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CONLANG Home

CONLANG  September 2009, Week 4

CONLANG September 2009, Week 4

Subject:

Re: Back with another example of "terror diacriticorum"

From:

Benct Philip Jonsson <[log in to unmask]>

Reply-To:

Constructed Languages List <[log in to unmask]>

Date:

Fri, 25 Sep 2009 15:31:18 +0200

Content-Type:

text/plain

Parts/Attachments:

Parts/Attachments

text/plain (145 lines)

On 2009-09-25 R A Brown wrote:
 > If any system of indicating tones by letters were to be
 > used, it would now, I think, have to use Pinyin as the
 > basis (despite the IMO unsatisfactory use of _q_).
 >
 > But IMO the system above overloads the use of _h_. At
 > present that letter is used in two ways:
 > - to indicate the phoneme /x/
 > - to indicate a retroflex pronunciation of in the combos
 > _ch_ [ts`_h], _zh_ [ts`] and _sh_ [s`].
 >
 > Using _h_ also to indicate tone will give it a third use,
 > and ....

My alternate timeline Lucus (where Rhodrese and
Ynglish are spoken) was fortunate, through
different political circumstances, to see an
early standardization of Chinese Romanization
on the hands of the Basque (or as they would say
Navarran) polymath, missionary and diplomat in
Portuguese service Mate (Mateo) Arriga in the
seventeenth century.  Due to him Chinese is
transcribed with letter values derived from
Basque and other 'Peninsular' languages[^1]:

         Bilab.  LabDen. Alveo.  Retro.  AlvPal. Velar
------- ------- ------- ------- ------- ------- -----
Nasal   m               n                       ng
Plos.   p ph            t th                    k kh
Affr.                   tz tzh  tx txh  ts tsh
Fric.           f       z       x       s       j
Appr.                   l       r       y (yu)  hu

The vowel /y/ is written _yu_ initially and _iu_
elsewhere.[^2] This works dandy since [jow] /j7w/
is written _you_ initially and _iou_ elsewhere
(and similarly [wej] /w7j/ is written _yeu/ieu_).

The [7] allophone of /7/ is written _o_ rather than
_e_, thus _ho_ rather than _**he_, and /w7/ is
written _uo_ even after labials: _buo, fuo_.

For tones Arriaga made do with what types he had
in his typecast for european languages, leading
to somewhat quaint symbolizations for the fourth
and third tone[^3]:

(Let [_<digit>] stand for tones by number)

* /ma_1/: ma
* /ma_2/: má
* /ma_3/: mà
* /ma_4/: mâ

Until recently the apostrophe was also used on words which
used to end in a glottal stop (entering tone).

Accented letters have always been available to
those printing Chinese, both in China and southern
Europe, and Chinese, French, Burgundian
Aragonese-Catalan, and Portuguese printers have
generally been meticulous in using them.  Spanish
(Castilian- Andalusian), Italian, Occitan,
Basque-Navarrese and northern European printers
have been known to be more level-handed!

[^1]: Arriaga irregularly used other quaint
     spellings like _ci_ instead of _tzi_, _ç_ instead
     of _ts_, _ch_ instead of _txh_ (which he used
     fairly consistently), _qu_ for /kw/ and even _qhu_
     for /k_hw/ and _çh_ instead of _tzh_, _ts_ instead
     of _tshi_ and _tſ_ (long s) instead of _ts_ --
     thus showing an aversion against consonant
     trigraphs --, and of course an occasional _c_
     instead of _k_ before _a, o, u_, and _hi_ instead
     of _y_. He also regularly wrote /i/ with _y_ after
     alveopalatal initials with _i_ after alveolar
     initials and with _e_ after retroflex initials,
     which was OK since /7/ was _o_ after both alveolar
     and retroflex initials. All these have
     beenregularized/modernized away more or less
     recently. When writing dialects which had half-
     voiced or voiced stops Arriaga would use graphemes
     _b d dz dx ds g_. He would also use _ñg_ for /N/
     so as to be able to distiguish it from /n#g/.
     These usages are still current for chinese
     languages and dialects other than Mandarin that
     need them, except that usually _nng_ is used to
     distinguish /n#g/ from _ng_ /N/ and _ngg_ /N#g/.

     The practice of writing /i/ differently after
     alveolar and alveopalatal initials actually
     had the advantage of keeping these initials
     distinct even when non-Navarran or non-Chinese
     writers and printers mixed up _tz(h)_ and
     _ts(h)_ and their allographs, or _ch_ and _çh_
     as allographs of _txh_ and _tzh_.  From that
     perspective recent standardization has not
     been advantageous for foreigners: to them the
     distinction between _i_, _e_ and _y_ was
     somehow more salient than that between _tz_
     and _ts_. _Tx_ was evidently salient enough in
     itself.  The fact that _tx_ for [tS] and _x_
     for [S] were Lucally known also from
     'Burgundian' (Rhodrese) and 'Helvetian'
     (Romand) certainly helped making the Arriaga
	Romanization acceptable.

[^2]: Arriaga originally wrote /ly/ and /ny/
     somewhat quaintly as _llu_ and _ñu_, no doubt
     since he, under the influence of his mothertung,
     heard them as [Lu] and [Ju], but changed them to
     _liu_ and _niu_ in his own later works -- without
     commenting on the change to be sure!

[^2]: Arriaga would indeed not shun at using
     multiple accents on vowels, using loose types
     above the composite types, to show complicated
     tones in dialects. He then used:

     * _a_ for high tone,
     * _à_ for low tone,
     * _á_ for rising tone,
     * _â_ for falling tone
     * _ã_ for various contour tones

     He would usually get where he wanted with
     ingenious combos of two accent marks --
     showing a preference for doubled acute or
     doubled grave, or an acute or grave above a
     circumflex or tilde -- plus the apostrophe to
     indicate checked tones, though he admitted it
     a happy circumstance that the prestige dialect
     had a simple tone system where the tilde could
     be avoided!

/BP 8^)>
-- 
Benct Philip Jonsson -- melroch atte melroch dotte se
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
  "C'est en vain que nos Josués littéraires crient
  à la langue de s'arrêter; les langues ni le soleil
  ne s'arrêtent plus. Le jour où elles se *fixent*,
  c'est qu'elles meurent."           (Victor Hugo)

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