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CONLANG  August 2011, Week 3

CONLANG August 2011, Week 3

Subject:

Thoughts on a universal alphabet - vowel letters

From:

Herman Miller <[log in to unmask]>

Reply-To:

Constructed Languages List <[log in to unmask]>

Date:

Fri, 19 Aug 2011 22:47:36 -0400

Content-Type:

text/plain

Parts/Attachments:

Parts/Attachments

text/plain (89 lines)

The Vowel Circle

I've been thinking lately about a different approach to a universal 
alphabet. I've had a more or less phonetic, featural plan behind writing 
systems like Njörr (Ljörr / Lhoerr), Tharkania, and Kjaginic. But 
although Tirelat uses Kjaginic, not all letters are used with their 
strict phonetic values. English gets by with bizarre spellings like "u" 
for /ʌ/ (which phonetically is more like [ɐ] in a typical American 
pronunciation). So I've been thinking of a more abstract way to 
associate sounds with letters.

Tolkien's writing systems (Tengwar and Cirth) have a neat, orderly 
scheme for representing consonants, without being tied down to exact 
phonetic sounds. They're systematic without losing flexibility. Still, 
they're more featural than most scripts, but you could do the same sort 
of thing with more arbitrary symbols.

So a rectangular table of some kind makes sense for consonants. What 
about vowels? One thought I had is to arrange letters in a rough circle, 
with 9 vowels around the circle and one extra one in the middle.

  -----------
|    9 8    |
|  1     7  |
| 2   0   6 |
|  3     5  |
|     4     |
  -----------

The letters 1, 4, and 7 are the main landmarks of the circle, which 
represent sounds close to [i], [a], [u] as appropriate for each 
language. For instance, /ɯ/ in Japanese would be written with 7, since 
it's the highest, furthest back sound in the language. Most languages 
will use all 3 of these letters for one sound or another. Occasionally, 
for the sake of symmetry or other reasons, it might make more sense to 
skip over one of these (you could make a case for Persian having a 3 and 
a 5, skipping over 4). But generally most languages will have an i-like 
vowel as 1, an a-like vowel as 4, and a u-like vowel as 7.

The rest of these letters are free to be assigned however works out best 
for the particular language. Italian for instance is an easy case, using 
letters 1-7 in the obvious way:

1 i  2 e  3 ɛ  4 a  5 ɔ  6 o  7 u

A useful mnemonic (although purely coincidental) is that 1 looks like i, 
3 like a backwards ɛ, 4 like capital A, 5 like ɔ with a line above, and 
6 like o with a hook.

Letters in the middle column (8 9 0) would most typically be front 
rounded, central, or back unrounded vowels. For example:

German:       9 ü  0 ö
Swedish: 8 ʉ  9 y  0 ø
Thai:    8 ɯ       0 ɤ

Few languages would need all 10 letters, but it's not uncommon to need 
9. Swedish is an example of a language that can be seen as having 9 
vowels (with length variation). Here's one way of using the vowel circle 
to represent Swedish vowels (IPA characters as used in the Wikipedia 
article "Swedish language"):

1 ɪ iː   2 ɛ eː   3 ɛː   4 a ɑ:
6 ɔ oː   7 ʊ uː   8 ɵ ʉː   9 ʏ yː   0 œ øː

Marking vowel length with a diacritic or doubling the vowel will be 
necessary for languages with large vowel systems like Swedish (or 
English for that matter), unless we want an alphabet with large numbers 
of vowel letters that most languages won't use. 10 letters seems like a 
reasonable compromise.

As a general pattern

1 tends to be used for [i], or short [ɪ] vs. long [iː]
2 " [e], or short [ɛ] vs. long [eː]
3 can be anything from [ɛ] to [æ]
4 can be anything from [a] to [ɑ] or [ɐ]
5 is more variable, anything from [ɒ] to [ʌ] or [ɔ]
6 tends to be used for [o], or short [ɔ] vs. long [oː]
7 is usually some version of [u] or a similar sound
8 is for more back-ish or central vowels that don't fit elsewhere
9 is for more front-ish high vowels, typically rounded like [y]
0 can be anything from [ø] to [ɤ], often a schwa-like central vowel

Examples from my conlangs:

Minza:   1 i  2 ɛ  3 æ  4 ɑ  5 ɔ  7 u  8 ɨ  0 ɵ
Tirelat: 1 i  3 ɛ  4 a  5 ɔ  7 u  8 ɨ  0 ɜ

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