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CONLANG  January 2010, Week 5

CONLANG January 2010, Week 5

Subject:

Re: Aaalis Phonology, Orthography and Nominal Morphology

From:

David Peterson <[log in to unmask]>

Reply-To:

Constructed Languages List <[log in to unmask]>

Date:

Sat, 30 Jan 2010 18:41:57 -0800

Content-Type:

text/plain

Parts/Attachments:

Parts/Attachments

text/plain (298 lines)

Ol' Prince is at it again, eh--this time in the past! It's fascinating to read
these old papers of his and McCarthy's, because you can see the seeds
of OT in them. Do you have a copy of this one I can look at?

For my own purposes, let me check off what does and doesn't match
here (Aaalis vs. Prince's Estonian data).

On Jan 30, 2010, at 3◊28 PM, Dirk Elzinga wrote:
> 
> 1.  Association with Stressed Syllable. Q3 segments only occur in connection
> with stressed syllables. There is no such constraint on Q1 and Q2.

Same.

> 2.  Monosyllables. All major category monosyllables must contain at least
> one segment in Q3. Any word-final syllable that bears main stress will
> contain a Q3 segment.

If I understand this right, are you talking about nouns and verbs that are
monosyllabic? If so, wouldn't the only Q3 possible be a vowel--or can words
*end* with a Q3 consonant? I'm not sure if this would apply with Aaalis.
As for the second item, that's trivially the same, as there are no words
with word-final stress.

[Editorial Note: Holy heck, they *can* end with overlong consonants! How
about that! The example I saw was with a nasal, which one can easily imagine,
but how about a voiceless stop? I wonder what that would sound like...]

> 3.  Adjacent Stresses. Stressed syllables within a word are usually
> separated by one or two unstressed syllables. But a stressed syllable
> associated with a Q3 segment may be followed immediately by another stressed
> syllable.

Yep.

> 4.  Sequencing of Q2 and Q3. A vowel in Q2 may not be succeeded by a
> consonant in Q3, nor may a vowel in Q3 be succeeeded by a consonant in Q2;
> all other combinations are possible [including V3C3; DE].

Huh. I have to say I find this rather surprising--though unsurprising that
it comes from a synchronic analysis. I wouldn't be surprised if a change
happened something like this:

*V3C2 > V3C3
*V2C3 > V3C3 or V2C2

In other words, that they were possible at one time, but that due to the
odd timing (something long followed by something longer, or vice-versa),
there was either progressive or regressive assimilation. I can
also see dissimilation, so that, for example, *V2C3 becomes V1C3. If this
were true, it might be indicative of something quite different from what
Prince concludes.

> 5.  Intonation. Syllables associated with Q3 segments are known to have
> special intonational properties. For example, Lehiste (1960) studies the
> "falling intonation", typical of statements, as it is realized on
> two-syllable words (first syllable stressed). She reports that an "abrupt
> fall" takes place on the second syllable, in the absence of Q3. However,
> with Q3 in the first syllable, "the falling intonation pattern was
> characterized by a steep drop on the first syllable, followed by level pitch
> on the second syllable ..." Thus, Q3 attracts the major pitch movement of
> the intonation pattern to its own syllable.

Hey, I don't see why not! If you've got that much real estate, so to speak,
why not use it? That was the plan with Aaalis.

> 6.  Grade Alternation. In the morphophonology of gradation, Weak Grade Q1
> and Q2 consonants have Q3 counterparts in the Strong Grade; similarly, Weak
> Grade Q2 vowels (and diphthongs) appear as Q3 in the Strong Grade. But Q1
> vowels, unlike Q1 consonants, cannot show up as Q3 in the Strong Grade.
> Furthermore, with the exception of one loan word, Q1 never alternates with
> Q2.

Several things going on here. Based on the history, I don't think it'd be possible
for Q1 vowels to show up as Q3 in the strong grade. But then again, recall that
the model here is Arabic broken plurals, not Estonian and the like. I was after
two different stems, the latter of which would be characterized by some kind
of weight. I'm not sure if this would apply.

