Week 5
April 2009, Week 4
April 2009, Week 3
April 2009, Week 2
April 2009, Week 1
March 2009, Week 5
March 2009, Week 4
March 2009, Week 3
March 2009, Week 2
March 2009, Week 1
February 2009, Week 4
February 2009, Week 3
February 2009, Week 2
February 2009, Week 1
January 2009, Week 5
January 2009, Week 4
January 2009, Week 3
January 2009, Week 2
January 2009, Week 1
December 2008, Week 5
December 2008, Week 4
December 2008, Week 3
December 2008, Week 2
December 2008, Week 1
November 2008, Week 5
November 2008, Week 4
November 2008, Week 3
November 2008, Week 2
November 2008, Week 1
October 2008, Week 5
October 2008, Week 4
October 2008, Week 3
October 2008, Week 2
October 2008, Week 1
September 2008, Week 5
September 2008, Week 4
September 2008, Week 3
September 2008, Week 2
September 2008, Week 1
August 2008, Week 5
August 2008, Week 4
August 2008, Week 3
August 2008, Week 2
August 2008, Week 1
July 2008, Week 5
July 2008, Week 4
July 2008, Week 3
July 2008, Week 2
July 2008, Week 1
June 2008, Week 5
June 2008, Week 4
June 2008, Week 3
June 2008, Week 2
June 2008, Week 1
May 2008, Week 5
May 2008, Week 4
May 2008, Week 3
May 2008, Week 2
May 2008, Week 1
April 2008, Week 5
April 2008, Week 4
April 2008, Week 3
April 2008, Week 2
April 2008, Week 1
March 2008, Week 5
March 2008, Week 4
March 2008, Week 3
March 2008, Week 2
March 2008, Week 1
February 2008, Week 5
February 2008, Week 4
February 2008, Week 3
February 2008, Week 2
February 2008, Week 1
January 2008, Week 5
January 2008, Week 4
January 2008, Week 3
January 2008, Week 2
January 2008, Week 1
December 2007, Week 5
December 2007, Week 4
December 2007, Week 3
December 2007, Week 2
December 2007, Week 1
November 2007, Week 5
November 2007, Week 4
November 2007, Week 3
November 2007, Week 2
November 2007, Week 1
October 2007, Week 5
October 2007, Week 4
October 2007, Week 3
October 2007, Week 2
October 2007, Week 1
September 2007, Week 5
September 2007, Week 4
September 2007, Week 3
September 2007, Week 2
September 2007, Week 1
August 2007, Week 5
August 2007, Week 4
August 2007, Week 3
August 2007, Week 2
August 2007, Week 1
July 2007, Week 5
July 2007, Week 4
July 2007, Week 3
July 2007, Week 2
July 2007, Week 1
June 2007, Week 5
June 2007, Week 4
June 2007, Week 3
June 2007, Week 2
June 2007, Week 1
May 2007, Week 5
May 2007, Week 4
May 2007, Week 3
May 2007, Week 2
May 2007, Week 1
April 2007, Week 5
April 2007, Week 4
April 2007, Week 3
April 2007, Week 2
April 2007, Week 1
March 2007, Week 5
March 2007, Week 4
March 2007, Week 3
March 2007, Week 2
March 2007, Week 1
February 2007, Week 4
February 2007, Week 3
February 2007, Week 2
February 2007, Week 1
January 2007, Week 5
January 2007, Week 4
January 2007, Week 3
January 2007, Week 2
January 2007, Week 1
December 2006, Week 5
December 2006, Week 4
December 2006, Week 3
December 2006, Week 2
December 2006, Week 1
November 2006, Week 5
November 2006, Week 4
November 2006, Week 3
November 2006, Week 2
November 2006, Week 1
October 2006, Week 5
October 2006, Week 4
October 2006, Week 3
October 2006, Week 2
October 2006, Week 1
September 2006, Week 5
September 2006, Week 4
September 2006, Week 3
September 2006, Week 2
September 2006, Week 1
August 2006, Week 5
August 2006, Week 4
August 2006, Week 3
August 2006, Week 2
August 2006, Week 1
July 2006, Week 5
July 2006, Week 4
July 2006, Week 3
July 2006, Week 2
July 2006, Week 1
June 2006, Week 5
June 2006, Week 4
June 2006, Week 3
June 2006, Week 2
June 2006, Week 1
May 2006, Week 5
May 2006, Week 4
May 2006, Week 3
May 2006, Week 2
May 2006, Week 1
April 2006, Week 5
April 2006, Week 4
April 2006, Week 3
April 2006, Week 2
April 2006, Week 1
March 2006, Week 5
March 2006, Week 4
March 2006, Week 3
March 2006, Week 2
March 2006, Week 1
February 2006, Week 4
February 2006, Week 3
February 2006, Week 2
February 2006, Week 1
January 2006, Week 5
January 2006, Week 4
January 2006, Week 3
January 2006, Week 2
