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CONLANG  August 2011, Week 1

CONLANG August 2011, Week 1

Subject:

Re: Perfectivity of verbs of being

From:

Basilius <[log in to unmask]>

Reply-To:

Constructed Languages List <[log in to unmask]>

Date:

Fri, 5 Aug 2011 11:30:35 -0400

Content-Type:

text/plain

Parts/Attachments:

Parts/Attachments

text/plain (116 lines)

This discussion seems to show that the notion of aspect is still a
controversial one; there are several concurring definitions, and natural
languages craftily fail to conform with any ;)

I think that the main trouble with perfective/imperfective is that it is not
a trivial task to treat all verbs alike with this distinction.

In particular, aspects strongly interact with lexical-semantic telicity; the
problem isn't just about the verb 'be', it'll pop up with every semantically
atelic verb.

And the trouble with telicity is that it is an asymmetrical thing.

A semantically telic verb (e. g. 'stand up' or 'become') implies a change of
state or achieving a natural result; the event it denotes has a natural
endpoint, so lexical-semantic telicity better combines with perfective. For
a telic verb in imperfective, there is a choice between very few natural
interpretations, i. e. different ways to **remove** the semantic component
of "change", and thus the notion of natural endpoint. 

For example, imperfective + telic can point to the resultant state of
affairs viewed as indefinitely long (i. e. not implying a natural endpoint;
e. g. 'have become and continue to be' or 'be extinct'); or an indefinitely
long repetition of events (where each single event would be denoted by
perfective, e. g. 'regularly become'); or a time frame altered in such a way
that the process of change can be viewed as long enough e. g. to be the
background for shorter events (that is, the natural endpoint just becoming
out-of-focus; e. g., 'be standing up {when the telephone rang}' or 'be
extinguishing {during Pleistocene}'). Some interpretations do not contradict
each other and can be available simultaneously in one language for single
generic form of imperfective (for example, "repeated events" and "altered
timeframe"). Others do not match together well (for example, "altered
timeframe" and "static result": one implies that the change has not been
completed, and the other, that it has been); a language may have only one of
them, or use different forms of imperfective to denote them, or resort to
some idiosyncratic tricks to disambiguate between them.   

Atelic verbs are semantically simpler, for they just denote a condition or
cyclic process that does not imply any natural endpoint by itself (which
implies imperfective as the default aspect). This simplicity is a trap, for
to use an atelic verb in perfective, one has to **add** a semantic component
to its interpretation, and there are too many ways to add such an
unspecified component, including tons of idiosyncratic ones strongly
depending on the lexical meaning of the verb. 

What solutions seem natural to me, conlanging-wise?

(1) Design a morphology that reflects this asymmetry. For example, lexically
telic verbs are perfective by default; there are a couple imperfective forms
regularly derived from them (with meanings like 'be standing up' or 'become
regularly', etc.), which can be considered part of their paradigm; lexically
atelic verbs are always used in imperfective; there is a huge inventory of
derivation patterns that produce perfectives from them ('sit' -> 'sit down',
'have sat long enough to have a good rest', 'have been sitting until
something else happens', 'spend an amount of time sitting' etc.), but these
are better treated as separate telic lexemes, with secondary imperfectives
as part of their own paradigms. (This is, BTW, a squared-off version of how
Slavic languages typically treat the two aspects.)

(2) Or, if you want a strictly symmetrical morphology in this point, you may
pick a pair of interpretations of imperfective-telic and perfective-atelic
that are roughly symmetrical. For example, static-resultative for the former
and inchoative for the latter. Then you'll have 'stand' identical to 'have
stood up', and 'be' identical to 'have become' (or 'have gotten {to some
place}' etc.); to convey meanings like 'be standing up' or 'be becoming' or
'regularly become', you'll need to resort to circumlocutions or some
additional tricks with morphology. 

(3) Or else, again with the symmetrical morphology, you may want the aspect
distinction to be fully productive only with semantically telic verbs, and
atelic verbs to be normally used in imperfective. As an option, you can
allow perfective-atelic to be highly marked and convey a vague idea like
static condition leading to some unspecified result (to be figured out from
the context). Thus, _he stood-PF there for an hour_ would mean essentially
'an hour passed while he was standing there', and with negation, _he NEG
stood-PF there for an hour_ might mean 'less than an hour passed while he
was standing there' (while with imperfective, the same construction would
imply that the guy just wasn't there for a whole hour, while we expected him
to be standing there for all the night, or something of that sort).

(4) Or else, mix any of (1)-(3) in any proportion as you wish.

But whichever solution is chosen, one has to think how to organize one's
vocabulary in the first place.

On Thu, 4 Aug 2011 13:38:55 -0400, Nico Baier wrote:

>But there are a number of languages in which Perfective Aspect
>denotes a present state with stative predicates. Specifically at the time,
I was
>thinking about a description of the tense/aspect/modality system of
>Badiaranke by Rebecca Tamar Cover. The work can be found here:
>
>http://linguistics.berkeley.edu/dissertations/Cover_dissertation_2010.pdf

[....]

>But just from quick looking around, it
>seems like there's a lot of disagreement on this point for Mandarin. For
>example, this paper (http://www.lingref.com/cpp/tls/2004/paper1510.pdf)
>claims that Mandarin perfective le can't appear in sentences with unbound
>states. 

On Fri, 5 Aug 2011 09:40:01 -0500, Wm Annis wrote:

>The {le} that shows perfect and the {le} that shows change of
>state are different words.  You can even get both of them in a
>single sentence (the change of state {le} goes at the end of the
>clause).
>
>http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.90.31&rep=rep1&type=pdf

Thank you for the links, guys; some interesting reading ahead! :)

-- Basilius

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