> 7.  Syllable Conflation. Q3 usually appears in the Strong Grade. But when
> consonant deletion in the Weak Grade reduces a bisyllabic sequence CVCV to a
> single syllable CVV, the resulting vowel or diphthong VV is always overlong.
> Conflation of two syllables produces a single syllable with a single Q3
> nucleus.

Ah, thank you! This actually helps out something that I was worried about for
quite some time with a different language (Sheli) of mine. It's nice to see that
you can have this kind of effect when an intervocalic consonant is deleted. No
such deletion occurs in Aaalis. (I did toy with it, but gave it up; I didn't like the
result.)

> Based on this array of observations, Prince comes to the conclusion that Q3
> is a property of syllables rather than of individual segments. He further
> claims that a syllable with Q3 is a foot by itself;  feet in Estonian must
> otherwise contain two syllables.

So I'm guessing a V3C3 sequence would be syllabified [V3C2.C1], meaning
that only Q3 vowels would ever be within a single syllable--meaning that
"a syllable with Q3" will only ever be a vowel, never a consonant?

[Editorial Note: As noted above, this was an incorrect assumption, as there
are monosyllabic words in Estonian that end with Q3 consonants.]

> After I read this article, I concluded that bona fide ternary length
> distinctions are probably going to be impossible to prove; there will always
> be another way to account for them. In Estonian (and varieties of Saami as
> well), it will be a metrical account; for Hopi (there have been claims of
> ternary length distinctions in Hopi vowels) the alternative is syllable cut
> (Trubetskoy's analysis).

I'm not quite convinced, largely because I'd like to see the history that led up
to it. This is a luxury afforded me as a non-linguist, though. Using a linguist's
constraints, a syllable being the domain of overlength is a reasonable conclusion.
That, though, has no bearing on whether minimal pairs can be produced:
Either they can, or they can't. If they can, then that, as a conlanger, I find
interesting; if they can't, then they're not phonemes. This isn't a sufficient
criterion to determine phonological status (e.g. the famous example of
[h] and [N] in English), but its sufficiently interesting for a conlang, as the
key is if that the difference can distinguish meanings (and, hence, lexemes).

> Now of course you may simply assert that Aaalis has a three-way length
> distinction because you're making it up :-). But I think that Jesse is
> right: you haven't made the case for it yet, and there is an alternative
> that is at least equally plausible.

Well, there are two things at work here. First, I think there may be a
misunderstanding with how I was making this argument. Second, there's
a larger question about just what "naturalism" means when applied to
conlanging.

Tackling the big one first, existence or non-existence of a given phenomenon
in a natural language is not a sufficient criterion for naturalism. Taken
seriously, this would destroy naturalism itself. After all, even if features
x, y, z and so on have been found to exist in natural languages, have they
ever been found to exist together? If not, how can one say that's natural,
as the coexistence of these separate phenomena can't be proven to be
possible? And taking that to a logical/absurd conclusion, how can one have
the word ['me.ta.kil] be the word for "cat" in a naturalistic conlang if
['me.ta.kil] has never been the word for "cat" in any natural language?

I would argue that we should throw out completely the criterion of preexistence
of any given feature in a natural language when it comes to determining
whether a conlang is sufficiently naturalistic. Of course, natural languages
can inform construction, as can the various patterns and trends linguists
have discovered about natural languages over the years, but they simply
can't be copied, as the conditions which gave rise to the various phenomena
we see likewise can't be copied (and it some case can't even be quantified).

So where does that leave us? Most of us have a sense of what's more likely
to be natural and what isn't, but all of us who have looked at other natural
languages have found jaw-dropping phenomena--things that, if we were
presented with them in the form of a conlang, we would call unnatural. Plus,
intuition may be good for creation, but not for justification (judges don't
sentence people because they have a good feeling that they're guilty##). We
need something more.

