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CONLANG Home

CONLANG Home

CONLANG  May 2009, Week 2

CONLANG May 2009, Week 2

Subject:

Re: Greek miscellanea

From:

R A Brown <[log in to unmask]>

Reply-To:

constructed Languages List <[log in to unmask]>

Date:

Sun, 10 May 2009 15:02:07 +0100

Content-Type:

text/plain

Parts/Attachments:

Parts/Attachments

text/plain (124 lines)

Lars Finsen wrote:
> R A Brown wrote:
> 
>> quoting me:
>>> Textbooks for beginners that I have encountered tend to state that 
>>> the circumflex means low-high-low, but when I have tried to practise 
>>> it, it sounds quite unnatural.
>>
>> I would guess that low-high-low was suggested by the shape and that 
>> whoever wrote that first simply got copied by others. The descriptions 
>> given by Greek and Roman authors are far from clear.
>>
>> Low-high-low would suggest three morae, which is one mora too many.
> 
> Why is that? 

Fuzzy thinking about morae    ;)

On checking more carefully, I see even my guarded 'would' is in error. 
All that low-high-low implies, i think, is that the vowel is (likely to 
be) long, i.e. the syllable will be bimoraic.

> The Norwegian personal name Søren is pronounced [s2n`], 
> where the pitch of the 2 is high, then low, then high. It true that the 
> name is still perceived as bisyllabic, so when attempting to write it 
> phonetically, it is often made into <Sø-ørn>, or similar, so it's 
> perhaps two moras in the first syllable and one in the second. 

Tho <Sø-ørn> may just reflect that [s2n`] itself is bimoraic.

But I still think the notion that the ancient Greek circumflex denoted 
low-high-low derives from the shape of the diacritic. As I wrote, the 
descriptions given by ancient authorities are far from clear.

To return to my original statement about circumflex & acute on long 
vowels and diphthongs in ancient Greek, I was basing what I wrote on 
Sidney Allen's ideas.

The use of diacritics began around 200 BCE, and is generally associated 
with the grammarian Aristophanes of Byzantion. It would seem from 
surviving papyri of the period that it was at first used sporadically 
and mainly to resolve ambiguities; indeed, it seems the grammarians used 
them at first mainly for two purposes: (a) to ensure the correct 
pronunciation of epic poetry; (b) to help non L1 speakers learn Greek.

What is clear is that the acute on a short vowel denoted high tone. In 
one early system we find _all_ the normal (non-high) tones marked with a 
grave (the circumflex was, originally, an acute and grave written above 
a long vowel or diphthong which would seem to indicate that the first 
mora was high tone but the second mora normal). This system was clearly 
inefficient & inelegant and was later replaced by the current 
(Byzantine) system of accenting ancient Greek, in which only high and 
compound (i.e. circumflex) tones are marked. The grave symbol was, 
however, retained for words where a simple high tone occurred on the 
last mora, except if the word was an interrogative or was followed by an 
enclitic or a pause, in which case the acute was retained.

 From the above, Allen assumes that:
(i) an acute on a short vowel denotes high tone.
(ii) an acute on a long vowel or diphthong denotes a normal (low) tone 
on the first mora and high on the second.
(ii) a circumflex, which may occur only on long vowels or diphthongs, 
denotes a high tone on the first mora followed by a 'falling' tone on 
the second (see below)

Indeed, the old name ὀξύβαρυς (oxybarys) 'acute-grave', i.e. 'high-low' 
suggest that Allen is basically correct as regards the circumflex. The 
tradition is that Aristophanes of Byzantion changed the original shape ^ 
to the rounded form, like an inverted breve, used in the Byzantine and 
early modern period (it is usually written ~ now-a-days) to avoid 
confusion with (upper case) lambda; and that he called the rounded shape 
περισπώμενον (perispōmenon), 'bent around'. The Latin 'circumflexus' is 
merely a calque of perispōmenon. (Interestingly, when the French 
printers started using Greek accents for French, they adopted the 
pre-Aristophanic shape for the circumflex.)

What is unclear is what the grave on a final vowel meant. Some just 
dismiss it as showing that the vowel had normal tone of all other 
vowels, i.e. in such words all vowels were pronounced on the same tone 
and there was no marked syllable. Others have suggested that it denoted 
a 'mid' tone. Such suggestions tend to be made by those who have no 
intention of using any tonal marking and will simply stress the marked 
vowels (as the non-anglophone world generally does when pronouncing 
ancient Greek) or simply ignore them and stress ancient Greek according 
to rules for Latin (as, alas, was once the common practice in much of 
the anglophone world and, I believe, Holland - but I this seems to have 
been changing over the past 50 years).

Sidney Allen makes the assumption that the ancient Greek tonal accent 
was similar to that of Vedic Sanskrit in which, according to him, the 
high tone was following by a falling tone on the following mora. If this 
is correct, then in the case of the circumflex, the high tone occurred 
on the first mora of diphthong or a long vowel, and the falling tone on 
the second mora.

The problem comes when we have acute (high tone) on the final mora of a 
word. In Vedic Sanskrit the falling tone was carried by the initial mora 
of the next word, thus completing the contonation. But in Greek it 
appears that words were phonetically more autonomous and the extension 
of the contonation over the word boundary didn't happen. The exception, 
of course, is with enclitics since these were (and are) phonologically 
part of the same word, i.e. both phonetically & phonologically there is 
no word boundary between a 'word' and enclitic.

But if some other word than an enclitic followed there was clearly some 
sort of modification as is shown by the use in writing of a grave rather 
than an acute accent. But, as Sidney Allen writes, "it must be admitted 
that the nature of the modification is unknown, and there seems little 
point in making mere guesses."

Indeed IMO the details of the ancient Greek accentual system are unknown 
and are likely to remain unknown without time-travel.

-- 
Ray
==================================
http://www.carolandray.plus.com
==================================
"Ein Kopf, der auf seine eigene Kosten denkt,
wird immer Eingriffe in die Sprache thun."
[J.G. Hamann, 1760]
"A mind that thinks at its own expense
will always interfere with language".

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