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CONLANG  April 2009, Week 3

CONLANG April 2009, Week 3

Subject:

Re: adposition (was: The rhotic as a vowel)

From:

Paul Kershaw <[log in to unmask]>

Reply-To:

Constructed Languages List <[log in to unmask]>

Date:

Mon, 20 Apr 2009 08:04:20 -0700

Content-Type:

text/plain

Parts/Attachments:

Parts/Attachments

text/plain (72 lines)

> From: Mark J. Reed <[log in to unmask]>
> I think it's clear that in e.g. "to give up" we have a single verb
> that just happens to be split into two words (not just spellingwise,
> but syntactically: you say "give it up", not *"give up it").  I think
> calling "up" a preposition in that case is laughable. In "He gave up
> the ghost", is "up the ghost" an adverbial prepositional phrase
> describing where the giving took place?
> 
> There's at least a semantic difference between such compound verbs and
> ones like "to play through", where the usual meaning of the
> preposition still seems relevant to the meaning of the whole (I almost
> typed "hole" - ah, context). But is there a syntactic one?
> 
> AIU the standard analysis,  "through" is still a preposition there,
> even though it's not visibly or audibly preposited.  The object of the
> preposition is present, just implicit instead of explicit.

However, consider:

1. I played through several games.
1'. I played several games through.
1". I played several games.2. I read through several books.
2'. I read several books through.
2". I read several books.

In these examples, "through" is acting on the syntax level like a particle or an adverb, not a preposition. I would say it's acting most like an adverb. Further consider the syntax and semantics here:

3. Your problem is, you run through friends a lot, and you'll keep running through friends until you're all alone in the world.
4. Weilding a sword, Rob Roy ran through several Englishmen.
5. The theater ran through several showings before realizing they had the reels in the wrong order.

On a syntax level, "through" in 3 is acting like a preposition (it requires an object, it can't be moved after the NP, it can't be dropped without loss of meaning), but it's also the most metaphoric of 3-5. "Through" in 4 is acting like a particle ("run through" == "stab, slash, or otherwise fatally pierce"), but the individual "through" notion seems more literal than in 3. "Through" in 5 is acting like an adverb (it can be moved to after the NP like a particle, but it can also be dropped entirely without significant loss or change of meaning); the individual notions of "ran" and "through" are very clear.

> These are two points on a continuum of lexical drift. Is there a
> middle ground where the preposition is no longer governing an
> understood object but not yet part of the verb?  What defines the
> transition - loss of the semantic contribution of the preposition?

I don't think it's a total loss, because even when it's clearly a particle, there's usually at least a minor semantic contribution. For instance, it's often pointed out that "tie up" and "tie down" are effectively synonyms, suggesting that "up" and "down" have lost their semantic contribution. However, I do think there's a nuance of a difference, however subtle, because "tie up" and "tie down" that reflects the difference between "up" and "down" (it's more obvious, I think with "tie down"; in "tie up," it might well be that "up" isn't contributing anything except to act as a default particle). Certainly there are some cases where an apparently historic preposition has very little semantic contribution ("The stars come out."), but that doesn't seem to be a necessary condition to function as a particle.

> And at that point, what do you call it?  I'd say it's no longer
> functioning as a preposition if there's no implied object; maybe an
> adverb or just "particle".

Myself, I say it's no longer acting as an English preposition when there's no overt object. If there's an implied object, it's a particle or an adverb. However, "out" creates its own problems:

6. He ran out.
6'. He ran out of the house.
6". *He ran out the house.
6'". *He ran of the house out.
6"". *He ran of the house.
(6" is acceptable in AAVE, but not SAE.)

"Out" isn't acting like anything. An adverb wouldn't be required (6""); a particle could move (6'"); a preposition could take a NP (6"). "Out" when following certain verbs (run, walk, move) can take an implied or overt PP, and that's it; this is also regardless of whether the meaning is metaphoric (implying a verb+particle group) or literal (implying a verb+preposition structure):

7. Literal: The fireman ran out of the burning house.
7'. Figurative: My father ran out on us when I was a child.

I'm loathe to recommend a separate category just for "out" (and perhaps one or two others that behave the same way, although not "in": "He ran in the house"), so I suppose I'd have to call it an adverb. After all, "not" is an adverb in structures like 8, and it usually wants to be to the immediate left of the verb:

8. I am not the man you think I am.
8'. *I am the man not you think I am.

On the other hand, "out" moves with the material it appears to govern, a behavior more typical of prepositions than of adverbs:

9. Out of the house he ran.
9'. *? Of the house he ran out.

All of which bolsters the notion that, in English, prepositions, adverbs, and particles have overlapping membership, and that certain lexical items are in transition.

-- Paul

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