The alternative, as I see it, is to analyze the steps involved--the history. A
linguist can ignore the history of a natural language in analysis (and, in some
cases, a linguist must, given the theory that children only have access to
what they hear); a conlanger seeking to create a naturalistic language must
not. The argument for the naturalness of a conlang is itself a presentation
of the natural evolution of that language.

This is what I was trying to show in my reply, but I think referring to it as
"spelling" may have obscured that fact (because in this case the "spelling" is
identical to the proto form).

So let me go back to those examples.

>> ['ma.hi] "mahhi"
>> ['ma:.hi] "mahi"
>> ['ma::.hi] "ma:hi"


Here's the claim. And in evaluating these, I think one has to ask three questions
(and in this order): (1) Does it work? (2) Is it possible? (3) Is it likely?

So let's look at the first question. We start with three proto-forms:

*'mah.hi
*'ma.hi
*'ma:.hi

The language contrasts long and short vowels and long and short consonants,
so these are three possible words. (Note: In the above, two consonants in a
row across syllable boundaries is equivalent to a long consonant within a single
syllable.)

The historical changes involved are as followed (ordered):

(1) Stressed Syllable Prominence: In this case, vowels in open stressed syllables
lengthen by mora: short become long, long become overlong. That produces
the following secondary proto-forms:

*'mah.hi
*'ma:.hi
*'ma::.hi

(2) Geminate Simplification: Geminate fricatives simplified. That produces the
modern forms:

'ma.hi
'ma:.hi
'ma::.hi

Now, the second two would likely be strong and weak versions of the same
lexeme, but they would distinguish meaning--just not lexical meaning. Thus,
the three words could be distinct, distinguished only by vowel length. (Notice
also that the result of this historical change would be what Prince noticed
about Estonian: A Q2 and a Q3 vowel are showing an alternation in strong
and weak grade, not Q1 and Q3. That, though, is simply an artefact of the
historical change.)

Okay, second question: Is it possible? Geminates do simplify, on occasion; it
happens. I think the controversial change here is the syllable prominence. Things
do happen to give weight to stressed syllables, but is the production of overlong
vowels possible--and is it possible that a coda consonant would block a long
vowel from becoming overlong? Perhaps. Then again, most everything I do
seems to be sensitive to weight. What I've set it up is a max trimoraic syllable.
That, essentially, is the constraint. It seems possible.

Now the tough one: Is it likely? By itself, I'd say these changes could be plausible.
Where it gets iffy is the part that doesn't even have anything to do with this
example: Intervocalic voicing, devoicing and fortition. Specifically, you have
a push chain whereby voiced stops not preceded by nasals devoice, which causes
voiceless stops to lengthen, and voiceless geminates to lengthen further. All
the while, fricative geminates are actually *shortening*, and then intervocalic
voicing happens to the fricatives (/h/ being left out as its voiced variant isn't
distinguished in this language). Each of these steps is possible. Their combination
is crucial to produce the effect I desire, and that combination is what's really at
stake.

Quickly, here's the other example, which is actually a bit more controversial, now
that I look at it.

>> ['ma:.pi] "mabi"
>> ['ma:p.pi] "ma:pi"
>> ['ma:p:.pi] "ma:ppi"

The three proto forms:

*'ma.bi
*'ma:.pi
*'ma:p.pi

First devoicing and the push chain:

*'ma.pi
*'ma:p.pi
*'ma:p:.pi

Second, lengthening (only applies to the first word which has an open syllable):

*'ma:.pi
*'ma:p.pi
*'ma:p:.pi

What's controversial is that last form. Basically, the length on the geminate at the
end of the syllable is extrametrical. Presumably such superheavy syllables would
only be allowed as part of a Q3 consonant. A natural outcome, though, would seem
to me to be shortening, so that the vowel becomes Q1 (having it lengthen to Q3
wouldn't make sense with this set up, I don't think). That would defeat the minimal
trio. I could rescue it with *bb > p, but that would be self-serving (honestly, I've
never known what to do with voiced stop geminates... Currently they simply devoice).
Thus, I've left it as is, with a tetramoraic first syllable.

