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CONLANG  April 2009, Week 3

CONLANG April 2009, Week 3

Subject:

stress shift (was OT: and YAEPT (I guess): Movie-actors' Accents)

From:

R A Brown <[log in to unmask]>

Reply-To:

Constructed Languages List <[log in to unmask]>

Date:

Sun, 19 Apr 2009 07:11:24 +0100

Content-Type:

text/plain

Parts/Attachments:

Parts/Attachments

text/plain (96 lines)

Eric Christopherson wrote:
> On Apr 18, 2009, at 1:10 AM, R A Brown wrote:
> 
>> Roger Mills wrote:
>>> Mark Reed wrote:
>>>> It was actually ['sIn.dZ)@n], if that helps.  I would have probably
>>>>  understood [s@n'dZan]...
>>> I suspect this is one of those strange proper name mutations that the
>>> Brits are prone to: Beaulieu ['bju:li], Cholmondeley ['tS)Vmli],
>>> Featherstonehaugh ['f&nSO]  etc.
>>
>> Correct. Also 'St.John' ['sIndZ)@n] or ['sIndZ)n=] as personal name 
>> has a aristo feel to it.
>>
>>> Surely a church called St. John
>>> would still be [s@n?'dZ)On] or something recognizable.
>>
>> It would indeed.
>>
>> "St John" when actually referring to one of the several saints of that 
>> name would be pronounced with stress on 'John' [dZ)Qn] and 'saint' 
>> unstressed & pronounced variously [sInt], [sIn?] etc according to 
>> one's regional accent, idiolect etc.
> 
> I can understand the reduction to [I], but how might it have happened 
> that the stress was moved onto the reduced vowel?

"St. John", of course, doesn't in normal British English.

The proper name St-John /'sIndZn=/ was originally, and still is, a 
surname. But over the ages many surnames have become used as forenames 
(like my own second name 'Armar'    ;)

The surname is of Norman French origin. Some St-Johns claims their 
ancestor(s) came over with William the Conqueror, but their is no record 
of this and the name is not recorded in the Doomsday Book. The surname 
is thought to have originated from St.Jean-le-Thomas in Normandy.

_St.Jean_ in Old French pronunciation would have been something like 
[s&jnt'dZA~] and would not have be recognized by monoglot English 
speakers as having anything to do with St. John. It was treated simply 
as a single name and it was normal for monoglot English to change stress 
on assimilated Norman French words to the first syllable.

So it may be asked why the name didn't become pronounced ['sejndZn=]. I 
can only assume the later pronunciation reflects the distinct tendency 
in many Brit English to shorten vowels/diphthongs in blocked syllables 
(universal education and the influence of spelling has reverse that 
trend over the past 100 years or so). The surname has been spelled in 
different ways over the centuries; the spelling _Sinjun_ has been used. 
But the etymological spelling has become the norm; in any case, as Roger 
has pointed out, the upper classes rather liked names whose 
pronunciation departs somewhat from its spelling, e.g. Cholmondeley 
['tS)Vmli], Featherstonehaugh ['f&nSO], Mainwaring ['m&n@rIN], St-John 
['sIndZn=]   :)


> And how commonly does that sort of thing happen in languages? I've 
> worked on vowel systems before where stress shift causes vowel split, e.g.:
> 1. initial system /a i u/
> 2. unstressed /i/ > [e]; unstressed /u/ > [o]
> 3. stress shift causes some [e]s and [o]s to be accented, and hence 
> distinguishable from /i/ and /u/
> 
> (Something sort of like that happened in prehistoric Latin. Latin 
> presumably inherited PIE's free accent, but then it acquired 
> word-initial accent, and then later shifted to accent tied to morae from 
> the end of the word. During the initial-stress period, unstressed vowels 
> were neutralized somewhat; some of those neutralized vowels later gained 
> stress. But AFAIK the neutralization didn't produce any phonemes that 
> didn't already exist, unlike in the system I described above.)

Absolutely spot on!

A shift of stress accent happened also Welsh. In the Medieval language 
stress was on the final syllable for much the same reason that it 
happens in French (i.e. the loss of post-tonic unstressed syllables). 
But it sifted to the penultimate syllable in the modern language. This 
did result in [@] being used for the first time as a stressed vowel. In 
the phonology of the medieval language [@] was not phonemic, being the 
reduced form of other vowels; but in the modern language /@/ did become 
phonemic and is consistently spelled _y_. But the older stress system 
does explain why as syllable final in polysyllabic words _y_ has its 
so-called 'clear' sound: [1] (north Wales) or [I] (south Wales).

-- 
Ray
==================================
http://www.carolandray.plus.com
==================================
"Ein Kopf, der auf seine eigene Kosten denkt,
wird immer Eingriffe in die Sprache thun."
[J.G. Hamann, 1760]
"A mind that thinks at its own expense
will always interfere with language".

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