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CONLANG  March 2011, Week 5

CONLANG March 2011, Week 5

Subject:

CHAT James (was: Etymological tangent)

From:

R A Brown <[log in to unmask]>

Reply-To:

[log in to unmask]

Date:

Tue, 29 Mar 2011 15:19:23 +0100

Content-Type:

text/plain

Parts/Attachments:

Parts/Attachments

text/plain (123 lines)

On 29/03/2011 09:43, BPJ wrote:
> 2011-03-29 01:37, Garth Wallace skrev:
>> On Mon, Mar 28, 2011 at 2:57 PM, Adam
[snip]
>>
>> According to Wikipedia (which doesn't cite a source for
>>  this):
>>
>> | The name came into English language from the French
>> variation of the late Latin | name, Iacomus; a dialect
>> variant of Iacobus, from the New Testament Greek
>> Ἰάκωβος | (Iákōbos), from Hebrew word יעקב (Yaʻaqov).
>> The development Iacobus
>>> Iacomus is
>> | likely a result of nasalization of the o and
>> assimilation to the following b (i.e., | intermediate
>> *Iacombus) followed by simplification of the cluster
>> mb through loss of | the b.
>> <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_(name)>
>
> *Iacombus may derive from a late Koiné attempt to spell
> /b/ rather than /v/, though whoever did it must have
> been even more ignorant of Hebrew than I am! ;-)

Quite so - which surely makes this very unlikely. The Hebrew 
was already a fricative at this period, and the Greeks were 
happily rendering both Hebrew _beth_ and _vau/ wau_ by β as 
early as the first century AD.

> Cf.
> _sambaton_ for _sabbaton_,
> <http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?term=Sabbath> though

But that's a different matter altogether. Here we have a 
popular attempt to adapt the non-Greek [bb] to normal Greek 
phonology. In the ancient language, we do not find geminate 
_voiced_ plosives (except occasionally in dialect) - hence 
they could safely spell [ŋg] as γγ (gg), thus keeping all 
instances of [ŋ] spelled as γ.
Cf.
http://www.carolandray.plus.com/TAKE/OrthoAndPhono.html#nasals

> there a Greek folk etymology may be involved.

? What possible folk etymology?

> There is
> also a variant _Jacopomus_,

Reference? I can't find any citations of this form.

> which supports my hypothesis,
> since /mb/ and /mp/ merged as [mb] in late Koiné. In
> modern Greek the nasal may be facultatively lost, giving
> [b] and [mb] as alternative realizations of /mp/ (or
> perhaps an /mb)/ phoneme), but I don't know how old that
> is.

Why all this reference to the Koine when no variants of 
Ιάκωβος are attested? The modern Γιακουμής seems to be a 
conflation of Ιάκωβος (James) with Ιωακείμ (Joachim) and has 
no bearing on ancient forms.

Surely the development Jacobus -> Jacomus  is to be sought 
in Latin itself? The Greek Ιάκωβος was be Latinized[1] as 
Jacōbus /ja'ko:bus/ and this was the form found in the 
Vulgate and still used in Church Latin till the present day 
(tho the distinction of long & short vowels is no longer 
observed).

[1] I'm using the spelling _j_ for the consonant use of 
ancient _i_

However, it seems that in the colloquial language, when the 
Greek word accent changed from pitch to stress (4th cent. 
AD?), a form Jácobus /'jakobUs/ became current (by this time 
the distinction between long and short vowels had given way 
in the popular language to one of quality).

We also know that in western proto-Romance (Vulgar Latin), 
[U] and [o] merged and that intervocalic voiced plosives 
became fricatives, i.e. /'jakobU/ -> /jakoβo/ which would 
have soon given way to /jako/, hence the modern _Iago_ 
(Spanish forms like _Diago_, _Diego_ seem to come from a 
reinterpretation of _sant Iago_ as _san Diago_, tho the 
vocalization of Diego is odd).

It seems to me that Jacomu- simply arose from efforts to 
preserve three syllables, /m/ replacing the vanishing /β/. 
It would also explain the variant Jacop(p)u- which lies 
behind the Italian forms Iacopo or Jacopo, Giacobbe (Italian 
Giacomo is, of course, from Jacomu-).

Jacomu- appeared in Old French as:
Nominative: Ja(i)mes
    Oblique: Jaime

The English forms is derived from the Old French nominative. 
In view of the final vowel of Spanish _Jaime_, I assume this 
was also a borrowing from a medieval French form (or maybe 
Provençal).

French forms Jacques (nom.), Jacque (oblique) are, I would 
guess, due to (semi-)learned influence.

In short, IMO:
- there is no evidence for *Jacombus and I see no reason to 
posit such a form.
- the changes Jacōbus /ja'ko:bus/ -> Jácobus /'jakobUs/ ->
Jácomus /'jakomUs/ are to be explained as changes within 
Latin (tho the shift of stress from penultimate to 
antepenultimate is due to contemporary Greek change of pitch 
to stress word accent).

-- 
Ray
==================================
http://www.carolandray.plus.com
==================================
Frustra fit per plura quod potest
fieri per pauciora.
[William of Ockham]

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