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CONLANG  March 2013, Week 2

CONLANG March 2013, Week 2

Subject:

Re: THEORY: VC consonant contrasts (was: Lost of final-syllable rhotic.)

From:

Alex Fink <[log in to unmask]>

Reply-To:

Constructed Languages List <[log in to unmask]>

Date:

Thu, 14 Mar 2013 15:06:12 -0400

Content-Type:

text/plain

Parts/Attachments:

Parts/Attachments

text/plain (83 lines)

On Thu, 14 Mar 2013 13:37:58 -0400, J. 'Mach' Wust <[log in to unmask]> wrote:

>On Fri, 15 Feb 2013 19:05:49 -0500, Alex Fink wrote:
>
>>On Fri, 15 Feb 2013 10:43:08 -0200, Njenfalgar wrote:
>>
>>>I think there is a universal tendency to drop word-final and syllable-final
>>>stuff. :-)
>>
>>On Fri, 15 Feb 2013 16:52:57 +0000, David McCann wrote:
>>
>>>Obviously there's a general tendency to simplify syllables to CV, which
>>>different languages resist to different degrees. 
>>
>>There's certainly a pretty strong tendency to these things.  But,
>>crosslinguistically, I'd want to ascribe the bulk of it to ultimate
>>effects of perceptual factors.  Stops before vowels, e.g., have a
>>brilliantly salient and distinctive release burst that's easy to latch
>>onto in a speech stream, something which stops after vowels have no
>>analogue of.  So it's only natural for a language's speakers to
>>generalise this and pay more attention to CV transitions in general
>>than VC ones, and as a consequence of this comparative neglect,
>>consonants which only have a VC transition -- like final ones -- would
>>be subject to more erosion, since it's easier to miss the cues for
>>what they are.
>>
>>One reason I think this is an argument of Blevins, regarding the
>>Australian sprachbund, whose languages are barse ackward
>>phonologically in a lot of ways: for instance, *initial* consonant
>>weakening and loss is extremely common; languages like Arrernte have
>>been reasonably analysed as having basic syllable structure VC.  But
>>there are other features of the area which suggest that VC transitions
>>are more important than CV.  For instance, retroflexion and laminality
>>contrasts on consonants (and graveness???), which Australia has in
>>spades, are among the few consonantal contrasts which have more
>>distinctive effects on a previous vowel than a following.  And
>>Australia has lots of non-assimilated nasal plus stop clusters, which
>>again aren't so awkward if you're reading the place of the nasal off
>>its effects on the previous V.  It's reasonable to think that the VC
>>syllable stuff might also be an effect.
>
>That's a most interesting thought. For instance, most German varieties
>have a tendency to loose the contrast between homorganic consonants in
>medial or VC position (minimal pairs like _Egge--Ecke_ or
>_Leiter--leider_ are very rare and tend to be neutralized), while they
>are more clearly distinguished in initial or CV position. The opposite
>happens in some varieties like Swiss German, which have a tendency to
>loose the contrast between homorganic consonants in initial or CV
>position, while the contrast is very markedly retained in medial or VC
>position (in minimal pairs such as _Schade--Schatte_ or _Hase--hasse_).
>
>Your account (of Blevin's argument -- that would be Juliette Blevins, I
>assume?) 

Juliette Blevins, yes.  I read this in her _Evolutionary phonology_.

>provides a nice interpretation of this difference: The
>aspiration contrast (possibly with some concomitant voicedness
>contrast) has more distinctive effects on the following vowel.
>Therefore, varieties that have an aspiration contrast (like many German
>varieties) have a tendency to retain initial or CV contrasts while
>loosing medial or VC contrasts. Varieties with the opposite tendency,
>e.g. Swiss German varieties, might have a contrast that has more
>distinctive effects on the preceding vowel. The contrast of homorganic
>consonants in Swiss German is not based on aspiration or voice, but on
>quantity. So I wonder whether consonant quantity is indeed a contrast
>that has more distinctive effects on a previous vowel than a following,
>just like the Australian retroflexion and laminality contrasts that you
>have mentioned. Would you know anything about that?

I don't know anything about it for sure, but I do like the sound of it.  It does seem plausible that consonant quantity would have more distinctive effects on a preceding vowel than a following: not colouring effects, though, but quantitative effects, just like elsewhere in Germanic we see the developments VC: > V_XC, VC_X > V:C.  (The mechanism for this would be something like equalisation of the length of the stressed syllable, with long C being ambisyllabic and sticking into that syllable while short C don't.)

>Finnish seems to be (according to Wikipedia etc.) another language
>where the contrast of homorganic consonants is not based on aspiration
>or voice, but on quantity. And similar to Swiss German, the contrast
>does not occur in initial position, but only in medial position. This
>would again be explained by the hypothesis that consonant quantity has
>more distinctive effects on a previous vowel than a following.

It could.  But I betcha the explanation here (& perhaps in part above) is simpler: it's, as far as I know, inaudible when I start a word-initial stop; it's only audible when I release it.  You probably won't find many word-final stop quantity contrasts either, in languages where word-final stops are unreleased, 'cause that's similarly inaudible.  

Alex

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