As it stands, the minimal trios exist for both vowels and consonants, but there
conditions are highly specific. There would, of course, be many, many near-minimal
pairs, though. I figure that plus the minimal pairs is enough to claim that the three
lengths have phonemic status.

Ultimately, though, this doesn't matter. When I "build" words, what I'm building
are proto forms; what you see above is simply an analysis showing what they
sound like "now". It's not as if I'm treating vowels and consonants of three lengths
as "letters" (for lack of a better term) and then I'm throwing them all in a bag,
shaking it up, and randomly drawing some of them out to produce new lexemes.
That would be irresponsible.

Anyway, these are the questions I'm focusing on. The synchronic phenomena
of Estonian, while fascinating, don't concern me (though I really would like to
see a historical account of it. That's what was always missing from all those
phonology and morphology classes...).

##I don't want to start a NCNC OT discussion on this. Let's just say that that's the
way it's supposed to be in an ideal world and leave it at that.

-David
*******************************************************************
"sunly eleSkarez ygralleryf ydZZixelje je ox2mejze."
"No eternal reward will forgive us now for wasting the dawn."

-Jim Morrison

http://dedalvs.com/

LCS Member Since 2007
http://conlang.org/

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January 2011, Week 1
December 2010, Week 5
December 2010, Week 4
December 2010, Week 3
December 2010, Week 2
December 2010, Week 1
November 2010, Week 5
November 2010, Week 4
November 2010, Week 3
November 2010, Week 2
November 2010, Week 1
October 2010, Week 5
October 2010, Week 4
October 2010, Week 3
October 2010, Week 2
October 2010, Week 1
September 2010, Week 5
September 2010, Week 4
September 2010, Week 3
September 2010, Week 2
September 2010, Week 1
August 2010, Week 5
August 2010, Week 4
August 2010, Week 3
August 2010, Week 2
August 2010, Week 1
July 2010, Week 5
July 2010, Week 4
July 2010, Week 3
July 2010, Week 2
July 2010, Week 1
June 2010, Week 5
June 2010, Week 4
June 2010, Week 3
June 2010, Week 2
June 2010, Week 1
May 2010, Week 5
May 2010, Week 4
May 2010, Week 3
May 2010, Week 2
May 2010, Week 1
April 2010, Week 5
April 2010, Week 4
April 2010, Week 3
April 2010, Week 2
April 2010, Week 1
March 2010, Week 5
March 2010, Week 4
March 2010, Week 3
March 2010, Week 2
March 2010, Week 1
February 2010, Week 4
February 2010, Week 3
February 2010, Week 2
February 2010, Week 1
January 2010, Week 5
January 2010, Week 4
January 2010, Week 3
January 2010, Week 2
January 2010, Week 1
December 2009, Week 5
December 2009, Week 4
December 2009, Week 3
December 2009, Week 2
December 2009, Week 1
November 2009, Week 5
November 2009, Week 4
November 2009, Week 3
November 2009, Week 2
November 2009, Week 1
October 2009, Week 5
October 2009, Week 4
October 2009, Week 3
October 2009, Week 2
October 2009, Week 1
September 2009, Week 5
September 2009, Week 4
September 2009, Week 3
September 2009, Week 2
September 2009, Week 1
August 2009, Week 5
August 2009, Week 4
August 2009, Week 3
August 2009, Week 2
August 2009, Week 1
July 2009, Week 5
July 2009, Week 4
July 2009, Week 3
