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CONLANG  February 2013, Week 2

CONLANG February 2013, Week 2

Subject:

Re: Consonants in Jarda and Proto-Jardic

From:

BPJ <[log in to unmask]>

Reply-To:

Constructed Languages List <[log in to unmask]>

Date:

Sat, 9 Feb 2013 14:30:33 +0100

Content-Type:

text/plain

Parts/Attachments:

Parts/Attachments

text/plain (78 lines)

On 2013-02-09 05:42, Herman Miller wrote:
> I'll get back to the Jarda vowels after I have a better idea about
> how the consonants changed from Proto-Jardic to Jarda. Basically
> consonants were palatalized before /i/ and labialized before /u/.
> (If there was /ü/ at that time, it might have palatalized some
> consonants and labialized others, but I think /ü/ came later from
> /iu/ or /ui/.)
>
> Velar and alveolar consonants (except for /r/, /ɬ/, /ɮ/) were
> affected by palatalization. (It's possible that Proto-Jarda didn't
> have /ɬ/ and /ɮ/ to begin with.)
>
> *n > ņ [ɲ]
> *t > ? (maybe č > ś or ķ)
> *d > ? (maybe ǰ > ź or ģ)

Palatalized [tʲ], [dʲ] are often realized as [tsʲ]ˌ [dzʲ]
(this is the case in Russian for example) and then can
become [ts], [dz] (Romance, e.g. Italian where TJ > /ts/
but CJ > /tʃ/) which then of course can easily become
[s], [z] (French).  In (northern) Spanish they became
[t̻s̻]ˌ [d̻z̻] > [s̻]ˌ [z̻] > [s̻] > [θ]ˌ all the while remaining
distinct from [s̺]ˌ [z̺] < S.  IIRC you have [ts], [dz] in
Jarda and this could be one source for them.

> *s > ś [ɕ]
> *z > ź [ʑ]
> *l > ļ [ʎ]
> *k > ķ [c]
> *g > ģ [ɟ]
> *x > [ç] > j
> *ğ > j
>
> One mystery is the origin of the initial clusters /śl/ /śṛ/ /źl/
> /źṛ/ in Jarda. It's possible that they come from palatalization of
> *sl, *sṛ, *zl, *zṛ before /i/, but then what happened to *kl, *kṛ,
> *gl, *gṛ? You don't find /cl/, /cɻ/, /ɟl/, /ɟɻ/ in Jarda.

Maybe */cl/ > /śl/ etc. or else /cl/ etc. merge with
/tl/ etc. if these exist; cf. English where /tr/, /dr/
are often [tʃɹ], [dʒɹ] or even [ʈʂ], [ɖʐ]. Chances are
likely that /c/, /ɟ/ are actually alveopalatal, i.e.
what Sino-Tibetanists would write as ȶ ȡ!  AFMOC
Sohlob has /ȶɕ/, /ȡʑ/~[ʑ], /ɕ/ and {/ɕt/, /ȶɕt/, /sȶɕ/},
{/ȡʑd/, /zȡʑ/} are realized as [ɕȶ], [ʑȡ], which I
transcribe _çt, jd_ -- you will remember that I have
qualms about word-initial _jd_ in Cidilib.  The area
where Cidilib is spoken is [dɮɒˈfiɕȶir] 'Içtir Mountains'
BTW, where /dlof/ is the reflex of _*gryafu_.

>
> Labialization affected labiodental and velar fricatives, and
> possibly ṛ /ɻ/. That /ɻ/ is an oddball consonant in Jarda. Maybe
> Proto-Jardic had a whole series of other retroflex consonants like
> /ʈ/, /ɖ/, and /ɭ/.

Intervocalic [ʈ]ˌ [ɖ] easily become [ɽ], whence I guess [ɻ] is
a small step. [ɭ] easily becomes [l] e.g. in Middle IndoAryan,
and many Swedish speakers who otherwise have /rt/ [ʈ] etc.
have /rl/ [rl] or [l].  I belong to the [l] camp myself.
It might be harder to get rid of [ɳ].  In IndoAryan it
omewhat surprisingly becomes [ɽ̃], though IIRC [n] also
occurs, so Jardic [ɳ] could conceivably end up as [ɻ]!

>
> *f > [ʍ] > w
> *v > w
> *ṛ > w ?
> *x > [ʍ] > w
> *ğ > w

The spontaneous voicing of [ʍ] seems OK but [ç] > [j]
somehow rubs me the wrong way.  I'd rather expect
[ç] > [h], at least word initially.  I'm clearly
influenced by Sohlob here, though!

/bpj

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