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CONLANG Home

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CONLANG  July 2009, Week 2

CONLANG July 2009, Week 2

Subject:

Re: Typological sins (WAS: Re: [CONLANG] phonology, critique pls)

From:

Paul Hartzer <[log in to unmask]>

Reply-To:

Constructed Languages List <[log in to unmask]>

Date:

Mon, 13 Jul 2009 21:22:00 -0700

Content-Type:

text/plain

Parts/Attachments:

Parts/Attachments

text/plain (22 lines)

> From: Lee <[log in to unmask]>
> OK, now I am totally confused.... [sigh] I thought the CXL (et al) symbols 
> represented the sounds. If not, then why bother using CXL?
> 
> Lee

I was having a bit of fun with the phonemic vs phonetic distinction, and didn't mean to cause some much confusion. Since the topic has been raised:
 
Phonemes are not actual sounds, they're how the sounds are perceived by the speakers of a language. For instance, in English, the first sound in <tip> and the final sound in <pit> are perceived by (the overwhelming majority of) native speakers of English as the same sound, even though they're not; many languages make a distinction between [t] and [t_h], but in English, they're allophones of the same phoneme.

The notation of phonemes is generally based on using one of the allophones as its symbol. In the case of [t] and [t_h], /t/ is used, in large part because it's one of the allophones, but any other symbol could theoretically be used. In the case of the English phoneme most often pronounced as [r\] ([ɹ] in IPA), /r/ is used because (a) English doesn't have [r], (b) other Indo-European languages have [r] where we have [r\], and (c) /r/ is easier to type than /ɹ/. In Japanese, [l] and [r\] represent the same phoneme, usually (in my experience) written as /r/, but it could just as justifiable be written as /l/ or even as /ɹ/ or /ɽ/; a linguist who wanted to remove any implication that [r\] is "more important" than [l] for Japanese speakers might even come up with a new symbol.

For the sake of communication, linguists often ignore the theoretical nitty-gritty and treat the stuff in shashes effectively as the actual sounds except for the details, speaking of /tIp/ as "how <tip> is pronounced." Indeed, if the IPA is used properly, then the pronunciation of a word in slashes should sound reasonably close to the native word; for instance, /r/ for English [r\] will be "in the ballpark" (consider the U.S. slogan "R-r-ruffles have r-r-ridges," where the initial r is trilled and yet English speakers don't have trouble understanding what's being said). Likewise, English tends to mildly diphthongize /e/ (and other vowels), so we have [e_j] where other languages (such as Japanese) have [e], so many (most?) speakers of English have no [e] in native words, but /e/ is in the ballpark, and because we don't have [e] anyway, we might as well use /e/ instead of /e_j/.

Seriously using /T/ for a phoneme represented only by (say) [t], [t_h], and [ts] wouldn't usually be considered a very good solution.

-- Paul



      

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