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CONLANG  June 2009, Week 1

CONLANG June 2009, Week 1

Subject:

Re: Studio 360 interview w/ Arika Okrent re 'In the land of invented languages'

From:

Sai Emrys <[log in to unmask]>

Reply-To:

Constructed Languages List <[log in to unmask]>

Date:

Mon, 1 Jun 2009 19:08:08 -0700

Content-Type:

text/plain

Parts/Attachments:

Parts/Attachments

text/plain (170 lines)

On Mon, Jun 1, 2009 at 6:01 PM, Herman Miller <[log in to unmask]> wrote:
> Could you summarize the main points for those of us who don't want to bother
> registering just to read it?

I don't like summarizing opinions, so here's a copy.

But: what Sylvia said I <3 bugmenot. It also has a bookmarklet and
Firefox plugin.

- Sai


The New York Times

May 24, 2009
Fair Usage
By ROY BLOUNT Jr.

ORIGINS OF THE SPECIOUS

Myths and Misconceptions of the English Language

By Patricia T. O’Conner and Stewart Kellerman

266 pp. Random House. $22

IN THE LAND OF INVENTED LANGUAGES

Esperanto Rock Stars, Klingon Poets, Loglan Lovers, and the Mad
Dreamers Who Tried to Build a Perfect Language

By Arika Okrent.Illustrated. 342 pp. Spiegel & Grau. $26

If language were set in concrete, there would be no call for new books
on how to use it. These days, most such books are at pains not to seem
prescriptive. In 1996, Patricia T. O’Conner gave us the admirably
entitled “Woe Is I,” aptly subtitled “The Grammarphobe’s Guide to
Better English in Plain English.” In this lucid and sensible book she
criticized the use of “hopefully” to mean “It is hoped” or “I hope”:
“Join the crowd and abuse ‘hopefully’ if you want; I can’t stop you.
But maybe if enough of us preserve the original meaning it can be
saved. One can only hope.”

Now, in “Origins of the Specious,” she says, “I’m not hopeful about
convincing all the fuddy-duddies out there, but here goes: It’s
hopeless to resist the evolution of ‘hopefully.’ ” So use it, she
says. “Hopefully, the critics will come to their senses.”

According to how you look at it, O’Con­ner has turned on her fellow
preservationists (“fuddy-duddies,” is it?), or she has evolved along
with the language. In “Woe Is I,” she took a hard line on the
difference between “disinterested” and “uninterested.” Now she says
the one, generally speaking, means the other, because “as we all know,
in English the majority rules. All those usage experts will eventually
come around. . . . You can take a stand, use ‘disinterested’ to mean
not interested, and risk being thought an illiterate nincompoop by
those who don’t know any better.” You’ll note that “those who don’t
know any better,” here, are the “usage experts.” That is a bit much,
coming from someone who is widely regarded as a usage expert. O’Conner
goes on, however, to offer characteristically good advice, which is to
finesse the issue (that is, to avoid confusion) by using “impartial”
instead of “disinterested” and “not interested” instead of
“uninterested.”

But enough about her. I say that only because in this new book,
O’Conner, a former editor at the Book Review, and her husband, Stewart
Kellerman, are co-authors who express themselves corporately as “I.”
They explain in an authors’ note: “Two people wrote this book, but
it’s been our experience that two people can’t talk at the same time —
at least not on the page. So we’ve chosen to write ‘Origins of the
Specious’ in one voice and from Pat’s point of view.”

“Origins of the Specious” adeptly demolishes plausible but
insupportable etymologies of “brassiere” (a garment whose inventor was
not named Titzling), “rule of thumb” (nothing to do with wife beating)
and other obliquely derived phrases and words. Which is not to say
that the couple a k a “I” are beyond reproach.

“I was a philosophy major in college,” write Pat and Stewart (if I may
be so bold), “so I have no excuse if I mess this up.” Well, she/they
does/do. The issue is “begs the question.” The authors deftly lay out
this expression’s history and its traditional, logical definition:
“taking for granted what you’re trying to prove.” But they go on to
say, “English speakers have treated ‘beg the question’ illogically for
more than a century and a half,” which is no doubt true enough — but
the authors’ example, from Henry Adams, is quite consistent with the
traditional meaning. The expression has been used, they write, “to
mean avoiding, raising or dismissing a question, as well as prompting
a different one.” They thereby miss a chance to frame the contemporary
usage issue more distinctly. Currently, “begging the question” almost
always means, O.K., “prompting a different” question — but prompting
with an urgency derived less from cogency than from the word “beg.”
Chicagotribune.com recently carried a far-fetched controversy over the
decision of another newspaper’s magazine section to run a cover
photograph of an inter­racial couple kissing. “It’s as if the couple
is begging for attention,” one posting contended about public displays
of interracial affection. “Which begs the question of how real their
affections were.” The traditional usage of “beg the question” was
analytic, probative. The current one lends itself to special pleading.

