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CONLANG  March 2013, Week 4

CONLANG March 2013, Week 4

Subject:

Re: Pesky morphemes (was:: Is there an inverse relationship between lexical richness and grammatical complexity?)

From:

Jyri Lehtinen <[log in to unmask]>

Reply-To:

Constructed Languages List <[log in to unmask]>

Date:

Fri, 22 Mar 2013 15:15:15 +0200

Content-Type:

text/plain

Parts/Attachments:

Parts/Attachments

text/plain (179 lines)

It's certainly not always clear where to put morpheme boundaries. And it's
often impossible or at least unnecessarily complicated to force them into
positions that would limit all the allomorphy to the affixes and leave you
with unalternating word stems. A few examples from Finnish:

An extremely common noun/adjective type consists of words ending in -nen.
En example of this is

toinen
"second", "other"

When you start to inflect these words, the ending is changed into either
-se- or -s-:

toise-sta
other-ELATIVE
"from the other"

tois-ta
other-PARTITIVE
"other", "of the other"

tois-i-sta
other-PL-ELATIVE
"from the other ones"

The -nen/se/s formant is definitely part of the word stem rather than
allomorphy of the inflectional affixes. You can say this because all the
affixes have have completely regular forms and the allomorphy is restricted
into a phonologically separate element. The formant is typically part of
transparent derivational affixes but this is not always the case.

A second example are the verbs that have their basic infinitive end in -itA
(A denoting vowel harmony pair a~ä), such as

palkita
"to award"

Now, the prototypical shape of the the short form of the first infinitive
is -tA so you can argue that the stem of the verb is palki-. However, when
you start to conjugate the verb you end up with forms that have either
-itse- or -its- within them:

palkitse-n
award-1SG
"I award"

palkits-isi-n
award-CONDITIONAL-1SG
"I would award"

Again all the inflectional affixes show their regular forms and the
allomorphy is restricted to phonological segments more naturally clumped
together with the rest of the verb stem. Based on these observations, it's
not at all clear whether the /t/ in the infinitive of the verb belongs to
the verb stem (and it part of the stem allomorphy) or to the infinitive
affix.

Yet another similar example consists of verbs like

palata
"to return"

Again we have the infinitive ending in -ta but end up with complications
when conjugating the verb:

palaa-n
return-1SG
"I return"

palaa-va
return-PRES.ACTIVE.PARTICIPLE
"returning"

palas-i-n
return-PAST-1SG
"I returned"

The basic inflectional stem of the verb turns out quite unexpectedly to be
palaa- with a long vowel in the second syllable. We also have palas- before
the past tense affix -i-. Based on this it seems better to split the
infinitive as palat-a with the /t/ as part of the stem and not the affix.
If the infinitive affix would have the form -ta, we would in fact rather
expect it to result in a word form like *palaata similar to the participle
form also built with a -CV affix. This is in fact historically the case and
the reconstructed form of the stem is *palata- with forms like *palata-n
("I return") and *palat-i-n ("I returned"). Later the third syllable /t/
was sibilated before the past tense /i/ and consonant gradation eventually
murdered the remaining /t/s in many other cases. I think the remaining /t/
in the infinitive is ultimately a result of coalescence with the /t/ in the
beginning of the infinitive affix.

This verb class is particularly messy as the /s/ in the past tense stem is
detached from the stem and has become part of the past tense affix in at
least Estonian and the SW-dialects of Finnish. There it has further
generalised into other inflectional classes.

However you decide to to split these inflectional forms you always end up
with stem alternation that cannot be pushed into the affixes. Sometimes
it's possible to come up with some deep underlying forms of the morphemes
(including word stems). But when derivation of the surface forms results in
inventing irregular rules, it's much more productive to restrict the
description closer to the phonological surface.

   -Jyri


On 22/03/2013 09:09, R A Brown wrote:
>
>> . For example the Latin genitive plural morpheme, with
>> the allomorphs _ārum, ērum, ōrum, ium, um_,
>>
>
> OOPS!  Morphemes are pesky little critters   ;)
>
> I forgot to include the allomorph _uum_ which we find, e.g.
> with the noun _manus_ "hand: - genitive plural: mannuum.
>
> Ha, I hear you say, that's manu+um.
>
> That is, of course, true _diachronically_.  But if one looks
> at all the various forms that _manus_ may take we find some
> problems if we accept _manu_ as the morpheme that means "hand".
>
> What do we decompose _manūs_?  Do we say that the morpheme
> for singular+genitive, plural+nominative, plural+accusative
> is: vowel length + s?
>
> Or do we say that the long vowel is the result of a
> contraction of the final -u of the stem with the morphemes:
> - is (genitive+singular)
> - es (nominative+plural)
> - ns (accusative+plural)
>
> OK - these may be correct _diachronically_, but it's
> stretching things a bit to maintain that this
> _synchronically_ the best way of doing things.
>
> And what of the dative and ablative plural _manibus_?
>
> 'Tis simpler IMO to regard _man_ as the lexical morpheme,
> and _uum_ as the genitive plural of the 4th declension words.
>
> But, if you want to take a more generative approach and
> insist that the genitive plural morpheme is just plain _um_
> then, indeed, you can come up with an analysis of Latin
> which gives the genitive plural morpheme just the two
> allomorphs _rum_ and _um_.  But you have to add quite a few
> rules about what happens when these allomorphs are suffixed
> to particular lexical bases.
>
> It still remains as I wrote before that the genitive plural
> morpheme
>
>> can be decomposed into "plural" and the various meanings
>> associated in Latin with "genitive."  To maintain that
>> this morpheme corresponds to a unit of meaning is IMNSHO
>> nonsense.
>>
>
> Fusional languages, and a good many of them are spoken today
> (e.g. Russian, and related Slav languages) pose these lovely
> problems about where exactly the boundary between lexical
> stem and affix is, and IMO run a horse and cart through the
> notion of 1 morpheme = 1 sememe (unit of meaning).
>
> But then it's just these sort of problems that make
> languages so fascinating    :)
>
> --
> Ray
> ==============================**====
> http://www.carolandray.plus.**com <http://www.carolandray.plus.com>
> ==============================**====
> "language … began with half-musical unanalysed expressions
> for individual beings and events."
> [Otto Jespersen, Progress in Language, 1895]
>

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April 2006, Week 1
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December 2005, Week 5
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December 2004, Week 5
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March 2003, Week 5
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February 2003, Week 1
January 2003, Week 5
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January 2003, Week 1
December 2002, Week 5
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December 2002, Week 2
December 2002, Week 1
November 2002, Week 5
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November 2002, Week 3
November 2002, Week 2
November 2002, Week 1
October 2002, Week 5
October 2002, Week 4
October 2002, Week 3
October 2002, Week 2
October 2002, Week 1
September 2002, Week 5
September 2002, Week 4
September 2002, Week 3
September 2002, Week 2
September 2002, Week 1
August 2002, Week 5
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August 2002, Week 3
August 2002, Week 2
August 2002, Week 1
July 2002, Week 5
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July 2002, Week 3
July 2002, Week 2
July 2002, Week 1
June 2002, Week 5
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April 2002, Week 5
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April 2002, Week 1
March 2002, Week 5
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February 2002, Week 1
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December 2001, Week 5
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April 2001, Week 5
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December 1999, Week 5
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December 1998, Week 5
December 1998, Week 4
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