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CONLANG  December 2012, Week 3

CONLANG December 2012, Week 3

Subject:

Re: Systematic Minimal Grammar

From:

MorphemeAddict <[log in to unmask]>

Reply-To:

Constructed Languages List <[log in to unmask]>

Date:

Wed, 19 Dec 2012 18:20:29 -0500

Content-Type:

text/plain

Parts/Attachments:

Parts/Attachments

text/plain (240 lines)

I like the idea of a recursive minimal grammar, but I'm not so sure about
the idea of paraphrasing, since that changes the words and/or word so that
you're no longer dealing with a native text.

stevo

On Wed, Dec 19, 2012 at 6:06 PM, Gary Shannon <[log in to unmask]> wrote:

> I've always been interested in "minimal" grammars, and I've posted
> here on the subject from time to time. But it occurred to me that
> there might be a way to systematically discover a near-minimal
> grammar.
>
> Imagine taking a large corpus of sentences in some natlang such as
> English, and analyzing those sentences into component elements. For
> example, the sentence:
>
> I see a boy.
>
> Could be analyzed and labelled:
>
> SENT(PRON(I) VERB(see) NPH(DET(a) NOUN(boy)))
>
> From this we could create a lexicon:
>
> DET(a)
> NOUN(boy)
> PRON(I)
> VERB(see)
>
> and a pair of composition rules:
>
> SENT(PRON VERB NPH) - A sentence is composed of pronoun, verb, and noun
> phrase.
> NPH(DET NOUN) - A noun phrase is composed of determiner and noun.
>
> If we expand the lexicon to include:
>
> DET(the)
> NOUN(book)
> PRON(he)
> VERB(read)
>
> Then the same set of composition rules works for:
>
> He read the book.
>
> Now by working our way through a large corpus, sentence by sentence,
> we could create an ever-growing lexicon and ever-expanding list of
> composition rules like the 3,959 rules Panini collected for Sanskrit
> in the 6th century BCE.
>
> But this procedure doesn't get us any closer to a _minimal_ grammar.
> The more sentences we analyze, the more our grammar grows, and it's
> unlikely that we could ever declare it "complete" in the sense that we
> could guarantee that it described every valid English sentence.
>
> But if the goal is specifically to discover a minimal grammar then we
> don't want to describe every new sentence we encounter. Instead, we
> want to take every new sentence we encounter and be able to paraphrase
> it into a form described by the composition rules we already have, and
> to add a new composition rule only when it became absolutely necessary
> to do so.
>
> We might still never be able to declare that the grammar is minimal
> (in the sense that it could not be simplified) or complete (in the
> sense that any and all natlang sentences could be paraphrased using
> only those rules). We could, however, be "reasonably comfortable" with
> a "reasonably small" set of rules if we could, using only those rules,
> paraphrase some significant natlang work (e.g. Burroughs' _A Princess
> of Mars_, or Melville's _Moby Dick_), and if we could, after some
> reasonable effort to do so, find no way to simplify the set of
> composition rules.
>
> Note that those rules do not have to conform in any way to English
> grammar. As long as the compositional rules convey the desired meaning
> of each paraphrased (or translated) sentence, then the rules are
> useable. If we paraphrase the English "I see a small boy." to "A boy
> small see I." and use that paraphrase to form the basis of our
> composition rule, that's just fine, as long as we are consistent
> throughout.
>
> Take for example the opening sentence of Edgar Rice Burroughs' _A
> Princess of Mars_:
>
> In submitting Captain Carter's strange manuscript to you in book form,
> I believe that a few words relative to this remarkable personality
> will be of interest.
>
> If we paraphrase this in a way that uses only a few unique rules, we
> might get something like this:
>
> To you I submit this strange manuscript which it forms a book and I
> believe that you will-have interest which it is-directed-to a-few
> words which they are-about this remarkable personality.
>
> This can be analyzed as:
>
> SENT(
>         SENT(
>                 PRPH(
>                         PRP(To)
>                         PRON(you)
>                 )
>                 SENT(
>                         PRON(I)
>                         VERB(submit)
>                         NPH(
>                                 NPH(
>                                         DET(this)
>                                         ADJ(strange)
>                                         NOUN(manuscript)
>                                 )
>                                 RLPH(
>                                         which
>                                         SENT(
>                                                 PRON(it)