English, we are reminded in “Origins of the Specious,” is not “as
logical as, say, Fortran or Cobol, or even Esperanto.” Segue to Arika
Okrent’s fascinating “In the Land of Invented Languages.”

Shouldn’t language be rational, foolproof, universal? Many people, in
the passionate belief that it should be, have concocted alternative,
ideal-in-principle tongues. Okrent lists 500 manufactured languages,
dating back to Lingua Ignota (around A.D. 1150) and including
Universalis Nyelvnek (1820), Ixessoire (1879), Ro (1908) and Prjotrunn
(2006). Of the 500, the two spoken by the most people today are
Esperanto and Klingon. (Modern Hebrew isn’t exactly invented; it
revives and expands an existing liturgical and literary language that
had functioned as a marketplace lingua franca.) Okrent, though no
Trekkie, has gone so far as to make herself vocally proficient in
Klingon, which was developed, and is still overseen, by the linguist
Marc Okrand for the extraterrestrial world of “Star Trek.”

The author — who, according to the jacket copy, has “a joint Ph.D. in
the department of linguistics and the department of psychology’s
Cognition and Cognitive Neuro­science Program at the University of
Chicago” — examines a variety of would-be languages and related
philosophical tenets (there are no pure ideas, all signs depend on
conventions) in a rigorously linguistical way. And yet her book is a
pleasure to read. It shows how language systems connect, or don’t
connect, with people.

The most interesting character she turns up is Karl Kasiel Blitz, who
changed his name, for connotative reasons, to Charles Bliss and set
out to invent “a better, simpler system of pictorial symbols, ‘a
logical writing for an illogical world.’ ” In the 1940s he created
Blissymbolics, which failed to transform human understanding but did
prove a godsend — as a gateway to English — for children so impaired
by cerebral palsy that they couldn’t speak.

Over Bliss’s symbols hovered Bliss himself. Of his desire to realize
substantial income from his decades of work, Okrent is rather less
understanding than she might be. But she makes it clear that Bliss,
personally, was no bargain. He was ecstatic when a rehabilitation
center in Toronto recognized Blissymbolics’ therapeutic usefulness —
indeed, he offered its speech therapist his hand in marriage. But when
the center applied his language too loosely, by his standards, he flew
into tirades.

“The more successful the program became, the more Bliss complained. .
. . He was outraged that in one of their textbooks, they showed his
symbol for vegetable . . . next to a picture of various vegetables,
including tomatoes. They had totally misunderstood his system! This
was the symbol for things you eat (mouth symbol) that grow
underground! Tomatoes don’t grow underground!”

To catch on, Okrent concludes, a language must be useful to some
particular culture. A popular presentation at the 2007 Language
Creation Conference, she reports, was given by a librarian whose
“language, Dritok, was born when he began to wonder if it was possible
to make a language out of chipmunk noises. . . . The examples he gave
sent waves of glee through the audience — they sounded so strange, so
inhuman, but there was a detectable structure or system that gave
Dritok a scent of ‘languageness.’ He had also worked out aspects of a
cultural context. . . . Dritok is the language of the Drushek,
long-tailed beings with large ears and no vocal cords.”

Speakers of Esperanto are brought together by visions of world
harmony. Speakers of Klingon have in common that they “are enjoying
themselves. They are doing language for language’s sake, art for art’s
sake. And like all committed artists, they will do their thing,
critics be damned.” Klingon’s grammatical rules are flexible. “The
language is just messy enough to be credible.”

Roy Blount Jr.’s most recent book is “Alphabet Juice.”