January 2006, Week 1
December 2005, Week 5
December 2005, Week 4
December 2005, Week 3
December 2005, Week 2
December 2005, Week 1
November 2005, Week 5
November 2005, Week 4
November 2005, Week 3
November 2005, Week 2
November 2005, Week 1
October 2005, Week 5
October 2005, Week 4
October 2005, Week 3
October 2005, Week 2
October 2005, Week 1
September 2005, Week 5
September 2005, Week 4
September 2005, Week 3
September 2005, Week 2
September 2005, Week 1
August 2005, Week 5
August 2005, Week 4
August 2005, Week 3
August 2005, Week 2
August 2005, Week 1
July 2005, Week 5
July 2005, Week 4
July 2005, Week 3
July 2005, Week 2
July 2005, Week 1
June 2005, Week 5
June 2005, Week 4
June 2005, Week 3
June 2005, Week 2
June 2005, Week 1
May 2005, Week 5
May 2005, Week 4
May 2005, Week 3
May 2005, Week 2
May 2005, Week 1
April 2005, Week 5
April 2005, Week 4
April 2005, Week 3
April 2005, Week 2
April 2005, Week 1
March 2005, Week 5
March 2005, Week 4
March 2005, Week 3
March 2005, Week 2
March 2005, Week 1
February 2005, Week 4
February 2005, Week 3
February 2005, Week 2
February 2005, Week 1
January 2005, Week 5
January 2005, Week 4
January 2005, Week 3
January 2005, Week 2
January 2005, Week 1
December 2004, Week 5
December 2004, Week 4
December 2004, Week 3
December 2004, Week 2
December 2004, Week 1
November 2004, Week 5
November 2004, Week 4
November 2004, Week 3
November 2004, Week 2
November 2004, Week 1
October 2004, Week 5
October 2004, Week 4
October 2004, Week 3
October 2004, Week 2
October 2004, Week 1
September 2004, Week 5
September 2004, Week 4
September 2004, Week 3
September 2004, Week 2
September 2004, Week 1
August 2004, Week 5
August 2004, Week 4
August 2004, Week 3
August 2004, Week 2
August 2004, Week 1
July 2004, Week 5
July 2004, Week 4
July 2004, Week 3
July 2004, Week 2
July 2004, Week 1
June 2004, Week 5
June 2004, Week 4
June 2004, Week 3
June 2004, Week 2
June 2004, Week 1
May 2004, Week 5
May 2004, Week 4
May 2004, Week 3
May 2004, Week 2
May 2004, Week 1
April 2004, Week 5
April 2004, Week 4
April 2004, Week 3
April 2004, Week 2
April 2004, Week 1
March 2004, Week 5
March 2004, Week 4
March 2004, Week 3
March 2004, Week 2
March 2004, Week 1
February 2004, Week 5
February 2004, Week 4
February 2004, Week 3
February 2004, Week 2
February 2004, Week 1
January 2004, Week 5
January 2004, Week 4
January 2004, Week 3
January 2004, Week 2
January 2004, Week 1
December 2003, Week 5
December 2003, Week 4
December 2003, Week 3
December 2003, Week 2
December 2003, Week 1
November 2003, Week 5
November 2003, Week 4
November 2003, Week 3
November 2003, Week 2
November 2003, Week 1
October 2003, Week 5
October 2003, Week 4
October 2003, Week 3
October 2003, Week 2
October 2003, Week 1
September 2003, Week 5
September 2003, Week 4
September 2003, Week 3
September 2003, Week 2
September 2003, Week 1
August 2003, Week 5
August 2003, Week 4
August 2003, Week 3
August 2003, Week 2
August 2003, Week 1
July 2003, Week 5
July 2003, Week 4
July 2003, Week 3
July 2003, Week 2
July 2003, Week 1
June 2003, Week 5
June 2003, Week 4
June 2003, Week 3
June 2003, Week 2
June 2003, Week 1
May 2003, Week 5
May 2003, Week 4
May 2003, Week 3
May 2003, Week 2
May 2003, Week 1
April 2003, Week 5
April 2003, Week 4
April 2003, Week 3
April 2003, Week 2
April 2003, Week 1
March 2003, Week 5
March 2003, Week 4
March 2003, Week 3
March 2003, Week 2
March 2003, Week 1
February 2003, Week 4
February 2003, Week 3
February 2003, Week 2
February 2003, Week 1
January 2003, Week 5
January 2003, Week 4
January 2003, Week 3
January 2003, Week 2
January 2003, Week 1
December 2002, Week 5
December 2002, Week 4
December 2002, Week 3
December 2002, Week 2
December 2002, Week 1
November 2002, Week 5
November 2002, Week 4
November 2002, Week 3
November 2002, Week 2
November 2002, Week 1
October 2002, Week 5
October 2002, Week 4
October 2002, Week 3
October 2002, Week 2
October 2002, Week 1
