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CONLANG  October 2010, Week 2

CONLANG October 2010, Week 2

Subject:

Re: An engelang to minimize or contain abstractness

From:

John Vertical <[log in to unmask]>

Reply-To:

Constructed Languages List <[log in to unmask]>

Date:

Sat, 9 Oct 2010 15:23:04 -0400

Content-Type:

text/plain

Parts/Attachments:

Parts/Attachments

text/plain (65 lines)

On Thu, 7 Oct 2010 08:54:22 -0400, Jim Henry wrote:
>Most engelangs, it seem to me, especially semantically minimalist ones,
>suffer from an excess of abstraction in their root vocabulary.
(…)
>It's occurred to me that one could build a more or less semantically
>minimalist engelang on the reverse principle, with all the built-in
>abstractions confined to a small number of derivational operations,
>all the content root words being concrete nouns or physical action
>verbs, and all abstract words and most or all grammatical functions
>being derived from the concrete/physical roots via a tiny number of
>derivational operations.  Following Deutscher, we might also have two
>or three physical-pointing deictic words, with more abstract deixis
>derived from them somehow.

Just in case this wasn't immediately obvious, I suggest looking into the
origins of Greco-Latinate scientific and philosophical vocabulary, a large
part of which was derived exactly in this manner. I imagine many other
languages have used similar procedures to coin native counterparts (Finnish
certainly has, and IIRC Icelandic is another lang that prefers this route).

>We can derive abstract and mental verbs by metaphor or generalization
>from concrete verbs.  Abstract nouns can be derived by metaphor or
>generalization from concrete nouns.  Concrete modifiers can be derived
>by metonymy from certain prototypical concrete nouns, while abstract
>modifiers can be derived by metaphor from the concrete modifiers.
>(E.g., elephant + metonymy = big, big + metaphor = important;  blood +
>metonymy = red,  red + metaphor = angry?)   Spatial adpositions can be
>derived by metaphor or metonymy from motion verbs and body-part nouns.
>
>Such a simple derivational morphology is apt to be somewhat opaque,
>with many or most of its derivations being idiomatic; is the
>generalization of "mother" going to be "woman" or "parent"?   Is the
>metonymy from "father" going to be an adjective "male" or a concrete
>noun for a body part all fathers have?  Any suggestions on how to
>ameliorate that without violating the basic design principle would be
>welcome.

I think the problem is that abstractions represent generalizations, not
specializations. From any one natural concept, you can make several of
these: is "elephant" the arketype of "big", or "gray", or "thick-skinned"?
(By contrast, "trunked mammal" is fairly unambiguous.)

The way I see around this is to not use derivational operations but
comparisions: define "big" not simply as "elephantine property" but eg.
"property shared by elephants and mountains". With suitable choice of
original nouns, you may not need anything but a simple juxtaposition with
implied generalization. Maybe a part-of-speech marker.

For an example, Finnish _maailma_ "world", literally "earth+air". I'm told
this is the original Uralic pattern, with the . I've seen some further
examples from Mordvinic, something like "dairy" as "milk+cream".

Hence, "parent" = "mother+father+NOUN"; "woman" = "mother+sister+NOUN";
"red" = "blood+rose+ADJ"; "angry" "yell+berate+ADJ"; "quick" =
"swallow+horse+ADJ"; "marsupial" = "possum+kangaroo+NOUN/ADJ"; "solar
system" = "sun+moon+NOUN"; "acid" = "bile+vinegar+NOUN"; "money" =
"gold+silver+NOUN" (or, depending on the setting - "penny+tenner+NOUN"),
"two" = "eyes+hands+ADJ", etc.

Would be fun to do some more, but as I don't think I have the time to start
a project like this right now, feel free to run with this on your own if
you'd like.

John Vertical

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