>                                                 VERB(forms)
>                                                 NPH(DET(a) NOUN(book))
>                                         )
>                                 )
>                         )
>                 )
>         )
>         CONJ(and)
>         SENT(
>                 PRON(I)
>                 VERB(believe)
>                 OBCL(
>                         that
>                         SENT(
>                                 PRON(you)
>                                 VERB(will-have)
>                                 NPH(
>                                         NOUN(interest)
>                                         RLPH(
>                                                 which
>                                                 SENT[
>                                                         PRON(it)
>
> VERB(is-directed-to)
>                                                         NPH(
>
> NPH(QNT(a-few) NOUN(words))
>                                                                 RLPH(
>
> which
>
> SENT(
>
>       PRON(they)
>
>       VERB(are-about)
>
>       NPH(DET(this) ADJ(remarkable) NOUN(personality))
>                                                                         )
>                                                                 )
>                                                         )
>                                                 )
>                                         )
>                                 )
>                         )
>                 )
>         )
> )
>
> Extracting the rules from this sentence we get these 10 rules:
>
> NPH(DET {ADJ} NOUN)
> NPH(NPH RLPH)
> NPH(QNT NOUN)
> OBCL(that SENT)
> PRPH(PREP PRO)
> RLPH(which SENT)
> SENT(PRON VERB NPH)
> SENT(PRON VERB OBCL)
> SENT(PRPH SENT)
> SENT(SENT CONJ SENT)
>
> Where elements in curly brackets are otional.
>
> This is just a quick, off the cuff example, and I'm sure those rules
> could be stated in more generalized form, such as replacing "PRON"
> with "SUBJ" and letting "PRON" be one of many different kinds of
> "SUBJ". It is also highly likely that a different paraphrase could be
> found that used a smaller set of rules.
>
> Choices would also have to be made as to what constituted "VERB" as
> opposed to "VRBPH" (verb phrase). Are the verbs fully conjugated so
> that "will-have-been-walking" is a single word VERB rather than a
> multi-word VRBPH? There are trade-offs: The more complex the
> conjugations, the simpler the sentence composition rules, and
> vice-versa.
>
> In any case, if the grammar is to be minimal then it must be
> absolutely regular. Exceptions require extra rules describing them.
>
> If I were to approach the project with a specific text such as _Moby
> Dick_ or _A Princess of Mars_, I would begin by sorting the text into
> individual sentences with the shortest sentences first, and working up
> to the longest sentences. In this way I would hope that the longer
> sentences would be found to be compositions of patterns already
> discovered in the shorter sentences.
>
> Thus I could start with the shortest sentences (from _A Princess of Mars):
>
> Yes.
> Come!
> Look!
> I am done.
> But I did.
> You may go.
> We await it.
> It is custom.
> I have spoken.
> It is the end.
>
> and work my way up to the longest sentences (from _A Princess of Mars_):
>
> You will be treated by us as a Tharkian chieftain, but you must not
> forget that every chief who ranks you is responsible for your safe
> delivery to our mighty and most ferocious ruler.
>
> Zad first attempted to rush me down as a bull might a wolf, but I was
> much too quick for him, and each time I side-stepped his rushes he
> would go lunging past me, only to receive a nick from my sword upon
> his arm or back.
>
> Once the composition rule SENT(SENT CONJ SENT) is collected these
> longer sentences can be simplified before being paraphrased and
> analyzed:
>
> I was much too quick for him.
> You will be treated by us as a Tharkian chieftain.
> Zad first attempted to rush me down as a bull might a wolf.
> and so on...
>
> --gary
>

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December 2005, Week 5
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December 2004, Week 5
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January 2003, Week 1
December 2002, Week 5
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October 2002, Week 4
October 2002, Week 3
October 2002, Week 2
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September 2002, Week 5
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August 2002, Week 5
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December 1999, Week 5
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December 1998, Week 5
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