July 2009, Week 2
July 2009, Week 1
June 2009, Week 5
June 2009, Week 4
June 2009, Week 3
June 2009, Week 2
June 2009, Week 1
May 2009, Week 5
May 2009, Week 4
May 2009, Week 3
May 2009, Week 2
May 2009, Week 1
April 2009, Week 5
April 2009, Week 4
April 2009, Week 3
April 2009, Week 2
April 2009, Week 1
March 2009, Week 5
March 2009, Week 4
March 2009, Week 3
March 2009, Week 2
March 2009, Week 1
February 2009, Week 4
February 2009, Week 3
February 2009, Week 2
February 2009, Week 1
January 2009, Week 5
January 2009, Week 4
January 2009, Week 3
January 2009, Week 2
January 2009, Week 1
December 2008, Week 5
December 2008, Week 4
December 2008, Week 3
December 2008, Week 2
December 2008, Week 1
November 2008, Week 5
November 2008, Week 4
November 2008, Week 3
November 2008, Week 2
November 2008, Week 1
October 2008, Week 5
October 2008, Week 4
October 2008, Week 3
October 2008, Week 2
October 2008, Week 1
September 2008, Week 5
September 2008, Week 4
September 2008, Week 3
September 2008, Week 2
September 2008, Week 1
August 2008, Week 5
August 2008, Week 4
August 2008, Week 3
August 2008, Week 2
August 2008, Week 1
July 2008, Week 5
July 2008, Week 4
July 2008, Week 3
July 2008, Week 2
July 2008, Week 1
June 2008, Week 5
June 2008, Week 4
June 2008, Week 3
June 2008, Week 2
June 2008, Week 1
May 2008, Week 5
May 2008, Week 4
May 2008, Week 3
May 2008, Week 2
May 2008, Week 1
April 2008, Week 5
April 2008, Week 4
April 2008, Week 3
April 2008, Week 2
April 2008, Week 1
March 2008, Week 5
March 2008, Week 4
March 2008, Week 3
March 2008, Week 2
March 2008, Week 1
February 2008, Week 5
February 2008, Week 4
February 2008, Week 3
February 2008, Week 2
February 2008, Week 1
January 2008, Week 5
January 2008, Week 4
January 2008, Week 3
January 2008, Week 2
January 2008, Week 1
December 2007, Week 5
December 2007, Week 4
December 2007, Week 3
December 2007, Week 2
December 2007, Week 1
November 2007, Week 5
November 2007, Week 4
November 2007, Week 3
November 2007, Week 2
November 2007, Week 1
October 2007, Week 5
October 2007, Week 4
October 2007, Week 3
October 2007, Week 2
October 2007, Week 1
September 2007, Week 5
September 2007, Week 4
September 2007, Week 3
September 2007, Week 2
September 2007, Week 1
August 2007, Week 5
August 2007, Week 4
August 2007, Week 3
August 2007, Week 2
August 2007, Week 1
July 2007, Week 5
July 2007, Week 4
July 2007, Week 3
July 2007, Week 2
July 2007, Week 1
June 2007, Week 5
June 2007, Week 4
June 2007, Week 3
June 2007, Week 2
June 2007, Week 1
May 2007, Week 5
May 2007, Week 4
May 2007, Week 3
May 2007, Week 2
May 2007, Week 1
April 2007, Week 5
April 2007, Week 4
April 2007, Week 3
April 2007, Week 2
April 2007, Week 1
March 2007, Week 5
March 2007, Week 4
March 2007, Week 3
March 2007, Week 2
March 2007, Week 1
February 2007, Week 4
February 2007, Week 3
February 2007, Week 2
February 2007, Week 1
January 2007, Week 5
January 2007, Week 4
January 2007, Week 3
January 2007, Week 2
January 2007, Week 1
December 2006, Week 5
December 2006, Week 4
December 2006, Week 3
December 2006, Week 2
December 2006, Week 1
November 2006, Week 5
November 2006, Week 4
November 2006, Week 3
November 2006, Week 2
November 2006, Week 1
October 2006, Week 5
October 2006, Week 4
