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CONLANG  February 2013, Week 2

CONLANG February 2013, Week 2

Subject:

Re: Proto-Jardic noun morphology

From:

Alex Fink <[log in to unmask]>

Reply-To:

Constructed Languages List <[log in to unmask]>

Date:

Tue, 12 Feb 2013 13:56:06 -0500

Content-Type:

text/plain

Parts/Attachments:

Parts/Attachments

text/plain (69 lines)

On Mon, 11 Feb 2013 23:30:08 -0500, Herman Miller <[log in to unmask]> wrote:

>I've pretty much settled on final vowels being lost between Proto-Jardic
>and modern Jarda (e.g., *nosi > noś, *kuḍa > kóṛ). But many noun
>inflections in Jarda end in a vowel. One of two things must have
>happened: either a consonant was lost (/ɣ/ is one option), or only short
>vowels were lost while diphthongs were reduced to short vowels.

Diphthongs being retained while simple vowels are lost is certainly plausible enough.  Also, the change you're looking for might be stress-conditioned.  Something like that immediate post-stress vowels are lost; or the same restricted to word-finally; or vowels in certain weak positions in feet are lost.  

But the main thing I'd point out here is that your case markers could have finished grammaticalising *after* proto-Jardic, and grammaticalisation can drop phones due to allegro speech effects!  (People tend to rely on regular sound change and regular sound change alone too much, and that's a bad habit.)  Maybe, e.g.:

>Take the animate ablative suffix -lü for example: it could have been
>*-lui in Proto-Jardic.
>
>*teige-lui > tig-lü
>*kiṭal-lui > ķitṛa-lü

Maybe there was e.g. a consonant in the antecedent of _-lü_, so that the protoform was actually a (possibly cliticised) postposition of the shape *-luCi, with the C something weakish that was lost when it reduced to a case marker.  That wouldn't be better than just *-lui from the modern perspective, but it would (probably) help the _protolanguage_ look more naturalistic, i.e. it would avoid having an unnaturally large set of postpositions / case markers all ending in diphthongs.  

[Incompatible idea coming below:]

>So far so good. But the inanimate ablative suffix is -öl after
>consonants and -l after vowels, and it's -ol after consonants and -l
>after vowels for abstract nouns. This starts to get tricky.
>
>*siaḍu-ile > śaṛ-öl
>*zakiğ-ile > zaķi-l ?
>
>*vieze-elu > véz-ol
>*guleviğ-elu > gulvi-l ?

I, for one, would not be satisfied with -öl and -ol having been _further apart_ in the proto-language, as with this -ile and -elu; I would want to draw them together.  

That is, if you do want to keep your modern table of inflections, it probably dictates what the most likely vowel coalescences from proto-Jardic to Jarda should have been!  E.g., here, in the ablative, one wants to explain modern _ö_ < *Vin+Vabl, _o_ < *Vabs+Vabl, where Vin and Vabs were the former theme vowels of the inanimate and abstracts, and Vabl was the initial vowel of the ablative clitic.  Then one could set up the proto-ablative as *VlV, and account for the patterns of vowel loss using some kind of metrical explanation.  E.g. acute is stress, possibly secondary, below, and we suppose that a diphthong attracted it but otherwise it defaulted to the end syllable in words of a suitably canonical stem shape.
  animate: *...C+VlV́ > C-lü
  inanimate: *...CV́+VlV > C-öl
  abstract: *...CV́+VlV > C-ol

This supposes there was a simple *V that could have become -ü, though!

>I think I'll end up coming up with a set of suffixes that makes sense in
>Proto-Jardic, and assume that analogical leveling regularized the
>endings by the time it got to modern Jarda. Or I might just scrap the
>modern Jarda endings and see what would make more sense coming from
>Proto-Jardic.

Analogy is good too, yes.  If you went with the above explanation for the ablative, you'd either need some analogy to explain things like -na and -ta in the abstract, carried over from the animate (but why not the inanimate!?), or else you'd need to project the absence of the abstract theme vowel back in those cases.  

The latter explanation actually stands a chance of being good, here, I think.  That is, perhaps the dative and instrumental were actual cases in proto-Jardic, while the ablative was made of a clitic following an oblique case (maybe the same one as the antecedent of the modern absolutive or genitive?).  Then we'd just have to suppose the oblique case ended in V for both inanimate and abstract, while in other cases the inanimate used a theme vowel and the abstract didn't.  

Another case in your paradigm where analogy looks compelling is the locative.  Especially in view of the ablative.  I would reconstruct the proto-locative as being _identical_ to the first syllable of the ablative in inanimate and abstract, e.g. the historical endings being _-ö -o_.  But some other vowel juncture in the animate (possibly older!) resulted in_wi_ > _vi_, and the _v_ was then copied to the non-animate genders.  



I may as well append a few things I meant to say regarding your earlier Proto-Jardic threads but never got around to:

- In a language where there are lots of nonsystematic ablauting procedures, appearing in only a few word-families each, one expects the ablaut to be _old_.  If I were you, I would not be trying to explain all the Jarda ablaut in Proto-Jarda!  I'd be trying to explain some of it, especially the more contemporarily systematic parts, but then leave the residue as ablaut in the proto-language, to have arisen at an even earlier stage.  
(Differential treatment in loans of course helps too, but that is likelier to give all-out doublets than cases with systematic derivation-looking function.)

- IMO the idea of having a whole proto-series of retroflexes to explain your modern _ṛ_ is unlikely.  It is very rare for whole place-of-articulation series to implode that catastrophically (manner series do it a bit more).  Spontaneous retroflexion of a rhotic, on the other hand, *is* likely; it helps exaggerate the so-called flatness which is one of the perceptual cues of these sounds (a lowering of whatever formant it is).  I suspect you just had an alveolar *r of some sort in the proto-language, which has gone to modern Jarda _ṛ_.  Similarly:

>*actually ķitṛa-la, a slightly irregular form ... one reason I've
>reconstructed the Proto-Jardic word with a final -l.

You don't need that.  Dissimilation in *r...r sequences, with one of the *r becoming an *l, is extremely common.  

Alex

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