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August 2006, Week 3
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August 2006, Week 1
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June 2006, Week 5
June 2006, Week 4
June 2006, Week 3
June 2006, Week 2
June 2006, Week 1
May 2006, Week 5
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May 2006, Week 3
May 2006, Week 2
May 2006, Week 1
April 2006, Week 5
April 2006, Week 4
April 2006, Week 3
April 2006, Week 2
April 2006, Week 1
March 2006, Week 5
March 2006, Week 4
March 2006, Week 3
March 2006, Week 2
March 2006, Week 1
February 2006, Week 4
February 2006, Week 3
February 2006, Week 2
February 2006, Week 1
January 2006, Week 5
January 2006, Week 4
January 2006, Week 3
January 2006, Week 2
January 2006, Week 1
December 2005, Week 5
December 2005, Week 4
December 2005, Week 3
December 2005, Week 2
December 2005, Week 1
November 2005, Week 5
November 2005, Week 4
November 2005, Week 3
November 2005, Week 2
November 2005, Week 1
October 2005, Week 5
October 2005, Week 4
October 2005, Week 3
October 2005, Week 2
October 2005, Week 1
September 2005, Week 5
September 2005, Week 4
September 2005, Week 3
September 2005, Week 2
September 2005, Week 1
August 2005, Week 5
August 2005, Week 4
August 2005, Week 3
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August 2005, Week 1
July 2005, Week 5
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July 2005, Week 3
July 2005, Week 2
July 2005, Week 1
June 2005, Week 5
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May 2005, Week 1
April 2005, Week 5
April 2005, Week 4
April 2005, Week 3
April 2005, Week 2
April 2005, Week 1
March 2005, Week 5
March 2005, Week 4
March 2005, Week 3
March 2005, Week 2
March 2005, Week 1
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February 2005, Week 1
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January 2005, Week 4
January 2005, Week 3
January 2005, Week 2
January 2005, Week 1
December 2004, Week 5
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December 2004, Week 3
December 2004, Week 2
December 2004, Week 1
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November 2004, Week 4
November 2004, Week 3
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November 2004, Week 1
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October 2004, Week 1
September 2004, Week 5
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September 2004, Week 1
August 2004, Week 5
August 2004, Week 4
August 2004, Week 3
August 2004, Week 2
August 2004, Week 1
July 2004, Week 5
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July 2004, Week 3
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July 2004, Week 1
June 2004, Week 5
June 2004, Week 4
June 2004, Week 3
June 2004, Week 2
June 2004, Week 1
May 2004, Week 5
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May 2004, Week 3
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May 2004, Week 1
April 2004, Week 5
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April 2004, Week 3
April 2004, Week 2
April 2004, Week 1
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March 2004, Week 3
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November 2003, Week 3
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October 2003, Week 3
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September 2003, Week 1
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August 2003, Week 3
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August 2003, Week 1
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July 2003, Week 3
July 2003, Week 2
July 2003, Week 1
June 2003, Week 5
June 2003, Week 4
June 2003, Week 3
June 2003, Week 2
June 2003, Week 1
May 2003, Week 5
May 2003, Week 4
May 2003, Week 3
May 2003, Week 2
May 2003, Week 1
April 2003, Week 5
April 2003, Week 4
April 2003, Week 3
April 2003, Week 2
April 2003, Week 1
March 2003, Week 5
March 2003, Week 4
March 2003, Week 3
March 2003, Week 2
March 2003, Week 1
February 2003, Week 4
February 2003, Week 3
February 2003, Week 2
February 2003, Week 1
January 2003, Week 5
January 2003, Week 4
January 2003, Week 3
January 2003, Week 2
January 2003, Week 1
December 2002, Week 5
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December 2002, Week 3
December 2002, Week 2
December 2002, Week 1
November 2002, Week 5
November 2002, Week 4
November 2002, Week 3
November 2002, Week 2
November 2002, Week 1
October 2002, Week 5
October 2002, Week 4
October 2002, Week 3
October 2002, Week 2
October 2002, Week 1
September 2002, Week 5
September 2002, Week 4
September 2002, Week 3
September 2002, Week 2
September 2002, Week 1
August 2002, Week 5
August 2002, Week 4
August 2002, Week 3
August 2002, Week 2
August 2002, Week 1
July 2002, Week 5
July 2002, Week 4
July 2002, Week 3
July 2002, Week 2
July 2002, Week 1
June 2002, Week 5
June 2002, Week 4
June 2002, Week 3
June 2002, Week 2
June 2002, Week 1
May 2002, Week 5
May 2002, Week 4
May 2002, Week 3
May 2002, Week 2
May 2002, Week 1
April 2002, Week 5
April 2002, Week 4
April 2002, Week 3
April 2002, Week 2
April 2002, Week 1
March 2002, Week 5
March 2002, Week 4
March 2002, Week 3
March 2002, Week 2
March 2002, Week 1
February 2002, Week 4
February 2002, Week 3
February 2002, Week 2
February 2002, Week 1
January 2002, Week 5
January 2002, Week 4
January 2002, Week 3
January 2002, Week 2
January 2002, Week 1
December 2001, Week 5
December 2001, Week 4
December 2001, Week 3
December 2001, Week 2
December 2001, Week 1
November 2001, Week 5
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November 2001, Week 3
November 2001, Week 2
November 2001, Week 1
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October 2001, Week 4
October 2001, Week 3
October 2001, Week 2
October 2001, Week 1
September 2001, Week 5
September 2001, Week 4
September 2001, Week 3
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September 2001, Week 1
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May 2001, Week 1
April 2001, Week 5
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April 2001, Week 3
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February 2000, Week 3
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February 2000, Week 1
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January 2000, Week 4
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January 2000, Week 1
December 1999, Week 5
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December 1999, Week 1
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November 1999, Week 3
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June 1999, Week 5
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December 1998, Week 5
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