October 2006, Week 3
October 2006, Week 2
October 2006, Week 1
September 2006, Week 5
September 2006, Week 4
September 2006, Week 3
September 2006, Week 2
September 2006, Week 1
August 2006, Week 5
August 2006, Week 4
August 2006, Week 3
August 2006, Week 2
August 2006, Week 1
July 2006, Week 5
July 2006, Week 4
July 2006, Week 3
July 2006, Week 2
July 2006, Week 1
June 2006, Week 5
June 2006, Week 4
June 2006, Week 3
June 2006, Week 2
June 2006, Week 1
May 2006, Week 5
May 2006, Week 4
May 2006, Week 3
May 2006, Week 2
May 2006, Week 1
April 2006, Week 5
April 2006, Week 4
April 2006, Week 3
April 2006, Week 2
April 2006, Week 1
March 2006, Week 5
March 2006, Week 4
March 2006, Week 3
March 2006, Week 2
March 2006, Week 1
February 2006, Week 4
February 2006, Week 3
February 2006, Week 2
February 2006, Week 1
January 2006, Week 5
January 2006, Week 4
January 2006, Week 3
January 2006, Week 2
January 2006, Week 1
December 2005, Week 5
December 2005, Week 4
December 2005, Week 3
December 2005, Week 2
December 2005, Week 1
November 2005, Week 5
November 2005, Week 4
November 2005, Week 3
November 2005, Week 2
November 2005, Week 1
October 2005, Week 5
October 2005, Week 4
October 2005, Week 3
October 2005, Week 2
October 2005, Week 1
September 2005, Week 5
September 2005, Week 4
September 2005, Week 3
September 2005, Week 2
September 2005, Week 1
August 2005, Week 5
August 2005, Week 4
August 2005, Week 3
August 2005, Week 2
August 2005, Week 1
July 2005, Week 5
July 2005, Week 4
July 2005, Week 3
July 2005, Week 2
July 2005, Week 1
June 2005, Week 5
June 2005, Week 4
June 2005, Week 3
June 2005, Week 2
June 2005, Week 1
May 2005, Week 5
May 2005, Week 4
May 2005, Week 3
May 2005, Week 2
May 2005, Week 1
April 2005, Week 5
April 2005, Week 4
April 2005, Week 3
April 2005, Week 2
April 2005, Week 1
March 2005, Week 5
March 2005, Week 4
March 2005, Week 3
March 2005, Week 2
March 2005, Week 1
February 2005, Week 4
February 2005, Week 3
February 2005, Week 2
February 2005, Week 1
January 2005, Week 5
January 2005, Week 4
January 2005, Week 3
January 2005, Week 2
January 2005, Week 1
December 2004, Week 5
December 2004, Week 4
December 2004, Week 3
December 2004, Week 2
December 2004, Week 1
November 2004, Week 5
November 2004, Week 4
November 2004, Week 3
November 2004, Week 2
November 2004, Week 1
October 2004, Week 5
October 2004, Week 4
October 2004, Week 3
October 2004, Week 2
October 2004, Week 1
September 2004, Week 5
September 2004, Week 4
September 2004, Week 3
September 2004, Week 2
September 2004, Week 1
August 2004, Week 5
August 2004, Week 4
August 2004, Week 3
August 2004, Week 2
August 2004, Week 1
July 2004, Week 5
July 2004, Week 4
July 2004, Week 3
July 2004, Week 2
July 2004, Week 1
June 2004, Week 5
June 2004, Week 4
June 2004, Week 3
June 2004, Week 2
June 2004, Week 1
May 2004, Week 5
May 2004, Week 4
May 2004, Week 3
May 2004, Week 2
May 2004, Week 1
April 2004, Week 5
April 2004, Week 4
April 2004, Week 3
April 2004, Week 2
April 2004, Week 1
March 2004, Week 5
March 2004, Week 4
March 2004, Week 3
March 2004, Week 2
March 2004, Week 1
February 2004, Week 5
February 2004, Week 4
February 2004, Week 3
February 2004, Week 2
February 2004, Week 1
January 2004, Week 5
