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CONLANG  September 2009, Week 1

CONLANG September 2009, Week 1

Subject:

Re: Three conlangs for the price of two

From:

Basilius <[log in to unmask]>

Reply-To:

Constructed Languages List <[log in to unmask]>

Date:

Sun, 6 Sep 2009 10:19:51 -0400

Content-Type:

text/plain

Parts/Attachments:

Parts/Attachments

text/plain (138 lines)

Text formatting in my previous message got mangled in an ugly way. My 
style being no good example of clarity, I thought I'd better resend it 
(copied below, hopefully in a more readable layout). Sorry for another 
duplicate posting...

In the mean time, I have a couple more questions to Project Initiators.

(1) The following line seems to lack the "second column language" item:
> "tolerate, forbear "	pyriheen

(2) It is really tempting to read {y} in _riyab_, _yohm_, _mpanyee_ as
[j]; reading it as [ə] produces vowel clusters that just don't fit well
with the rest of phonotactics. 

= = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = 

On Wed, 2 Sep 2009 23:38:45 +0200, Arnt Richard Johansen wrote:

> The words in the second column was my vocab. The [n] was indeed a 
> typo; sorry about that.

I am sorry for not identifying you as the author... I assume [n] stands 
for [ɲ]?

> The vowel inventory was deliberately constructed to break the 
> universal that says that any language with only three vowels must 
> have [a], [i], [u].

The system you propose is OK functionally. However, the language is 
supposed to be part of a historical conlangung project. And the trouble 
with universals is that the configurations they deny are, in all 
probability, difficult to arrive at via common types of language 
change. (See below my comment on the changes already proposed.)

The participants are given a task which is already difficult enough: to 
invent a natural-looking set of sound changes that would bridge two 
unrelated languages. Both you and Jörg rightly doubted its feasibility, 
and my more optimistic assessment is based on a few dirty hacks that 
seem available with binary comparisons involving very limited material. 
But complicating the task further by the implied demand to find out how 
a typologically improbable vowel inventory could naturally emerge may 
prove a real overkill :)

> Just substituting [i] for [y] wouldn't remove all rounded vowels, 
> since [�] is still rounded. 

OK, I meant: it was a language that avoided labialized articulations at 
a previous stage of its development (and had [i], [ɯ], [ɑ]). A 
subsequent labialization [ɑ] > [ɒ] doesn't look problematic per se: 
imagine both [ɯ] and [ɑ] had allophones approaching the quality of [ɤ] 
(upper-mid back unrounded vowel); the labialization could be added to 
save the contrast.

> If you think that the "perturbed" state of the vowel system would 
> make this exercise impossible, why not just suppose these 
> unconditional rules as a final sound change:

> u > ɯ / _
> i > y / _

As Alex pointed out, [i] > [y] seems to be unattested, and I think it's 
not without a reason, again. 

And as Eugene said, there is a somewhat better option: [u] > [y], then 
[i] > [ɯ]. With this proposal, Old Deuterocolumnese had something like 
[ɑ], [i], [u], and Middle Deuterocolumnese transformed that into 
[ɑ], [i], [y]. At any rate here we have a widely attested change, 
[u] > [y]; yet the mechanics of the transformation remains obscure 
since [u] > [y] clearly worsens contrastivity. An extended comment is 
probably needed here.

It is typical of small vowel inventories that the range of allophonic 
variation is (expectably) much broader than with richer ones. For 
example, with the standard /a/, /i/, /u/ it is no surprise to find 
sounds like [ɛ] and [ɯ] present *simultaneously* as allophones of /i/. 
The reason why the phonemes are nevertheless denoted with {a}, {i}, {u} 
in practical transcriptions is that these vowel qualities (or similar, 
e. g. [a] [ɪ] [o]) are usually perceived as the default (i. e. least 
conditioned) allophones, and the ultimate reason for their being so 
perceived seems to be the fact that they are most contrastive (i. e. 
stand furthest from each other in terms of every contrastive feature 
the language uses). 

IMHO it is very difficult to reconfigure such an inventory by simply 
assigning new default allophones to the phonemes and then adjusting the 
ranges of variation accordingly: such changes will mostly worsen 
contrastivity without actually killing any contrasts (or simplifying 
the system in other ways). A change like [u] > [ɯ] is still 
imaginable since it simpifies the system further by deleting lip 
rounding from the list of articulatory features used in the language; 
but for [u] > [y] I can't find a similar justification (or a natlang 
precedent, with the ancestral inventory of the /a/-/i/-/u/ type; all 
examples of [u] > [y] I know of seem to involve the presence of [o] or 
something of that kind).

The above explains why I think there is no natural-looking way to 
obtain [ɒ]-[y]-[ɯ] from the more common type of three-vowel inventory. 

However, I also considered several scenarios based on simplification of 
more complex phonologies (specifically, involving labialized 
consonants, diphthongs, and richer inventories of narrow vowels like 
[i]-[y]-[u]-[ɯ]). A difficulty with all of them is that in Classical 
Deuterocolumnese (the language of your wordlist, in case you 
wondered :) ) [y] is more frequent than [ɯ]. Nevertheless, there seem 
to exist a couple scenarios that arrive at an intermediary inventory of 
high vowels like [i]-[y]-[ɯ], with the frequency of [y] highest and 
that of [i] lowest. The scenario with [i]-[y]-[u]-[ɯ] is particularly 
attractive since it explains the change in the low vowel as proposed 
above, [ɑ] > [ɒ]: labialization was orignally added to (higher 
allophones of) [ɑ], and not to [ɯ], since the contrast [ɯ] : [u] still 
existed. 

In a more articulate way: 

Old Deuterocolumnese had /ɑ/-/i/-/y/-/u/-/ɯ/, then /ɒ/-/i/-/y/-/u/-/ɯ/; 
/u/ was the most frequent of the high vowels, and frequencies of both 
/i/ and /y/ were low. 

In Middle Deuterocolumnese, the subset of high vowels was transformed: 
to stress the most functionally loaded contrast (/u/ : /ɯ/), /u/ was 
fronted and ultimately merged with the relatively infrequent /y/. This 
change produced a somewhat odd inventory of narrow vowels: 
/i/ /y/ /ɯ/, with /y/ much more frequent than /i/.

The most natural way to simplify the system further would be, no doubt, 
to merge /i/ and /y/ in [i]. However, it would produce more homonyms 
than a merger of /i/ with /ɯ/ (less frequent than /y/). The latter was 
achieved by moving /i/ backwards, and the result was the Classical 
Deuterocolumnese inventory of /ɒ/-/y/-/ɯ/.

...I still feel there's something wrong with all that, especially with 
the last change. Perhaps, /i/ can survive as a rare phoneme? 

Opinions?

-- 
Basilius

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