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CONLANG  July 2012, Week 5

CONLANG July 2012, Week 5

Subject:

Re: A new direction in loglangs?

From:

Logan Kearsley <[log in to unmask]>

Reply-To:

Constructed Languages List <[log in to unmask]>

Date:

Mon, 30 Jul 2012 22:22:02 -0600

Content-Type:

text/plain

Parts/Attachments:

Parts/Attachments

text/plain (94 lines)

On 26 July 2012 15:58, Logan Kearsley <[log in to unmask]> wrote:
[...]
> I.e., verb- (and some clause-) modifying adverbs are actually
> semantically equivalent to higher-order functions!
> This may or may not result in a revolution in computational
> linguistics, but it certainly will result in some serious rethinking
> of Palno, and perhaps my views on the proper construction of loglangs
> in general.

After thinking about this for another day, I've concluded that the
biggest problem is resolving associativity. E.g., given the sequence

"Bob ball kick hard"

How do you know if "hard" is a higher order function operating on
"kick" before binding the arguments "Bob" and "ball", or if it's a
first-order function operating on the result of "Bob ball kick"? In a
more linguisticky terms, how do you determine if it attaches to the
verb or the clause?

In Palno so far, only the second option is possible, because there are
only first-order operators. Effectively, there are two types of things
in the language (atoms/values and predicates/functions), and
predicates always take values as arguments. If we allow higher-order
operators by letting predicates take other predicates, rather than
values, as arguments, we could introduce an explicit type system into
the language, specifying lexically what the types of an operator's
arguments must be. Then, we'd just have two separate words for "hard"
that takes a predicate argument (and thus must attach to the "verb"
with higher precedence) and "hard" that takes a value argument (and
thus must attach to the clause with lower precedence). However, I find
that horribly inelegant (despite the fact that it would really map
quite well onto natural-language verbs, which have plenty of semantic
and syntactic selectional features; in fact, this has gotten me
thinking of verb semantics in general in terms of  multiple dispatch
off of typed arguments). Partially, that opinion is due to the fact
that this would result in implicitly adding a whole hierarchy of
function types to the language which could in turn be selected for and
produce yet another layer of complex types, which would not correspond
in the least degree to anything that actually occurs in human
languages. There's no reason that potential hierarchy of types would
have to be taken advantage of in the lexicon, but the fact that it
*could* be I see as a serious flaw. Ideally, the syntax should remain
fully untyped.

What a programming language would do is just add parentheses. But
spoken parentheses are wholly unnatural and best avoided. We could
define an explicit order of operations, and then just provide multiple
versions of words with different levels of precedence (so, again two
versions of "hard", with no selectional distinctions but one of which
binds closer than "kick" does and so would attach to the "verb" and
one which binds looser and so would attach to the clause). But while
this works well for math, with a limited number of operators, it
wouldn't work so well for a language with an open class of predicates.
It would be like the animacy hierarchy from hell, having to memorize
the relative positions of every possible pair of predicates in the
entire language, and you could never define enough different synonyms
for every predicate to cover ever possible binding order you might
ever want.

In one version of Palno I introduced conjunctions as a means of
simplifying syntax trees; that extra lexical class could come to the
rescue here, by adding a conjunction that acts like a high-precedence
function application operator. Then we could distinguish

"Bob ball kick hard" -> ((Bob ball kick) hard)
from
"Bob ball kick app hard" -> (Bob ball (kick hard))

It complicates parsing the syntax, because you can't use just a simple
single stack anymore, consuming arguments as soon as you encounter a
predicate; but then *all* infix conjunctions do that, so it's really a
complaint against conjunctions as an additional lexical class being in
the language at all.

Another option is inspired by some dialects of LISP that put function
names in a different namespace from value names. There could be some
special morphology that either promotes a value to a predicate or
demotes a predicate to a value. E.g., "Bob ball kickval hard", which
must parenthesize as (Bob ball (kickval hard)) because "kickval" isn't
a predicate but the result of applying the higher-order predicate
"hard" to the argument "kickval" is.

However, both of these options break down when we look at longer
chains of predicates; e.g.,

"Bob ball kick app hard app really"

Is it "Bob kicks the ball really hard" or "Really, Bob kicks the ball hard"?

I dunno. Got to think about this more.....

-l.

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