January 2004, Week 4
January 2004, Week 3
January 2004, Week 2
January 2004, Week 1
December 2003, Week 5
December 2003, Week 4
December 2003, Week 3
December 2003, Week 2
December 2003, Week 1
November 2003, Week 5
November 2003, Week 4
November 2003, Week 3
November 2003, Week 2
November 2003, Week 1
October 2003, Week 5
October 2003, Week 4
October 2003, Week 3
October 2003, Week 2
October 2003, Week 1
September 2003, Week 5
September 2003, Week 4
September 2003, Week 3
September 2003, Week 2
September 2003, Week 1
August 2003, Week 5
August 2003, Week 4
August 2003, Week 3
August 2003, Week 2
August 2003, Week 1
July 2003, Week 5
July 2003, Week 4
July 2003, Week 3
July 2003, Week 2
July 2003, Week 1
June 2003, Week 5
June 2003, Week 4
June 2003, Week 3
June 2003, Week 2
June 2003, Week 1
May 2003, Week 5
May 2003, Week 4
May 2003, Week 3
May 2003, Week 2
May 2003, Week 1
April 2003, Week 5
April 2003, Week 4
April 2003, Week 3
April 2003, Week 2
April 2003, Week 1
March 2003, Week 5
March 2003, Week 4
March 2003, Week 3
March 2003, Week 2
March 2003, Week 1
February 2003, Week 4
February 2003, Week 3
February 2003, Week 2
February 2003, Week 1
January 2003, Week 5
January 2003, Week 4
January 2003, Week 3
January 2003, Week 2
January 2003, Week 1
December 2002, Week 5
December 2002, Week 4
December 2002, Week 3
December 2002, Week 2
December 2002, Week 1
November 2002, Week 5
November 2002, Week 4
November 2002, Week 3
November 2002, Week 2
November 2002, Week 1
October 2002, Week 5
October 2002, Week 4
October 2002, Week 3
October 2002, Week 2
October 2002, Week 1
September 2002, Week 5
September 2002, Week 4
September 2002, Week 3
September 2002, Week 2
September 2002, Week 1
August 2002, Week 5
August 2002, Week 4
August 2002, Week 3
August 2002, Week 2
August 2002, Week 1
July 2002, Week 5
July 2002, Week 4
July 2002, Week 3
July 2002, Week 2
July 2002, Week 1
June 2002, Week 5
June 2002, Week 4
June 2002, Week 3
June 2002, Week 2
June 2002, Week 1
May 2002, Week 5
May 2002, Week 4
May 2002, Week 3
May 2002, Week 2
May 2002, Week 1
April 2002, Week 5
April 2002, Week 4
April 2002, Week 3
April 2002, Week 2
April 2002, Week 1
March 2002, Week 5
March 2002, Week 4
March 2002, Week 3
March 2002, Week 2
March 2002, Week 1
February 2002, Week 4
February 2002, Week 3
February 2002, Week 2
February 2002, Week 1
January 2002, Week 5
January 2002, Week 4
January 2002, Week 3
January 2002, Week 2
January 2002, Week 1
December 2001, Week 5
December 2001, Week 4
December 2001, Week 3
December 2001, Week 2
December 2001, Week 1
November 2001, Week 5
November 2001, Week 4
November 2001, Week 3
November 2001, Week 2
November 2001, Week 1
October 2001, Week 5
October 2001, Week 4
October 2001, Week 3
October 2001, Week 2
October 2001, Week 1
September 2001, Week 5
September 2001, Week 4
September 2001, Week 3
September 2001, Week 2
September 2001, Week 1
August 2001, Week 5
August 2001, Week 4
August 2001, Week 3
August 2001, Week 2
August 2001, Week 1
July 2001, Week 5
July 2001, Week 4
July 2001, Week 3
July 2001, Week 2
July 2001, Week 1
June 2001, Week 5
June 2001, Week 4
June 2001, Week 3
June 2001, Week 2
June 2001, Week 1
May 2001, Week 5
May 2001, Week 4
May 2001, Week 3
May 2001, Week 2
May 2001, Week 1