September 2002, Week 5
September 2002, Week 4
September 2002, Week 3
September 2002, Week 2
September 2002, Week 1
August 2002, Week 5
August 2002, Week 4
August 2002, Week 3
August 2002, Week 2
August 2002, Week 1
July 2002, Week 5
July 2002, Week 4
July 2002, Week 3
July 2002, Week 2
July 2002, Week 1
June 2002, Week 5
June 2002, Week 4
June 2002, Week 3
June 2002, Week 2
June 2002, Week 1
May 2002, Week 5
May 2002, Week 4
May 2002, Week 3
May 2002, Week 2
May 2002, Week 1
April 2002, Week 5
April 2002, Week 4
April 2002, Week 3
April 2002, Week 2
April 2002, Week 1
March 2002, Week 5
March 2002, Week 4
March 2002, Week 3
March 2002, Week 2
March 2002, Week 1
February 2002, Week 4
February 2002, Week 3
February 2002, Week 2
February 2002, Week 1
January 2002, Week 5
January 2002, Week 4
January 2002, Week 3
January 2002, Week 2
January 2002, Week 1
December 2001, Week 5
December 2001, Week 4
December 2001, Week 3
December 2001, Week 2
December 2001, Week 1
November 2001, Week 5
November 2001, Week 4
November 2001, Week 3
November 2001, Week 2
November 2001, Week 1
October 2001, Week 5
October 2001, Week 4
October 2001, Week 3
October 2001, Week 2
October 2001, Week 1
September 2001, Week 5
September 2001, Week 4
September 2001, Week 3
September 2001, Week 2
September 2001, Week 1
August 2001, Week 5
August 2001, Week 4
August 2001, Week 3
August 2001, Week 2
August 2001, Week 1
July 2001, Week 5
July 2001, Week 4
July 2001, Week 3
July 2001, Week 2
July 2001, Week 1
June 2001, Week 5
June 2001, Week 4
June 2001, Week 3
June 2001, Week 2
June 2001, Week 1
May 2001, Week 5
May 2001, Week 4
May 2001, Week 3
May 2001, Week 2
May 2001, Week 1
April 2001, Week 5
April 2001, Week 4
April 2001, Week 3
April 2001, Week 2
April 2001, Week 1
March 2001, Week 5
March 2001, Week 4
March 2001, Week 3
March 2001, Week 2
March 2001, Week 1
February 2001, Week 4
February 2001, Week 3
February 2001, Week 2
February 2001, Week 1
January 2001, Week 5
January 2001, Week 4
January 2001, Week 3
January 2001, Week 2
January 2001, Week 1
December 2000, Week 5
December 2000, Week 4
December 2000, Week 3
December 2000, Week 2
December 2000, Week 1
November 2000, Week 5
November 2000, Week 4
November 2000, Week 3
November 2000, Week 2
November 2000, Week 1
October 2000, Week 5
October 2000, Week 4
October 2000, Week 3
October 2000, Week 2
October 2000, Week 1
September 2000, Week 5
September 2000, Week 4
September 2000, Week 3
September 2000, Week 2
September 2000, Week 1
August 2000, Week 5
August 2000, Week 4
August 2000, Week 3
August 2000, Week 2
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June 2000, Week 5
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June 2000, Week 3
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June 2000, Week 1
May 2000, Week 5
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May 2000, Week 1
April 2000, Week 5
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April 2000, Week 2
April 2000, Week 1
March 2000, Week 5
March 2000, Week 4
March 2000, Week 3
March 2000, Week 2
March 2000, Week 1
February 2000, Week 5
February 2000, Week 4
February 2000, Week 3
February 2000, Week 2
February 2000, Week 1
January 2000, Week 5
January 2000, Week 4
January 2000, Week 3
January 2000, Week 2
January 2000, Week 1
December 1999, Week 5
December 1999, Week 4
December 1999, Week 3
December 1999, Week 2
December 1999, Week 1
November 1999, Week 5
November 1999, Week 4
November 1999, Week 3
November 1999, Week 2
November 1999, Week 1
October 1999, Week 5
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October 1999, Week 1
September 1999, Week 5
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September 1999, Week 1
August 1999, Week 5
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December 1998, Week 5
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September 1998, Week 3

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