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CONLANG  July 2012, Week 5

CONLANG July 2012, Week 5

Subject:

Re: Transcription system for Books

From:

BPJ <[log in to unmask]>

Reply-To:

Constructed Languages List <[log in to unmask]>

Date:

Mon, 30 Jul 2012 23:20:24 +0200

Content-Type:

text/plain

Parts/Attachments:

Parts/Attachments

text/plain (138 lines)

On 2012-07-29 22:35, J. M. DeSantis wrote:

> On the flip side, a few months ago I wrote to the
> list (in part) lamenting my difficulties with
> mimicking the transcription system for Malayalam (one
> of India's Dravidian languages) in one of my own
> conlangs (the partial results of which I may finally
> soon, in a limited form, be able to share with the
> list). In fact, Malayalam has 36 consonants and can
> essentially represent all of the complex sounds of
> the vast majority of the sounds found in both
> Sanskrit and all of India's many languages (Dravidian
> or not). This is especially a problem when Malayalam
> has occurrences of a double-consonant D sound (DD), a
> regular D (as in English), a hard TH (as in *thick*),
> a soft TH as in (*this*) and an aspirated D (DH--no
> English equivalent). Why is this a problem? Because
> in *most* transcription systems a soft TH (this) is
> either represented DH or DD, and Malayalam must also
> account for aspirated D (DH) and a double consonant D
> (DD). Thus, many transcription systems use
> diacritical marks even on the consonants in
> Malayalam. (This may be a language you'll want to
> give a look to, just to see all of the complex ways
> of representing its sounds.)

My usual solution to that, since a couple of years
back, is to use the interpunct (U+00B7 MIDDLE DOT) to
signal that two letters are *not* a digraph -- or
rather that n letters are not an n-groph. I find this a
rather elegant solution, especially as there is
precedent for it in Catalan
<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Middle_dot#Catalan> and
Gascon
<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Middle_dot#Occitan>.

It has several virtues:

1)  It has natlang precedent as a digraph-breaker.
2)  It is distinctive yet distinct from other marks one
     may be tempted to use in the same function: you can
     still use the hyphen for a word or morpheme break
     and the apostrophe for elision/omission, or even
     use the apostrophe as part of digraphs for
     palatalization, ejectives, aspirates or whatever. a
     wording like the following makes it very clear even
     to a layman what it's all about:

     > * - (a hyphen) denotes a break between parts of a
     > compound word or between stems, prefixes and
     > endings.
     >
     > * ' (an apostrophe) denotes that a
     > letter/sound or part of a word has been omitted.
     >
     > * · (an interpunct) denotes that two letters
     > which might otherwise form a digraph should be
     > read individually. It is a break only in the
     > _spelling_ and not in the language itself!

3)  It's unfamiliar, yet not _unfamiliar looking_,
     which means that people will expect that it denotes
     some kind of break, but will have no preconceived
     notions of what _kind_ of break!  Also it takes up
     very little horizontal and visual space in a proportional font.
4)  Since it's a spacing mark it can be combined with,
     or rather put between, any two letters without
     worrying about 'scenders, inter-line space or
     (other) diacritics.
5)  Since it's an 'anti-diacritic'rather than a
     diacritic you can use it much more extensively: if
     you used it as a diacritic you'ld get at most 26
     new graphemes; using it as a digraph-breaker you
     can theoretically have up to 400 or 441 consonant
     digraphs and up to 36 or 25 vowel digraphs and
     break up any of them with the interpunct!
6)  It is found in the Latin-1 character set. This
     ought to be less of a concern anymore, but which
     also means that it enjoys good font coverage.
7)  At a pinch it can still be represented with an
     ordinary ASCII period, since a real period will
     usually not stand between two letters, while ·
     usually will.

You could e.g. represent the sounds of Sanskrit as
follows:

   -------- -------- -------- -------- -------- --------
   a        aa       i        ii       u        uu
   r'[^1]   rr'      l'       ll'
   e        ai       o        au       'm[^2]   'h[^3]
   k        k·h[^4]  g        g·h      ng[^5]
   ch       ch·h     j        j·h      ny[^6]
   tt[^7]   tt·h     dd       dd·h     nn
   t        t·h      d        d·h      n
   p        p·h      b        b·h      m
   y        r        ll[^8]   l        v
   sh       ssh      s        h
   -------- -------- -------- -------- -------- --------

[^1]: Or by all means "ri" for IAST _ṛ_ and "r·i" for
     IAST _ri_!

[^2]: And "'n" for Tamil _ṉ_, since it's always final.

[^3]: Or perhaps even "·m" _ṃ_ and "·h" _ḥ_, since they
     always follow a vowel, and there are words like
     ekatṛṃśat/ekatr'·'mshat/ekatr'·mshat -- the last of
     these looks reasonably OK in a proportional font!
     (Yes, conglomerations of apostrophes and interpuncts
     are kind of messy; it's much better with interpuncts
     and letters!

[^4]: Consonant + "·h" for aspirates since it makes it
     possible to use "kh gh th dh" for Hindi/English
     fricatives, and "jh" for [ʒ] and "zh" for Tamil _ḻ_
     /ɻ/. (and perhaps even "ph, bh" for bilabial
     fricatives), and because frankly "ch·h" looks much
     better than "chh"! In case you really need to
     distinguish e.g. /th/ from /tʰ/ there's probably a
     morpheme boundary in /th/ so that "t-h" is
     appropriate.

[^5]: And "ngg" or "ng·g" for _ṅg_.

[^6]: For /ɲ/, and "n·y" for /nj/. Perhaps also "gny"
     for _jñ_ against "gn·y" for _gny_ in NIA languages.

[^7]: With "t·t" etc. for /t̪t̪/ etc. Theoretically
     /ʈʈ/ etc. could be "tttt" etc. but "tt·tt" etc. looks better!

[^8]: I.e. the Vedic retroflex lateral. Similarly "rr"
     /ɽ/ against "r" /ɾ/ and "r·r" /r/ can be used for
     Hindi.  For Tamil alveolar "rz" _ṟ_ [r]\~[d] against
     "r" _r_ /ɾ/ and "r·z" /ɾz/ in loanwords.

/bpj

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