On Dec 1, 2009, at 5◊43 PM, Harry Aspinwall wrote:
> Here are al-awzaan of verbs as I understand them (in past tense third
> singular masculine form, as in the grammars):
> 1. fa3ala/fa3ula/fa3ila - basic form
> 2. fa33ala - causative or intensive
> 3. faa3ala - associative, doing something with another person
> 4. 'af3ala - causative or intensive (often with an animate or
> conceptual object, I think)
> 5. tafa33ala - mostly reflexive of 2 or intensive of 1
> 6. tafaa3ala - reciprocal
> 7. infa3ala - reflexive or passive of 1 (sort of middle voice)
> 8. ifta3ala - many meanings, including reflexive and reflexive-beneficial
> 9. if3alla - defective verbs (rare - generally referring to a colour)
> 10. istaf3ala - seeking or demanding something, or considering
> something to be a certain way
Ah HA! This is half of it! My Al-Kitaab book has these 10 forms,
and has names for them, but it's the *description* that you've
provided that was missing. THANK YOU! (And thanks for the
example below, too, which I'm snipping.)
> I had a
> chart which showed all al-awzaan forms for all forms of the verb; If
> it turns up I'll let you know.
Especially if you can scan it...
> Here are some awzaan off the top of my
> head -
> A few "broken plurals" (where the stem changes into different awzaan,
> rather than a regular suffix), "jumu3 at-taksiir":
> mediina, city - mudun, cities
> kitaab, book - kutub, books
> saHifa, newspaper - suHuf, newpapers
> rajul, man - rijaal, men
> saakin, inhabitant - sukkaaan, inhabitants
> funduq, hotel - fanaadiq, hotels
> walad, young man - awlaad, young men
> shay', thing - ashyaa', things
> fa3al, verb - af3aal, verbs
Okay, what you're describing above as "broken plurals", I've
always understood to be "masculine plurals". That is, all the
feminine nouns that end in taa marbuta get their regular plural
in /-aat/, but all the masculine nouns get some funky plural
(except for a few human nouns which get /-uun/). I'd always
assumed "broken plural" meant certain highly irregular masculine
Now I've seen the CuCuC plural form before (in fact, there's
another one I remember: jaTiT "corpse" > juTuT "corpses").
What I was hoping to be able to see is something like this:
kitaab "book" > kutub "books"
mimaam "example 1" > mumum "example 1 plural"
ninaan "example 2" > nunun "example 2 plural"
Pattern: fi3aal > fu3ul
Then you could say that this is a particular irregular pattern,
find all the nouns that fit it, and (perhaps) come up with a
generalization about which nouns typically fall into that
pattern (even if it's totally random, semantically).
> I hope that helps at all! I do love Arabic grammar.
It certainly does! Thanks!
"sunly eleSkarez ygralleryf ydZZixelje je ox2mejze."
"No eternal reward will forgive us now for wasting the dawn."
LCS Member Since 2007