April 2001, Week 5
April 2001, Week 4
April 2001, Week 3
April 2001, Week 2
April 2001, Week 1
March 2001, Week 5
March 2001, Week 4
March 2001, Week 3
March 2001, Week 2
March 2001, Week 1
February 2001, Week 4
February 2001, Week 3
February 2001, Week 2
February 2001, Week 1
January 2001, Week 5
January 2001, Week 4
January 2001, Week 3
January 2001, Week 2
January 2001, Week 1
December 2000, Week 5
December 2000, Week 4
December 2000, Week 3
December 2000, Week 2
December 2000, Week 1
November 2000, Week 5
November 2000, Week 4
November 2000, Week 3
November 2000, Week 2
November 2000, Week 1
October 2000, Week 5
October 2000, Week 4
October 2000, Week 3
October 2000, Week 2
October 2000, Week 1
September 2000, Week 5
September 2000, Week 4
September 2000, Week 3
September 2000, Week 2
September 2000, Week 1
August 2000, Week 5
August 2000, Week 4
August 2000, Week 3
August 2000, Week 2
August 2000, Week 1
July 2000, Week 5
July 2000, Week 4
July 2000, Week 3
July 2000, Week 2
July 2000, Week 1
June 2000, Week 5
June 2000, Week 4
June 2000, Week 3
June 2000, Week 2
June 2000, Week 1
May 2000, Week 5
May 2000, Week 4
May 2000, Week 3
May 2000, Week 2
May 2000, Week 1
April 2000, Week 5
April 2000, Week 4
April 2000, Week 3
April 2000, Week 2
April 2000, Week 1
March 2000, Week 5
March 2000, Week 4
March 2000, Week 3
March 2000, Week 2
March 2000, Week 1
February 2000, Week 5
February 2000, Week 4
February 2000, Week 3
February 2000, Week 2
February 2000, Week 1
January 2000, Week 5
January 2000, Week 4
January 2000, Week 3
January 2000, Week 2
January 2000, Week 1
December 1999, Week 5
December 1999, Week 4
December 1999, Week 3
December 1999, Week 2
December 1999, Week 1
November 1999, Week 5
November 1999, Week 4
November 1999, Week 3
November 1999, Week 2
November 1999, Week 1
October 1999, Week 5
October 1999, Week 4
October 1999, Week 3
October 1999, Week 2
October 1999, Week 1
September 1999, Week 5
September 1999, Week 4
September 1999, Week 3
September 1999, Week 2
September 1999, Week 1
August 1999, Week 5
August 1999, Week 4
August 1999, Week 3
August 1999, Week 2
August 1999, Week 1
July 1999, Week 5
July 1999, Week 4
July 1999, Week 3
July 1999, Week 2
July 1999, Week 1
June 1999, Week 5
June 1999, Week 4
June 1999, Week 3
June 1999, Week 2
June 1999, Week 1
May 1999, Week 5
May 1999, Week 4
May 1999, Week 3
May 1999, Week 2
May 1999, Week 1
April 1999, Week 5
April 1999, Week 4
April 1999, Week 3
April 1999, Week 2
April 1999, Week 1
March 1999, Week 5
March 1999, Week 4
March 1999, Week 3
March 1999, Week 2
March 1999, Week 1
February 1999, Week 5
February 1999, Week 4
February 1999, Week 3
February 1999, Week 2
February 1999, Week 1
January 1999, Week 5
January 1999, Week 4
January 1999, Week 3
January 1999, Week 2
January 1999, Week 1
December 1998, Week 5
December 1998, Week 4
December 1998, Week 3
December 1998, Week 2
December 1998, Week 1
November 1998, Week 5
November 1998, Week 4
November 1998, Week 3
November 1998, Week 2
November 1998, Week 1
October 1998, Week 5
October 1998, Week 4
October 1998, Week 3
October 1998, Week 2
October 1998, Week 1
September 1998, Week 5
September 1998, Week 4
September 1998, Week 3

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