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CONLANG  September 2012, Week 2

CONLANG September 2012, Week 2

Subject:

Re: letter for 'th'

From:

BPJ <[log in to unmask]>

Reply-To:

Constructed Languages List <[log in to unmask]>

Date:

Sun, 9 Sep 2012 11:53:30 +0200

Content-Type:

text/plain

Parts/Attachments:

Parts/Attachments

text/plain (60 lines)

On 2012-09-04 00:15, Alex Fink wrote:
>  From a modern perspective I vote for C as well,
>  also on account of such things as Castilian. But I
>  wonder if X started being used for (essentially) an
>  extra fricative in Spanish / Portuguese / ... (and
>  a graphic variant of final S in French?) earlier
>  than affricate values of C started losing their
>  closure; if so, X might be the more compelling
>  choice at the time.

X = /ʃ/ was much earlier than /ts/ > /s/θ/, but far
from being a random assignment of a new sound to a
spare letter -- AFAIK the ancients didn't deal in
such -- it was the result of regular sound change:
Latin /ks/ between vowels had become /ʃ/ in the
local Romance. IIRC even the name of the letter had
gone through /eks/ > /ekse/ > /eçse/ > /ejse/ >
/esʲe/ > /eʃe/!

That's not to say that they were incapable of conscious
innovation, such as splitting two allographs into
distinct letters to express a phonemic distinction, as
when Ç, originally an allograph of Z, was assigned to
/ts/ while the ordinary Z was assigned to /dz/.

<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Visigothic_script>

But imagine if they _had_ been recycling letters
semirandomly!  English might have ended up with
C = /tʃ/, G = /dʒ/, K = /k/, Q = /g/, X = /ʃ/
and Z = /θ/ð/, later introducing Ç for /θ/! ;-)
In fact there was some limited use of X = /ʃ/
in Middle English, in 'small words' like _xall_
and _xo_ 'she'.

As for And's original query I think Ç may provide an
explanation for C = /θ/. While the /ts/ > /s/θ/ was
late it is possible that people who lack /θ/ but have
/ts/ in their native phonology replace /θ/ with /ts/
when speaking a foreign language. I've heard this in
German speakers' English, _thing_ coming out as [tsɪŋ].

Also Z/C/Ç were from early times used to express the
Basque laminal alveolar /s̻/ as opposed to the apical
alveolar /s̺/ which was written S. Given the location
And assigns to Livagia it would in fact be strange if
it hadn't been visited by Basque sailors! Phonetically
/θ/ is of course laminal, so that a laminal/apical
alveolar distinction may sound similar to a laminal
dental/apical alveolar one. In fact Icelandic Þ and S
are both alveolar, the distinction being a
laminal/apical one, with /s/ often sounding [ʃ]-ish to
my ears, and of course the intermediate stage between
/ts/ and /θ/ in Spanish was laminal /s̻/, the /t̻s̻/
originating from /tɕ/ having been laminal against
apical /s̺/ S. That pronunciation may actually have
been current for centuries.

/bpj

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