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CONLANG  June 2012, Week 1

CONLANG June 2012, Week 1

Subject:

Re: Ot: German Pronunciation of "w" and "v" (was: Re: Dothraki Throne)

From:

BPJ <[log in to unmask]>

Reply-To:

Constructed Languages List <[log in to unmask]>

Date:

Sat, 2 Jun 2012 22:31:46 +0200

Content-Type:

text/plain

Parts/Attachments:

Parts/Attachments

text/plain (84 lines)

On 2012-06-01 18:34, Andrew Jarrette wrote:

> transcription. My Swedish vowels would be

> >
> >       iᶽ  yᶽʷ         [ʉᶹ]        uᵝ
> >
> >       e   øʷ  øᵝ      ɵᶹ          oᶹ
> >
> >       ɛ           [ɜ]
> >
> >       [æ]             ɞʷ
> >
> >       a                   [ɑ]     ɒʷ

> I take it that in the above paradigm distinctions of
> length are not included. Surely/i/,/y/,/u/, /ø/,/o/,
> and /ɛ/ have both long and short varieties that are
> phonemically distinct, not so?

In most varieties of Swedish vowel length is arguably
allophonic and dependent on syllable structure and
stress: stressed vowels not followed by a consonant
cluster or geminate consonant are long, and all other
vowels are short. There are some exceptions: some CC
clusters where there's a morpheme boundary between the
two consonants don't or facultatively don't inhibit
lengthening, and the results of retroflexion -- //r//
and in some varieties //l// + coronal --, in those
varieties which have it, come out as geminates in some
lexemes and as singletons in some. Interestingly there
is a great deal of individual and lectal variation as
to whether native speakers perceive gemination or vowel
length as distinctive, or are able to hear gemination
at all. But then there are a lot of native speakers who
arent aware of lexical tone, in spite of making the
tonal distinctions consistently and correctly!

> And is [ɵᶹ ] in the
> above paradigm meant to denote exclusively Swedish
> "short u", while Swedish "long u" is denoted by [øᵝ]
> above?

They are those qualities but are distinct phonemes /ɵ/
and "/ʉ/" in my west coast variety (a "götamål"), which
differs from the usual textbook central east coast
(CEC, a "sveamål") variety by actually having twelve
vowel phonemes which can occur long and ten which can
occur short. There not many minimal pairs, for [aː] vs.
[ɒː] and [øᵝː] vs. [ɵᶹː], but the sets of words where
one or the other of the pairs occur are well demarcated
and stable, and there are no words with vacillation for
speakers who have the larger vowel system. The [ɞʷ] vs.
[øʷ] distinction, both long and short, is well
established in all götamål, with most instances of /ɞ/
deriving from Old Swedish _ŏ_, which has merged with
OSw. _ā_ as /o/ in most sveamål, and CEC. Many speakers
who otherwise speak "standard" Swedish retain /ɞ/ even
when they've lost the other two and all distinctive
vocabulary and grammar. Dialect literature commonly use
the letters <ô û â> to distinguish /ɞ ɵ a/ from /u ʉ ɒ/
which are written <o u a>; hence the 'extra' vowels are
referred to as "tâkvokaler" [ˈtaːkvuˌkɒːlɜɻ] 'roof
vowels' by those concerned. Also notable is that my
lect lacks a qualitative difference between long and
short high vowels.

> Are you saying here that every /a/ is phonetically realized as [ɑ]?

I'm saying that in my lect /a/ "â" and /ɒ/ "a" are
neutralized as [ɑ] when (short and) unstressed, and in
some contexts when short and stressed too. The words
_man_ 'male adult human', _mast_ 'mast' and _vatten_
'water' are respectively [mɒn], [mɑst] and [ˈvatːɜn]
for me, and the latter is [vaːn̪] "vân" in my country
register, which some would argue is a distinct, and
severely endangered, language, Bohuslänska. It has
already lost most of its distinctive vocabulary and
what distinctive morphology it had, so that as
elsewhere in Scandinavia it's reduced to a regional
accent.

/bpj

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